Do basic error checking in ref_transaction_create() and make it return
non-zero on error. Update all callers to check the result of
ref_transaction_create(). There are currently no conditions in _create that
will return error but there will be in the future. Add an err argument that
will be updated on failure.

Reviewed-by: Jonathan Nieder <jrnie...@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Ronnie Sahlberg <sahlb...@google.com>
---
 builtin/update-ref.c |  4 +++-
 refs.c               | 18 +++++++++++------
 refs.h               | 55 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------
 3 files changed, 63 insertions(+), 14 deletions(-)

diff --git a/builtin/update-ref.c b/builtin/update-ref.c
index 3067b11..41121fa 100644
--- a/builtin/update-ref.c
+++ b/builtin/update-ref.c
@@ -226,7 +226,9 @@ static const char *parse_cmd_create(struct strbuf *input, 
const char *next)
        if (*next != line_termination)
                die("create %s: extra input: %s", refname, next);
 
-       ref_transaction_create(transaction, refname, new_sha1, update_flags);
+       if (ref_transaction_create(transaction, refname, new_sha1,
+                                  update_flags, &err))
+               die("%s", err.buf);
 
        update_flags = 0;
        free(refname);
diff --git a/refs.c b/refs.c
index af7e10a..d5447aa 100644
--- a/refs.c
+++ b/refs.c
@@ -3446,18 +3446,24 @@ int ref_transaction_update(struct ref_transaction 
*transaction,
        return 0;
 }
 
-void ref_transaction_create(struct ref_transaction *transaction,
-                           const char *refname,
-                           const unsigned char *new_sha1,
-                           int flags)
+int ref_transaction_create(struct ref_transaction *transaction,
+                          const char *refname,
+                          const unsigned char *new_sha1,
+                          int flags,
+                          struct strbuf *err)
 {
-       struct ref_update *update = add_update(transaction, refname);
+       struct ref_update *update;
+
+       if (!new_sha1 || is_null_sha1(new_sha1))
+               die("BUG: create ref with null new_sha1");
+
+       update = add_update(transaction, refname);
 
-       assert(!is_null_sha1(new_sha1));
        hashcpy(update->new_sha1, new_sha1);
        hashclr(update->old_sha1);
        update->flags = flags;
        update->have_old = 1;
+       return 0;
 }
 
 void ref_transaction_delete(struct ref_transaction *transaction,
diff --git a/refs.h b/refs.h
index f7a5e42..27c470c 100644
--- a/refs.h
+++ b/refs.h
@@ -10,6 +10,45 @@ struct ref_lock {
        int force_write;
 };
 
+/*
+ * A ref_transaction represents a collection of ref updates
+ * that should succeed or fail together.
+ *
+ * Calling sequence
+ * ----------------
+ * - Allocate and initialize a `struct ref_transaction` by calling
+ *   `ref_transaction_begin()`.
+ *
+ * - List intended ref updates by calling functions like
+ *   `ref_transaction_update()` and `ref_transaction_create()`.
+ *
+ * - Call `ref_transaction_commit()` to execute the transaction.
+ *   If this succeeds, the ref updates will have taken place and
+ *   the transaction cannot be rolled back.
+ *
+ * - At any time call `ref_transaction_free()` to discard the
+ *   transaction and free associated resources.  In particular,
+ *   this rolls back the transaction if it has not been
+ *   successfully committed.
+ *
+ * Error handling
+ * --------------
+ *
+ * On error, transaction functions append a message about what
+ * went wrong to the 'err' argument.  The message mentions what
+ * ref was being updated (if any) when the error occurred so it
+ * can be passed to 'die' or 'error' as-is.
+ *
+ * The message is appended to err without first clearing err.
+ * This allows the caller to prepare preamble text to the generated
+ * error message:
+ *
+ *     strbuf_addf(&err, "Error while doing foo-bar: ");
+ *     if (ref_transaction_update(..., &err)) {
+ *         ret = error("%s", err.buf);
+ *         goto cleanup;
+ *     }
+ */
 struct ref_transaction;
 
 /*
@@ -244,7 +283,7 @@ struct ref_transaction *ref_transaction_begin(void);
  * it must not have existed beforehand.
  * Function returns 0 on success and non-zero on failure. A failure to update
  * means that the transaction as a whole has failed and will need to be
- * rolled back. On failure the err buffer will be updated.
+ * rolled back.
  */
 int ref_transaction_update(struct ref_transaction *transaction,
                           const char *refname,
@@ -258,11 +297,15 @@ int ref_transaction_update(struct ref_transaction 
*transaction,
  * that the reference should have after the update; it must not be the
  * null SHA-1.  It is verified that the reference does not exist
  * already.
+ * Function returns 0 on success and non-zero on failure. A failure to create
+ * means that the transaction as a whole has failed and will need to be
+ * rolled back.
  */
-void ref_transaction_create(struct ref_transaction *transaction,
-                           const char *refname,
-                           const unsigned char *new_sha1,
-                           int flags);
+int ref_transaction_create(struct ref_transaction *transaction,
+                          const char *refname,
+                          const unsigned char *new_sha1,
+                          int flags,
+                          struct strbuf *err);
 
 /*
  * Add a reference deletion to transaction.  If have_old is true, then
@@ -278,8 +321,6 @@ void ref_transaction_delete(struct ref_transaction 
*transaction,
  * Commit all of the changes that have been queued in transaction, as
  * atomically as possible.  Return a nonzero value if there is a
  * problem.
- * If err is non-NULL we will add an error string to it to explain why
- * the transaction failed. The string does not end in newline.
  */
 int ref_transaction_commit(struct ref_transaction *transaction,
                           const char *msg, struct strbuf *err);
-- 
2.0.0.574.g30c2c5e

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