From: Ben Wijen <b...@wijen.net>

When the index is locked and child processes inherit the handle to
said lock and the parent process wants to remove the lock before the
child process exits, on Windows there is a problem: it won't work
because files cannot be deleted if a process holds a handle on them.
The symptom:

    Rename from 'xxx/.git/index.lock' to 'xxx/.git/index' failed.
    Should I try again? (y/n)

Spawning child processes with bInheritHandles==FALSE would not work
because no file handles would be inherited, not even the hStdXxx
handles in STARTUPINFO (stdin/stdout/stderr).

Opening every file with O_NOINHERIT does not work, either, as e.g.
git-upload-pack expects inherited file handles.

This leaves us with the only way out: creating temp files with the
O_NOINHERIT flag. This flag is Windows-specific, however. For our
purposes, it is equivalent to O_CLOEXEC (which does not exist on
Windows), so let's just open temporary files with the O_CLOEXEC flag and
map that flag to O_NOINHERIT on Windows.

As Eric Wong pointed out, we need to be careful to handle the case where
the Linux headers used to compile Git support O_CLOEXEC but the Linux
kernel used to run Git does not: it returns an EINVAL.

This fixes the test that we just introduced to demonstrate the problem.

Signed-off-by: Ben Wijen <b...@wijen.net>
Signed-off-by: Johannes Schindelin <johannes.schinde...@gmx.de>
---
 compat/mingw.h        | 4 ++++
 git-compat-util.h     | 4 ++++
 lockfile.h            | 4 ++++
 t/t6026-merge-attr.sh | 2 +-
 tempfile.c            | 7 ++++++-
 tempfile.h            | 4 ++++
 6 files changed, 23 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/compat/mingw.h b/compat/mingw.h
index 95e128f..753e641 100644
--- a/compat/mingw.h
+++ b/compat/mingw.h
@@ -67,6 +67,10 @@ typedef int pid_t;
 #define F_SETFD 2
 #define FD_CLOEXEC 0x1
 
+#if !defined O_CLOEXEC && defined O_NOINHERIT
+#define O_CLOEXEC      O_NOINHERIT
+#endif
+
 #ifndef EAFNOSUPPORT
 #define EAFNOSUPPORT WSAEAFNOSUPPORT
 #endif
diff --git a/git-compat-util.h b/git-compat-util.h
index f52e00b..db89ba7 100644
--- a/git-compat-util.h
+++ b/git-compat-util.h
@@ -667,6 +667,10 @@ void *gitmemmem(const void *haystack, size_t haystacklen,
 #define getpagesize() sysconf(_SC_PAGESIZE)
 #endif
 
+#ifndef O_CLOEXEC
+#define O_CLOEXEC 0
+#endif
+
 #ifdef FREAD_READS_DIRECTORIES
 #ifdef fopen
 #undef fopen
diff --git a/lockfile.h b/lockfile.h
index 3d30193..d26ad27 100644
--- a/lockfile.h
+++ b/lockfile.h
@@ -55,6 +55,10 @@
  *   * calling `fdopen_lock_file()` to get a `FILE` pointer for the
  *     open file and writing to the file using stdio.
  *
+ *   Note that the file descriptor returned by hold_lock_file_for_update()
+ *   is marked O_CLOEXEC, so the new contents must be written by the
+ *   current process, not a spawned one.
+ *
  * When finished writing, the caller can:
  *
  * * Close the file descriptor and rename the lockfile to its final
diff --git a/t/t6026-merge-attr.sh b/t/t6026-merge-attr.sh
index 3d28c78..dd8f88d 100755
--- a/t/t6026-merge-attr.sh
+++ b/t/t6026-merge-attr.sh
@@ -181,7 +181,7 @@ test_expect_success 'up-to-date merge without common 
ancestor' '
        )
 '
 
-test_expect_success !MINGW 'custom merge does not lock index' '
+test_expect_success 'custom merge does not lock index' '
        git reset --hard anchor &&
        write_script sleep-one-second.sh <<-\EOF &&
                sleep 1 &
diff --git a/tempfile.c b/tempfile.c
index 0af7ebf..2990c92 100644
--- a/tempfile.c
+++ b/tempfile.c
@@ -120,7 +120,12 @@ int create_tempfile(struct tempfile *tempfile, const char 
*path)
        prepare_tempfile_object(tempfile);
 
        strbuf_add_absolute_path(&tempfile->filename, path);
-       tempfile->fd = open(tempfile->filename.buf, O_RDWR | O_CREAT | O_EXCL, 
0666);
+       tempfile->fd = open(tempfile->filename.buf,
+                           O_RDWR | O_CREAT | O_EXCL | O_CLOEXEC, 0666);
+       if (O_CLOEXEC && tempfile->fd < 0 && errno == EINVAL)
+               /* Try again w/o O_CLOEXEC: the kernel might not support it */
+               tempfile->fd = open(tempfile->filename.buf,
+                                   O_RDWR | O_CREAT | O_EXCL, 0666);
        if (tempfile->fd < 0) {
                strbuf_reset(&tempfile->filename);
                return -1;
diff --git a/tempfile.h b/tempfile.h
index 4219fe4..2f0038d 100644
--- a/tempfile.h
+++ b/tempfile.h
@@ -33,6 +33,10 @@
  *   * calling `fdopen_tempfile()` to get a `FILE` pointer for the
  *     open file and writing to the file using stdio.
  *
+ *   Note that the file descriptor returned by create_tempfile()
+ *   is marked O_CLOEXEC, so the new contents must be written by
+ *   the current process, not any spawned one.
+ *
  * When finished writing, the caller can:
  *
  * * Close the file descriptor and remove the temporary file by
-- 
2.10.0.rc0.115.ged054c0
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