:(glob)path differs from plain pathspec that it uses wildmatch with
WM_PATHNAME while the other uses fnmatch without FNM_PATHNAME. The
difference lies in how '*' (and '**') is processed.

With the introduction of :(glob) and :(literal) and their global
options --[no]glob-pathspecs, the user can:

 - make everything literal by default via --noglob-pathspecs
   --literal-pathspecs cannot be used for this purpose as it
   disables _all_ pathspec magic.

 - individually turn on globbing with :(glob)

 - make everything globbing by default via --glob-pathspecs

 - individually turn off globbing with :(literal)

The implication behind this is, there is no way to gain the default
matching behavior (i.e. fnmatch without FNM_PATHNAME). You either get
new globbing or literal. The old fnmatch behavior is considered
deprecated and discouraged to use.

Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <pclo...@gmail.com>
---
 Documentation/git.txt              | 19 ++++++++++++
 Documentation/glossary-content.txt | 29 ++++++++++++++++++
 builtin/add.c                      |  9 ++++--
 builtin/ls-tree.c                  |  2 +-
 cache.h                            |  2 ++
 dir.c                              | 28 +++++++++--------
 dir.h                              |  9 +++---
 git.c                              |  8 +++++
 pathspec.c                         | 47 +++++++++++++++++++++++++---
 pathspec.h                         |  4 ++-
 t/t6130-pathspec-noglob.sh         | 63 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 tree-walk.c                        |  9 +++---
 12 files changed, 198 insertions(+), 31 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index a3fbc59..52b85b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -452,6 +452,17 @@ help ...`.
        This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
        variable to `1`.
 
+--glob-pathspecs:
+       Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
+       the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
+       globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
+       magic ":(literal)"
+
+--noglob-pathspecs:
+       Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
+       the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
+       globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
+       magic ":(glob)"
 
 GIT COMMANDS
 ------------
@@ -847,6 +858,14 @@ GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
        literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
        `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
 
+GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
+       Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
+       pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
+
+GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
+       Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
+       pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
+
 
 Discussion[[Discussion]]
 ------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt 
b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 186b566..5c8da50 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -333,6 +333,35 @@ top `/`;;
 literal;;
        Wildcards in the pattern such as `*` or `?` are treated
        as literal characters.
+
+glob;;
+       Git treats the pattern as a shell glob suitable for
+       consumption by fnmatch(3) with the FNM_PATHNAME flag:
+       wildcards in the pattern will not match a / in the pathname.
+       For example, "Documentation/{asterisk}.html" matches
+       "Documentation/git.html" but not "Documentation/ppc/ppc.html"
+       or "tools/perf/Documentation/perf.html".
++
+Two consecutive asterisks ("`**`") in patterns matched against
+full pathname may have special meaning:
+
+ - A leading "`**`" followed by a slash means match in all
+   directories. For example, "`**/foo`" matches file or directory
+   "`foo`" anywhere, the same as pattern "`foo`". "**/foo/bar"
+   matches file or directory "`bar`" anywhere that is directly
+   under directory "`foo`".
+
+ - A trailing "/**" matches everything inside. For example,
+   "abc/**" matches all files inside directory "abc", relative
+   to the location of the `.gitignore` file, with infinite depth.
+
+ - A slash followed by two consecutive asterisks then a slash
+   matches zero or more directories. For example, "`a/**/b`"
+   matches "`a/b`", "`a/x/b`", "`a/x/y/b`" and so on.
+
+ - Other consecutive asterisks are considered invalid.
++
+Glob magic is incompatible with literal magic.
 --
 +
 Currently only the slash `/` is recognized as the "magic signature",
diff --git a/builtin/add.c b/builtin/add.c
index 663ddd1..1dab246 100644
--- a/builtin/add.c
+++ b/builtin/add.c
@@ -541,11 +541,16 @@ int cmd_add(int argc, const char **argv, const char 
*prefix)
                /*
                 * file_exists() assumes exact match
                 */
-               GUARD_PATHSPEC(&pathspec, PATHSPEC_FROMTOP | PATHSPEC_LITERAL);
+               GUARD_PATHSPEC(&pathspec,
+                              PATHSPEC_FROMTOP |
+                              PATHSPEC_LITERAL |
+                              PATHSPEC_GLOB);
 
                for (i = 0; i < pathspec.nr; i++) {
                        const char *path = pathspec.items[i].match;
-                       if (!seen[i] && !file_exists(path)) {
+                       if (!seen[i] &&
+                           ((pathspec.items[i].magic & PATHSPEC_GLOB) ||
+                            !file_exists(path))) {
                                if (ignore_missing) {
                                        int dtype = DT_UNKNOWN;
                                        if (is_excluded(&dir, path, &dtype))
diff --git a/builtin/ls-tree.c b/builtin/ls-tree.c
index bdb03f3..1056634 100644
--- a/builtin/ls-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/ls-tree.c
@@ -173,7 +173,7 @@ int cmd_ls_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char 
*prefix)
         * cannot be lifted until it is converted to use
         * match_pathspec_depth() or tree_entry_interesting()
         */
-       parse_pathspec(&pathspec, 0,
+       parse_pathspec(&pathspec, PATHSPEC_GLOB,
                       PATHSPEC_PREFER_CWD,
                       prefix, argv + 1);
        for (i = 0; i < pathspec.nr; i++)
diff --git a/cache.h b/cache.h
index 276330e..c844805 100644
--- a/cache.h
+++ b/cache.h
@@ -361,6 +361,8 @@ static inline enum object_type object_type(unsigned int 
mode)
 #define GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF_ENVIRONMENT "GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF"
 #define GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_MODE_ENVIRONMENT "GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_MODE"
 #define GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS_ENVIRONMENT "GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS"
+#define GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS_ENVIRONMENT "GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS"
+#define GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS_ENVIRONMENT "GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS"
 
 /*
  * This environment variable is expected to contain a boolean indicating
diff --git a/dir.c b/dir.c
index 65cac36..7e931af 100644
--- a/dir.c
+++ b/dir.c
@@ -52,26 +52,28 @@ int fnmatch_icase(const char *pattern, const char *string, 
int flags)
        return fnmatch(pattern, string, flags | (ignore_case ? FNM_CASEFOLD : 
0));
 }
 
-inline int git_fnmatch(const char *pattern, const char *string,
-                      int flags, int prefix)
+inline int git_fnmatch(const struct pathspec_item *item,
+                      const char *pattern, const char *string,
+                      int prefix)
 {
-       int fnm_flags = 0;
-       if (flags & GFNM_PATHNAME)
-               fnm_flags |= FNM_PATHNAME;
        if (prefix > 0) {
                if (strncmp(pattern, string, prefix))
                        return FNM_NOMATCH;
                pattern += prefix;
                string += prefix;
        }
-       if (flags & GFNM_ONESTAR) {
+       if (item->flags & PATHSPEC_ONESTAR) {
                int pattern_len = strlen(++pattern);
                int string_len = strlen(string);
                return string_len < pattern_len ||
                       strcmp(pattern,
                              string + string_len - pattern_len);
        }
-       return fnmatch(pattern, string, fnm_flags);
+       if (item->magic & PATHSPEC_GLOB)
+               return wildmatch(pattern, string, WM_PATHNAME, NULL);
+       else
+               /* wildmatch has not learned no FNM_PATHNAME mode yet */
+               return fnmatch(pattern, string, 0);
 }
 
 static int fnmatch_icase_mem(const char *pattern, int patternlen,
@@ -111,7 +113,8 @@ static size_t common_prefix_len(const struct pathspec 
*pathspec)
        GUARD_PATHSPEC(pathspec,
                       PATHSPEC_FROMTOP |
                       PATHSPEC_MAXDEPTH |
-                      PATHSPEC_LITERAL);
+                      PATHSPEC_LITERAL |
+                      PATHSPEC_GLOB);
 
        for (n = 0; n < pathspec->nr; n++) {
                size_t i = 0, len = 0;
@@ -206,8 +209,7 @@ static int match_pathspec_item(const struct pathspec_item 
*item, int prefix,
        }
 
        if (item->nowildcard_len < item->len &&
-           !git_fnmatch(match, name,
-                        item->flags & PATHSPEC_ONESTAR ? GFNM_ONESTAR : 0,
+           !git_fnmatch(item, match, name,
                         item->nowildcard_len - prefix))
                return MATCHED_FNMATCH;
 
@@ -238,7 +240,8 @@ int match_pathspec_depth(const struct pathspec *ps,
        GUARD_PATHSPEC(ps,
                       PATHSPEC_FROMTOP |
                       PATHSPEC_MAXDEPTH |
-                      PATHSPEC_LITERAL);
+                      PATHSPEC_LITERAL |
+                      PATHSPEC_GLOB);
 
        if (!ps->nr) {
                if (!ps->recursive ||
@@ -1299,7 +1302,8 @@ int read_directory(struct dir_struct *dir, const char 
*path, int len, const stru
                GUARD_PATHSPEC(pathspec,
                               PATHSPEC_FROMTOP |
                               PATHSPEC_MAXDEPTH |
-                              PATHSPEC_LITERAL);
+                              PATHSPEC_LITERAL |
+                              PATHSPEC_GLOB);
 
        if (has_symlink_leading_path(path, len))
                return dir->nr;
diff --git a/dir.h b/dir.h
index 7d051e3..343ec7a 100644
--- a/dir.h
+++ b/dir.h
@@ -199,10 +199,9 @@ extern int fnmatch_icase(const char *pattern, const char 
*string, int flags);
 /*
  * The prefix part of pattern must not contains wildcards.
  */
-#define GFNM_PATHNAME 1                /* similar to FNM_PATHNAME */
-#define GFNM_ONESTAR  2                /* there is only _one_ wildcard, a star 
*/
-
-extern int git_fnmatch(const char *pattern, const char *string,
-                      int flags, int prefix);
+struct pathspec_item;
+extern int git_fnmatch(const struct pathspec_item *item,
+                      const char *pattern, const char *string,
+                      int prefix);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/git.c b/git.c
index 7dd07aa..b43da7d 100644
--- a/git.c
+++ b/git.c
@@ -146,6 +146,14 @@ static int handle_options(const char ***argv, int *argc, 
int *envchanged)
                        setenv(GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS_ENVIRONMENT, "0", 1);
                        if (envchanged)
                                *envchanged = 1;
+               } else if (!strcmp(cmd, "--glob-pathspecs")) {
+                       setenv(GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS_ENVIRONMENT, "1", 1);
+                       if (envchanged)
+                               *envchanged = 1;
+               } else if (!strcmp(cmd, "--noglob-pathspecs")) {
+                       setenv(GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS_ENVIRONMENT, "1", 1);
+                       if (envchanged)
+                               *envchanged = 1;
                } else {
                        fprintf(stderr, "Unknown option: %s\n", cmd);
                        usage(git_usage_string);
diff --git a/pathspec.c b/pathspec.c
index 9802829..e3581da 100644
--- a/pathspec.c
+++ b/pathspec.c
@@ -57,7 +57,6 @@ char *find_pathspecs_matching_against_index(const struct 
pathspec *pathspec)
  *
  * Possible future magic semantics include stuff like:
  *
- *     { PATHSPEC_NOGLOB, '!', "noglob" },
  *     { PATHSPEC_ICASE, '\0', "icase" },
  *     { PATHSPEC_RECURSIVE, '*', "recursive" },
  *     { PATHSPEC_REGEXP, '\0', "regexp" },
@@ -71,6 +70,7 @@ static struct pathspec_magic {
 } pathspec_magic[] = {
        { PATHSPEC_FROMTOP, '/', "top" },
        { PATHSPEC_LITERAL,   0, "literal" },
+       { PATHSPEC_GLOB,   '\0', "glob" },
 };
 
 /*
@@ -93,6 +93,8 @@ static unsigned prefix_pathspec(struct pathspec_item *item,
                                const char *elt)
 {
        static int literal_global = -1;
+       static int glob_global = -1;
+       static int noglob_global = -1;
        unsigned magic = 0, short_magic = 0, global_magic = 0;
        const char *copyfrom = elt, *long_magic_end = NULL;
        char *match;
@@ -103,6 +105,22 @@ static unsigned prefix_pathspec(struct pathspec_item *item,
        if (literal_global)
                global_magic |= PATHSPEC_LITERAL;
 
+       if (glob_global < 0)
+               glob_global = git_env_bool(GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS_ENVIRONMENT, 0);
+       if (glob_global)
+               global_magic |= PATHSPEC_GLOB;
+
+       if (noglob_global < 0)
+               noglob_global = git_env_bool(GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS_ENVIRONMENT, 
0);
+
+       if (glob_global && noglob_global)
+               die(_("global 'glob' and 'noglob' pathspec settings are 
incompatible"));
+
+       if ((global_magic & PATHSPEC_LITERAL) &&
+           (global_magic & ~PATHSPEC_LITERAL))
+               die(_("global 'literal' pathspec setting is incompatible "
+                     "with all other global pathspec settings"));
+
        if (elt[0] != ':' || literal_global) {
                ; /* nothing to do */
        } else if (elt[1] == '(') {
@@ -167,12 +185,24 @@ static unsigned prefix_pathspec(struct pathspec_item 
*item,
 
        magic |= short_magic;
        *p_short_magic = short_magic;
+
+       /* --noglob-pathspec adds :(literal) _unless_ :(glob) is specifed */
+       if (noglob_global && !(magic & PATHSPEC_GLOB))
+               global_magic |= PATHSPEC_LITERAL;
+
+       /* --glob-pathspec is overriden by :(literal) */
+       if ((global_magic & PATHSPEC_GLOB) && (magic & PATHSPEC_LITERAL))
+               global_magic &= ~PATHSPEC_GLOB;
+
        magic |= global_magic;
 
        if (pathspec_prefix >= 0 &&
            (prefixlen || (prefix && *prefix)))
                die("BUG: 'prefix' magic is supposed to be used at worktree's 
root");
 
+       if ((magic & PATHSPEC_LITERAL) && (magic & PATHSPEC_GLOB))
+               die(_("%s: 'literal' and 'glob' are incompatible"), elt);
+
        if (pathspec_prefix >= 0) {
                match = xstrdup(copyfrom);
                prefixlen = pathspec_prefix;
@@ -248,10 +278,17 @@ static unsigned prefix_pathspec(struct pathspec_item 
*item,
                        item->nowildcard_len = prefixlen;
        }
        item->flags = 0;
-       if (item->nowildcard_len < item->len &&
-           item->match[item->nowildcard_len] == '*' &&
-           no_wildcard(item->match + item->nowildcard_len + 1))
-               item->flags |= PATHSPEC_ONESTAR;
+       if (magic & PATHSPEC_GLOB) {
+               /*
+                * FIXME: should we enable ONESTAR in _GLOB for
+                * pattern "* * / * . c"?
+                */
+       } else {
+               if (item->nowildcard_len < item->len &&
+                   item->match[item->nowildcard_len] == '*' &&
+                   no_wildcard(item->match + item->nowildcard_len + 1))
+                       item->flags |= PATHSPEC_ONESTAR;
+       }
 
        /* sanity checks, pathspec matchers assume these are sane */
        assert(item->nowildcard_len <= item->len &&
diff --git a/pathspec.h b/pathspec.h
index ec15fe6..7608172 100644
--- a/pathspec.h
+++ b/pathspec.h
@@ -5,10 +5,12 @@
 #define PATHSPEC_FROMTOP       (1<<0)
 #define PATHSPEC_MAXDEPTH      (1<<1)
 #define PATHSPEC_LITERAL       (1<<2)
+#define PATHSPEC_GLOB          (1<<3)
 #define PATHSPEC_ALL_MAGIC       \
        (PATHSPEC_FROMTOP       | \
         PATHSPEC_MAXDEPTH      | \
-        PATHSPEC_LITERAL)
+        PATHSPEC_LITERAL       | \
+        PATHSPEC_GLOB)
 
 #define PATHSPEC_ONESTAR 1     /* the pathspec pattern sastisfies GFNM_ONESTAR 
*/
 
diff --git a/t/t6130-pathspec-noglob.sh b/t/t6130-pathspec-noglob.sh
index 8551b02..ea00d71 100755
--- a/t/t6130-pathspec-noglob.sh
+++ b/t/t6130-pathspec-noglob.sh
@@ -32,6 +32,16 @@ test_expect_success 'star pathspec globs' '
        test_cmp expect actual
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'star pathspec globs' '
+       cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
+       bracket
+       star
+       vanilla
+       EOF
+       git log --format=%s -- ":(glob)f*" >actual &&
+       test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
 test_expect_success 'bracket pathspec globs and matches literal brackets' '
        cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
        bracket
@@ -41,6 +51,15 @@ test_expect_success 'bracket pathspec globs and matches 
literal brackets' '
        test_cmp expect actual
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'bracket pathspec globs and matches literal brackets' '
+       cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
+       bracket
+       vanilla
+       EOF
+       git log --format=%s -- ":(glob)f[o][o]" >actual &&
+       test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
 test_expect_success 'no-glob option matches literally (vanilla)' '
        echo vanilla >expect &&
        git --literal-pathspecs log --format=%s -- foo >actual &&
@@ -89,4 +108,48 @@ test_expect_success 'no-glob environment variable works' '
        test_cmp expect actual
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'setup xxx/bar' '
+       mkdir xxx &&
+       test_commit xxx xxx/bar
+'
+
+test_expect_success '**/ works with :(glob)' '
+       cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
+       xxx
+       unrelated
+       EOF
+       git log --format=%s -- ":(glob)**/bar" >actual &&
+       test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success '**/ does not work with --noglob-pathspecs' '
+       : >expect &&
+       git --noglob-pathspecs log --format=%s -- "**/bar" >actual &&
+       test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success '**/ works with :(glob) and --noglob-pathspecs' '
+       cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
+       xxx
+       unrelated
+       EOF
+       git --noglob-pathspecs log --format=%s -- ":(glob)**/bar" >actual &&
+       test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success '**/ works with --glob-pathspecs' '
+       cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
+       xxx
+       unrelated
+       EOF
+       git --glob-pathspecs log --format=%s -- "**/bar" >actual &&
+       test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success '**/ does not work with :(literal) and --glob-pathspecs' '
+       : >expect &&
+       git --glob-pathspecs log --format=%s -- ":(literal)**/bar" >actual &&
+       test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/tree-walk.c b/tree-walk.c
index 676bd7f..a44f528 100644
--- a/tree-walk.c
+++ b/tree-walk.c
@@ -639,7 +639,8 @@ enum interesting tree_entry_interesting(const struct 
name_entry *entry,
        GUARD_PATHSPEC(ps,
                       PATHSPEC_FROMTOP |
                       PATHSPEC_MAXDEPTH |
-                      PATHSPEC_LITERAL);
+                      PATHSPEC_LITERAL |
+                      PATHSPEC_GLOB);
 
        if (!ps->nr) {
                if (!ps->recursive ||
@@ -685,8 +686,7 @@ enum interesting tree_entry_interesting(const struct 
name_entry *entry,
                                return entry_interesting;
 
                        if (item->nowildcard_len < item->len) {
-                               if (!git_fnmatch(match + baselen, entry->path,
-                                                item->flags & PATHSPEC_ONESTAR 
? GFNM_ONESTAR : 0,
+                               if (!git_fnmatch(item, match + baselen, 
entry->path,
                                                 item->nowildcard_len - 
baselen))
                                        return entry_interesting;
 
@@ -727,8 +727,7 @@ match_wildcards:
 
                strbuf_add(base, entry->path, pathlen);
 
-               if (!git_fnmatch(match, base->buf + base_offset,
-                                item->flags & PATHSPEC_ONESTAR ? GFNM_ONESTAR 
: 0,
+               if (!git_fnmatch(item, match, base->buf + base_offset,
                                 item->nowildcard_len)) {
                        strbuf_setlen(base, base_offset + baselen);
                        return entry_interesting;
-- 
1.8.2.83.gc99314b

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