I came across a problem recently. One of the developers committed some 
changes in a branch. When he checked the branch log (git checkout branch; 
git log), the commit (say, *abc*) was showing up but when he checked the 
log for a file (git log <file_name>), which was part of the given commit (
*abc*), the associated commit (*abc*) was not showing up; instead, an older 
commit id (say, *xyz*) was there.

When the issue came to my notice, I tried using git log --follow <file_name> to 
check complete history of a file just to make sure whether the file was 
renamed to its current name. The output of git log --follow <file_name> was 
actually showing the commit id (*abc*) that was missing in the output ofgit 
log <file_name> command. On asking developer whether the file was renamed, 
i came to know that *no* renames were done ever for that file. This was 
confusing and i was stuck because i was not able to figure out what 
happened. Later, it turned out that another developer while pushing his 
code encountered merge conflict and instead of resolving it, he simply did 
a git reset . and the HEAD got shifted.

Q.1) Is there any way i could have figured out about the git reset command 
that the other developer executed on his machine? FYI, i have admin access 
to Git.

Q.2) Is there any way we can control such things from happening in future? 
I’m not sure whether this can be controlled using hook because this is not 
a ‘push’ command. It's something that's being done just before push. Please 
correct me if I’m mistaken. The biggest problem that I see here is that 
every developer has the rights to commit, which I feel is not right. I 
feel, even restricting it cannot be foolproof but it can certainly bring 
down such occurrences significantly. Any suggestions?

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