I take it you are asking about the -a argument for commit.

"git commit --help" says:

       -a, --all
           Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been 
modified and deleted, but new files you have not told git about are not 

This is basically the same as first running "git add -u" before a git 
commit. From "git add --help":

       -u, --update
           Only match <filepattern> against already tracked files in the 
index rather than the working tree. That means that it will never stage new 
files, but that it will stage
           modified new contents of tracked files and that it will remove 
files from the index if the corresponding files in the working tree have 
been removed.

git commit -a is a very practical shortcut, usually if you've just done a 
just few changes in your working tree, and you want to commit them all 
without having to "git add" first.

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