Strictly speaking, authentication and authorization is outside the
responsibilities of Git.
You leave this to either the filesystem of the repository (which can also
accessible via ssh), or use some custom method offered by tools like
Gitorious or Gitosis.
At our place, we use ssh like you do, to reach a central git repository. We
have a single user-account called "git" that we all share to write to the
repository, so the password is the same for all developers (although we use
our individual keys that have been added in ~git/.ssh/authorized_keys so we
don't have to type the password all the time).
I assume that each of you use your own account to access the repository
though (if the url to the git-repo is your.user.name@server:repo.git then
this is probably the case).
So if you have physical access to your colleagues machine, but not his
password, you can either:
1) Add a new url using your own username, and then use your own password
when pushing to this url
2) Share your colleagues repository, either running git daemon, or first
pushing to a repository where you both have access. If this is a problem
network-wise, push to a repository on a USB stick. Once you have access to
his latest commits on your own computer, merge them to your own repository
and then push them to the central remote repo.
If you need more help with the syntax or commands here, let us know.
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