March 27, 2011
Paul Baran, Internet Pioneer, Dies at 84

By KATIE HAFNER

https://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/28/technology/28baran.html

Paul Baran, an engineer who helped create the technical underpinnings for the 
Arpanet, the government-sponsored precursor to today’s Internet, died Saturday 
night at his home in Palo Alto, Calif. He was 84.

The cause was complications from lung cancer, said his son, David.

In the early 1960s, while working at the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, 
Calif., Mr. Baran outlined the fundamentals for packaging data into discrete 
bundles, which he called “message blocks.” The bundles are then sent on various 
paths around a network and reassembled at their destination. Such a plan is 
known as “packet switching.”

Mr. Baran’s idea was to build a distributed communications network, less 
vulnerable to attack or disruption than conventional networks. In a series of 
technical papers published in the 1960s he suggested that networks be designed 
with redundant routes so that if a particular path failed or was destroyed, 
messages could still be delivered through another.

Mr. Baran’s invention was so far ahead of its time that in the mid-1960s, when 
he approached AT&T with the idea to build his proposed network, the company 
insisted it would not work and refused.

“Paul wasn’t afraid to go in directions counter to what everyone else thought 
was the right or only thing to do,” said Vinton Cerf, a vice president at 
Google who was a colleague and longtime friend of Mr. Baran’s. “AT&T repeatedly 
said his idea wouldn’t work, and wouldn’t participate in the Arpanet project,” 
he said.

In 1969, the Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency built the 
Arpanet, a network that used Mr. Baran’s ideas, and those of others. The 
Arpanet was eventually replaced by the Internet, and packet switching still 
lies at the heart of the network’s internal workings.

Paul Baran was born on April 29, 1926, in Grodno, Poland. His parents moved to 
the United States in 1928, and Mr. Baran grew up in Philadelphia. His father 
was a grocer, and as a boy, Paul delivered orders to customers in a small red 
wagon.

He attended the Drexel Institute of Technology, which later became Drexel 
University, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering in 
1949. He took his first job at the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation in 
Philadelphia, testing parts of radio tubes for an early commercial computer, 
the Univac. In 1955, he married Evelyn Murphy, and they moved to Los Angeles, 
where Mr. Baran took a job at Hughes Aircraft working on radar data processing 
systems. He enrolled in night classes at the University of California, Los 
Angeles.

Mr. Baran received a master’s degree in engineering from U.C.L.A. in 1959. 
Gerald Estrin, who was Mr. Baran’s adviser, said Mr. Baran was the first 
student he ever had who actually went to the Patent Office in Washington to 
investigate whether his master’s work, on character recognition, was patentable.

“From that day on, my expectations of him changed,” Dr. Estrin said. “He wasn’t 
just a serious student, but a young man who was looking to have an effect on 
the world.”

In 1959, Mr. Baran left Hughes to join RAND’s computer science department. He 
quickly developed an interest in the survivability of communications systems in 
the event of a nuclear attack, and spent the next several years at RAND working 
on a series of 13 papers — two of them classified — under contract to the Air 
Force, titled, “On Distributed Communications.”

About the same time that Mr. Baran had his idea, similar plans for creating 
such networks were percolating in the computing community. Donald Davies of the 
British National Physical Laboratory, working a continent away, had a similar 
idea for dividing digital messages into chunks he called packets.

“In the golden era of the early 1960s, these ideas were in the air,” said 
Leonard Kleinrock, a computer scientist at U.C.L.A. who was working on similar 
networking systems in the 1960s.

Mr. Baran left RAND in 1968 to co-found the Institute for the Future, a 
nonprofit research group specializing in long-range forecasting.

Mr. Baran was also an entrepreneur. He started seven companies, five of which 
eventually went public.

In recent years, the origins of the Internet have been subject to claims and 
counterclaims of precedence, and Mr. Baran was an outspoken proponent of 
distributing credit widely.

“The Internet is really the work of a thousand people,” he said in an interview 
in 2001.

“The process of technological developments is like building a cathedral,” he 
said in an interview in 1990. “Over the course of several hundred years, new 
people come along and each lays down a block on top of the old foundations, 
each saying, ‘I built a cathedral.’

“Next month another block is placed atop the previous one. Then comes along an 
historian who asks, ‘Well, who built the cathedral?’ Peter added some stones 
here, and Paul added a few more. If you are not careful you can con yourself 
into believing that you did the most important part. But the reality is that 
each contribution has to follow onto previous work. Everything is tied to 
everything else.”

Mr. Baran’s wife, Evelyn, died in 2007. In addition to his son, David, of 
Atherton, Calif., he is survived by three grandchildren; and his companion of 
recent years, Ruth Rothman.

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