(Maura wrote a nice paper. WEN)

'... Terrorist 'use' of the Internet has been largely ignored, however,
in favour of the more headline-grabbing 'cyberterrorism.' The purpose of
this paper is to help remedy that deficiency. ...'

Reality Bytes: Cyberterrorism and Terrorist 'Use' of the Internet by
Maura Conway

This paper examines the concept of cyberterrorism. Fringe activity on
the Internet ranges from non-violent 'Use' at one end to
'Cyberterrorism' at the other. Rejecting the idea that cyberterrorism is
widespread, the focus here is on terrorist groups' 'use' of the
Internet, in particular the content of their Web sites, and their
'misuse' of the medium, as in hacking wars, for example. Terrorist
groups' use of the Internet for the purpose of inter-group communication
is also surveyed, partly because of its importance for the
inter-networked forms of organisation apparently being adopted by these
groups, but also due to the part played by the Internet in the events of
September 11 and their aftermath.

What is Cyberterrorism?
'Use' and 'Misuse': Some Empirical Observations
(Inter)Networking and 9-11
The Internet and 9-11: The Aftermath


'... The Internet is neither simply a potential vehicle for carrying out
attacks nor a potential target, however. The Internet is also the
instrument of a political power shift. It is the first many-to-many
communication system. The ability to communicate words, images, and
sounds, which underlies the power to persuade, inform, witness, debate,
and discuss (not to mention the power to slander, propagandise,
disseminate bad or misleading information, engage in misinformation
and/or disinformation, etc.) is no longer the sole province of those who
own or control printing presses, radio stations, or television networks.
Every machine connected to the Internet is potentially a printing press,
a broadcasting station, or a place of assembly. And in the twenty-first
century, terrorists are availing of the opportunity to connect. The
Internet is an ideal propaganda tool for terrorists: in the past they
had to communicate through acts of violence and hope that those acts
garnered sufficient attention to publicise the perpetrators cause or
explain their ideological justification. ...'

'... When it comes to discussion of cyberterrorism, there are two basic
areas in which clarification is needed. One has to do with the confusion
between cyberterrorism and cybercrime. Such confusion is partly caused
by the lack of clear definitions of the two phenomena. A U.N. manual on
IT-related crime recognises that, even after several years of debate
among experts on just what constitutes cybercrime and what
cyberterrorism, "there is no internationally recognised definition of
those terms" (Mates, 2001). The second has to do with making clear
distinctions between two different facets of terrorist usage of
information technology: terrorist use of computers as a facilitator of
their activities, and terrorism involving computer technology as a
weapon or target. ...'


'... In conclusion, the bulk of the evidence to date shows that
terrorist groups are making widespread use if the Internet, but so far
they have not resorted to cyberterrorism, or shown the inclination to
move heavily in this direction. In keeping with this reality, Richard
Clarke, White House special adviser for Cyberspace Security, has said
that he prefers not to use the term 'cyberterrorism,' instead, he
favours the term 'information security' or 'cyberspace security,' since
at this stage terrorists have only used the Internet for propaganda,
communications, and fundraising (Wynne, 2002). ...'

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