Hi Mitch,

`I like your low Tec gravity motor. Something that just came to me was that`

`you could use 2 big bellows on the shore that would use the weight of the`

`falling arms (2 pistons) to force air in the pistons that are needing air to`

`make it rise up in the water. You could have a lot of leverage on the end`

`rod to fill up the piston with air with very little movement of the arms and`

`have your piston be like a collapsible chamber (like a hand organ) that`

`would at TDC be fully extended and full of air with the bottom being able to`

`float so it would want to come to the water surface and it would force the`

`air back into the depleted bellow that blows it up as the weight of the`

`piston arm fall to BDC in its travels. This would make it so you do not need`

`any motors to make it work.`

Ron in Redding

`----- Original Message -----`

`From: "Mitch" <[EMAIL PROTECTED]>`

To: "Interact" <interact@listserv.capital-master.com> Sent: Friday, November 03, 2006 5:01 PM Subject: [Keelynet] free energy Monday, October 30, 2006

`Hello! Here is one machine that I have been thinking about building. On`

`paper, this machine appears to operate over unity.`

`I am also going to supply what I think of as 'proving numbers', verifiable`

`by anyone. I have looked at many blueprints and descriptions of machines,`

`but they never come with any numerical verifications. I have learned that it`

`is worthless to postulate anything without some kind of 'proof'. I have`

`never written a paper like this before, so please bear with me.`

I will start with some 'facts'.

`One cubic foot of water weighs 62.5 lbs. Conversely, one cubic foot of air`

`has a buoyancy ( negative gravity) of 62.5 lbs., due to the fact of`

`displacement. These figures are used routinely to build ships and subs.`

`For every foot of water depth, the pressure increases by .445 p.s.i., so`

`that at 33 feet of depth, the pressure is increased to 14.5 p.s.i. over the`

`ambient pressure. One atmosphere at the surface of the water, two`

`atmospheres at 33 feet.`

`A bubble of air will decrease its volume by 6% for every foot of depth due`

`to the pressure exerted on it by the water.`

`Pressure is omni-directional, so to calculate the pressure exerted on a`

`given cylinder, it would be expressed as follows; the cylinder is 6 inches`

`in diameter, with a pressure of 10 p.s.i., so in order to move the piston`

`you will need 6" x 6" x .7854 = 28.77 sq. in. x 10 p.s.i. = 283 lbs. of`

`force, because only the 'face' of the piston is what has to move.`

`A bubble of air rises at approximately one foot per second.* (unverified,`

`the info is scarce) However, It is known that it takes an amount of time for`

`a buoyant object to rise when under water, because the water must 'get out`

`of the way', to get under the buoyant object.`

`A lever is a simple machine, a force magnifier, and the work it does can be`

`expressed as follows; there is a 11 foot lever, with a fulcrum at 10 feet.`

`100 lbs. of force is exerted on the long end, moving the lever 10 feet. The`

`object to be moved is one foot beyond the fulcrum, so the lever can do 100 x`

`9 = 900 lbs. lift for one foot, or 900 foot-pounds. This is known as a`

`'first class' lever. A 'third class' lever has the load between the fulcrum`

`and the lifting force.`

`Horse power is figured to be 550 foot pounds torque on a shaft per second,`

`or 33,000 per minute.`

These are known facts that are used everyday.

`I am proposing a machine that utilizes these facts to produce power in`

`excess of that needed to operate. This machine will be fairly large, as it`

`is a gravity machine, and those tend to be quite large if expected to do any`

`useful work.`

Physical Machine and Components.

`There is a water tank that is 12 feet deep, and 15 feet in diameter. The`

`top is open. In the bottom center of the tank is cut a hole, where an 8"`

`diameter pipe is fitted that extends vertically into the tank by 12 inches.`

`In this pipe is a ball valve (checkvalve) that will keep the water from`

`leaking out. Also in the bottom of the tank is a chamber that is 5 feet in`

`diameter, and 12" tall, with a gradually rising conical top ( 1-12 pitch).`

`This chamber has a volume of 20 cubic feet. In the center top of the`

`chamber is a pipe fitted, with a ball valve, to keep any air in the chamber`

`from leaking out. This pipe extends 12 inches out of the top of the chamber.`

`The bottom of the chamber is open to the water, and this chamber is exactly`

`centered over the hole in the tank. The chamber is placed 1 foot off of the`

`bottom of the tank, held there by 3 studs equally spaced, and water can`

`enter and exit this chamber freely.`

`Connected to the ball valve in the bottom of the tank is a pipe that will`

`carry air, and this pipe is 24 feet long, extending away and outside of the`

`tank. This pipe is connected to a single action air pump ( simple cylinder`

`pump). When this pump is activated, it pumps air into the bottom of the`

`tank, through the check valve, filling the chamber with air. This pump is`

`connected to the lever at the 21.7 foot mark, making it third class, but the`

`lever could be extended, and the pump placed beyond the fulcrum, to make`

`this a 'first class' connection.`

`Also in the tank is another chamber, which I shall call the 'piston'. The`

`piston is an exact duplicate of the chamber, with two exceptions. It has an`

`actuator pin that directly lines up with the checkvalve in the chamber, and`

`this piston measures 60 in. in diameter and is 18 inches deep, and can hold`

`29.5 cubic feet of air. This piston moves up and down in the tank, from the`

`top of the tank to the top of the chamber. The piston has channels that it`

`rides in, to keep it centered. The piston also has a rod connected to it`

`that is 12 feet long, and extends out of the top of the tank, where it is`

`connected to a crankshaft that has a throw of 10 feet, ( 5 foot radius), and`

`is only connected to a flywheel for precise control over the piston. The fly`

`wheel is 6 feet in diameter, weighs 300 lbs., and is geared to travel at 10`

`times the speed of the piston. The flywheel's sole purpose is to drive the`

`piston down to the chamber, and hold it there while the air in the chamber`

`transfers to the piston.`

`Connected to the rod, just below where it connects to the crankshaft, is`

`attached a lever that is 30 feet long, and is perpendicular to the rod. (90`

`degrees) At this point, the rod is slotted, with the lever riding in the`

`slot, so that the lever can slide laterally as the piston rises and falls.`

`This lever has a fulcrum located at its 28 foot mark, and another crankshaft`

`at 30 feet. This is where the extra usable power will be taken. The throw on`

`this crankshaft is .357 feet. 28' to fulcrum lever divided by a 10 foot`

`movement of the lever at 28 feet = 0.357. This crankshaft has a power take`

`off pulley. This whole thing is framed together, from the tank to the`

`fulcrum, and the p.t.o.`

____________________________________ Theory of operation.

`The piston, as it moves down in the water, is driven there by the weight`

`of the lever, and on the way down, the flywheel is helping to drive it. When`

`the piston gets near the chamber, the actuator pin in the bottom of the`

`piston opens the checkvalve in the chamber, releasing the air, which flows`

`into the piston, filling it with air. Now the piston begins to rise, pushing`

`up on the lever, and spinning up the flywheel. The lever actuates the pump`

`to fill the chamber, re-gauging the machine, and also operates the second`

`crankshaft, where usable power is derived. The piston should take about 3`

`seconds (?) to reach the top, with a one second hold there, so the time of`

`revolution is 8 seconds. When the piston gets to the top of the tank,`

`another actuator pin, which is attached to the tank, opens the checkvalve in`

`the top of the piston, releasing the air out of the top, and allowing the`

`piston to fill with water, when it will again fall to the bottom, repeating`

`the process. The air should readily flow upwards, into and out of the`

`piston, due to the pressure differences, and the buoyancy of the air, and`

`the large valve sizes.`

Lets look at some numbers. _____________________________________

`Our piston measures 60" dia. x 18", and that is 60 x 60 x 0.7854 x 18 / 1728`

`(cubic inches, 12 x 12 x 12 = 1728) = 29.45 cubic feet. 29.45 x 62.5 =`

`1840.8 lbs. upward lift.`

`But we lose 6% volume per foot of depth, and the piston starts 10 feet`

`deep, so 1840.8, 1730.3, 1626.5, 1528.9, 1437.2, 1350.9, 1269.9, 1193.7,`

`1122, 1054.7, 991.5 at 10 feet, or about 50%. We will take the average of`

`the top and bottom numbers, 1730.3 + 991.5 = 2721.8 / 2 = 1360.9, or about`

`75 %`

`The piston is sized for the maximum capacity, because the air bubble will`

`increase in size as the piston rises.`

`The lever weighs 300 lbs. , but it is much heavier at the fulcrum end, so`

`the weight that the piston has to overcome is 125 lbs. The lever is`

`constructed out of aluminum tubing, like a 'truss', so its actual weight`

`will be less than this. The fulcrum is at 28 feet, so we will calculate the`

`weight x 26 feet, and the p.t.o. is at 30 ft., 2 feet beyond the fulcrum, so`

`we must subtract 2 from 28, so 26 feet is our calculation point for actual`

`weight deliver to crankshaft.`

`The pump has a travel of 18", and is located at 21.7' on the lever, in the`

`'third class' on the lever. 26' minus 4.3 x 0.3357 = 1.53' @ 21.7 ft.`

`The crank is 2 feet beyond the fulcrum, and has a throw of 2 x 0.357 =`

`0.714, and is first class on the lever. We are connecting to a crank shaft,`

`however, and this means that we must use the radius of the crank to`

`calculate h.p. 0.714 / 2 = 0.357`

`The fly wheel will consume about 15% of the work from the piston, 1360.9 x`

`.85 = 1156.7 - 125 (lever weight) = 1031.7`

`1031.7 is what is left to pump the air and produce horse power. This figure`

`is variable, depending on how many pistons are connected together. With many`

`pistons running in time, a fly wheel will not be needed, as one piston's`

`rise will force another to the bottom, resulting in more efficiency.`

`The pump is 60" in diameter, and that is 60 x 60 x 0.7854 = 2827.5 square`

`inches times the pressure at 10 feet, 4.45 x 2827.5 = 12582.3 lbs. of`

`pressure to collapse the air pump. We must assume a higher pressure to pump`

`all of the air in 3 seconds, and I will assume a 25% increase- 12582.3 x`

`1.25 = 15727.9 The pipe and valve are large- 8" diameter, to ease air`

`passage. Once the water pressure is overcome, the air should move rapidly,`

`without a huge pressure increase, due to the large size of the pipe & valve.`

`It should almost be like popping a tire, so I think that this figure is`

`actually too high, because once the air begins to flow, and the initial`

`pressure is over-ridden, the pipe and valve, (or valves), allow such a`

`volume of air through them as to offer very little more resistance.`

`weight lever point pump pressure`

`lever point`

`1031.7 x 21.7 = 22387.9 minus 15727.9 = 6660 /`

`21.7 = 307. This is what is left over at the piston after running the`

`machine has been satisfied.`

`weight fulcrum point 8 second revolution ( power is`

`only derived on the upstroke)`

`307 x 26 = 7982 x 3 sec. rise =`

`23946 x 7.5 r.p.m. = 179595 x 0.357( crankshaft) = 64115.41 / 33000 = 2`

`horse power left over. (I have rounded, instead of printing every`

`decimal.)`

`When calculating horse power, every second of the minute must be accounted`

`for, including the time that no power is produced, and this is counted as a`

`loss. The only way to get true horsepower and torque ratings, is with the`

`proper test equipment, under actual running conditions.`

`If we tabulate the total power, minus the lever, flywheel, and pump, it`

`is 1360.9 x 26 = 35383.4 x 3 = 106,150.2 x 7.5 = 796,126.5 x 0.357 =`

`284217.16 / 33000 = 8.6 total h.p. So, 8.6 - 2 = 6.6 hp. used for`

`machine operation, which means that this machine seems to have a C.O.P. of`

`about 130% in its present form. This figure does not, however, take into`

`account for any bearing and gear losses, but these should be negligible. If`

`there were 4 pistons and levers hooked together running in time with each`

`other, like a V- 8, we could eliminate the flywheel and its losses,`

`resulting in a slightly higher C.O.P.`

`Lets see what happens with a faster revolution, say 5 seconds. 368 x 26 =`

`9568 x 1.75 sec. rise = 16744 x 12 = 200928 x 0.357 = 71731.3 / 33000 = 2.17`

`h.p. That is not much change, and it will be similar results with a longer`

`revolution than 8 seconds. The pump pressure will change, as well, with`

`different piston speeds, and I think that the slower the piston rises in the`

`water column, the more horsepower created, because of the power over time`

`plus the lower pump pressure at the slower speed, but again, this difference`

`is small.`

`Lets move the fulcrum to 27 ft. and see what happens. 10 ft. / 27 ft =`

`.370, so we have to move the pump to 21.5, and the crank radius has also`

`changed, because it is now 3 feet beyond the fulcrum, so 0.370 x 3 / 2 =`

`0.555 for crank radius.`

`1031.7 x 21.5 = 22181.55 - 15727.9 = 6453.6 / 21.5 = 300.16 x 24 feet. =`

`7204 x 3 = 21612 x 7.5 = 162090 x 0.555 = 89959.95 / 33000 = 2.7 h.p. . The`

`movement of the fulcrum has a direct effect on the efficiency of the`

`machine, to an optimal placement.`

_______________________________

`The fundamental reason that this machine appears to work 'on paper', is`

`leverage. It appears that through this leverage, it is possible to pump more`

`air, (more weight), than the force exerted to do the work, and that air has`

`no weight, except when in a liquid, then it negatively weighs exactly the`

`amount it displaces, so we are moving weight that is WEIGHTLESS. We only`

`have to overcome the pressure. This machine also uses one lever directly`

`over another, ( the crankshaft), to magnify the forces.`

`Now, it is obvious that many things about this idea can be changed.`

`Bigger piston, different piston shape resulting in 'streamlining' for`

`various piston speeds, longer lever, different class levers, reversing`

`levers, gears, or pulley's and cables, using compressors instead of a simple`

`pump, (with the p.t.o. powering the compressor), using two changeable`

`pistons on one rod, etc. Also, it should not make much difference as to`

`exactly how fast the piston will rise in the water column, because all that`

`will change is the 'power over time' equation, and as I have shown, the`

`total power remains about the same. If this works the way the numbers say it`

`should, it can be scaled up to any size that is physically possible, with as`

`many pistons and levers as there is room for. It should also work on a small`

`scale, all you must do is balance all of the forces with the materials. It`

`will also have to be hand started, but an automotive type starter motor can`

`be installed with the flywheel for remote starting on a large machine. ( The`

`pipe must be pressurized). Of course, hopefully you only have to start it`

`ONCE, and it should run until some man-made material fails.`

`What if we had a huge one, with say, 10 pistons? Lets assume a 1000`

`cubic foot piston,( that is only 10' x 10' x 10'), and a 60 foot lever, with`

`the fulcrum at 55 feet. 15 ft / 55 ft = 0.27. The piston can be any shape,`

`as long as it holds the required amount of air, and has the appropriate`

`valving. Crank radius; 0.27 x 5 = 1.35 / 2 = 0.675.`

`1000 x 62.5 = 62,500 lbs x .75 (pressure diff. average, at depth) = 46875 x`

`50 feet = 2,343,750 x 4 sec. rise(piston starts deeper) = 9,375,000 x 6 revs`

`= 56,250,000 x 0.675 = 37,968,750 / 33,000 = 1150.5 h.p. x .25 ( to get`

`usable h.p.) = 286.25 h.p. x 10 pistons = 2862.5 h.p.`

`Obviously, I have extrapolated these numbers based on the first machine,`

`but if they worked there, they should work here, too.`

`This will fit on any city lot, and will run how many homes? Let's use the`

`figure from the 1000 c.f. x 10 piston machine. 2862.5 x 746 = 2,135,425`

`watts, or 2135 k.w., or 2.1 megawatts. What is a city lot? 120' x 80'? A`

`quarter acre? Lets put these on ten acres- 2135 k.w. x 4 x 10 = 84,500 k.w.`

`84.5 megawatts of fuel-free power. Better yet, lets just use a few thousand`

`feet of sea, or lake shore. I don't know about where you live, but up here`

`in Alaska, my power company owns hundreds, if not thousands of acres of`

`land. If a guy had a nice pond in his backyard...`

`I just had a brain storm! I just thought of another machine. Lets build a`

`huge bellows, say 15 feet by 15 feet by 10 feet, with the collapsing and`

`opening being ten feet, and inside this bellows is a scissor action jack,`

`with a 100 horsepower ( or bigger) electric motor that turns the screw of`

`the jack to open and close the bellows. Put this at the end of a 60 foot`

`HOLLOW lever, so the air in the bellows is common with the lever. At 15 ft.`

`deep, the motor turns and opens the bellows, at the top of the water, the`

`motor reverses, and closes the bellows. The overall pressure in the bellows`

`and lever is 7 p.s.i., and since the air is common with the lever,`

`collapsing the bellows will not result in an appreciably higher p.s.i., due`

`to the total volume overall. Or, the end of the lever could be open to the`

`air, since it is above the water level, so the air can enter and exit at`

`will. Any way, lets see if this will work. 15 x 15 x 10 = 2250 cubic feet,`

`times 62.5 = 140625 lbs. x 60 feet = 8,437,500 x 3 second rise = 25,312,500`

`x 7.5 revs. = 189,843,750 x 0.9 = 170,859,375 / 33,000 = 5177 horsepower!!`

`(I think I will pursue this idea a little further.) Please bear with me`

`while I do so, as I am going to do my thinking right now, in this paper.`

`This idea works only in a large pool, or lake, because it is only a`

`single long lever. There is still a rod and flywheel, as the piston's top`

`dead center and b.d.c. must be precisely controlled, in concert with the`

`crankshaft at the other end, but the piston is connected directly to the end`

`of the lever, so most of the lever is always under water. I will also`

`calculate to a commercial application. (You will have to calculate for your`

`own needs yourself.)`

`There is a lever that is 65 feet long. The lever is principally a 4 foot`

`(?, depends on motor diameters) diameter pipe, with trussing along its`

`entire length for maximum strength. At one end is a cylinder that is 12 feet`

`in diameter, and can expand and contract for 6 feet. The cylinder and pipe`

`are commonly sharing air, as the cylinder's piston collapses, the air is`

`forced out through the pipe, and as the cylinder is expanded, the air fills`

`it through the pipe. The air pressure within the pipe and piston will always`

`be the same as the ambient air pressure except for when expanding and`

`collapsing. Within the pipe are mounted six 100 horse power electric motors,`

`equally spaced along the lever's length. Through the center of the all of`

`motors runs a threaded shaft, that is 4 inches (?) in diameter, and has`

`threads at 2 per inch, similar to a jack screw used on a McDonnell Douglas`

`M-D 80 jetliner to control the tailfin.`

`This threaded shaft is connected to the piston in the cylinder. When the`

`motors operate in unison, the screw turns, forcing the piston to either`

`open, or close, depending on the motor direction. All of the wiring for the`

`motors is run through the pipe, and extrude from the end without the piston,`

`where they are connected to the power source. The cooling of the motors is`

`accomplished by the air rushing in and out of the pipe, over the motors. At`

`the open end of the pipe, at 60 feet on the lever ( We count from the`

`piston), is mounted a fulcrum for the lever. At the end of the lever, at 65`

`feet, is mounted a crankshaft that is geared to an a.c. generator, and this`

`generator powers the motors.`

`The total weight of the lever and cylinder and motors is 20, 000 lbs. But,`

`when under water, the total weight is 16, 500 due to displacement.`

`The fulcrum end is on shore, above the water level. This apparatus is`

`appropriately stabilized to the ground, so it will withstand the forces.`

`Theory: As the cylinder falls to 20 (?) feet deep in the water, most of`

`the lever is also submerged, and the total weight of the machine is reduced`

`accordingly. When the piston is 19 feet deep, and while it is still falling,`

`the motors begin to turn, forcing the piston wide open, to 6 feet capacity.`

`This will take 1.1 (?) seconds to accomplish. The cylinder is 12 feet in`

`diameter, and open 6 feet, so it is now full of 678.5 cubic feet of air.`

`This gives the cylinder a buoyancy of 678.5 x 62.5 = 42,411.6 lbs minus`

`16,500 = 25911.6. The lever will now begin to rise, and will take 4 (?)`

`seconds to reach the top of the water, where the motors will run in reverse,`

`and close the cylinder, and the cylinders own weight will drive it down to`

`19' where the cycle will repeat. The six 100 horsepower motors will use 450`

`kilowatts of electricity to operate, or 600 h.p. Will This work for over`

`unity?`

`25,911.6 x 55 feet = 1425138 x 4 seconds = 5700552 x 6 r.p.m. = 34203312 x`

`0.9 crank = 30782980.8 / 33000 = 932.8 h.p.`

`But wait a minute, there is 16,500 lbs. pulling the lever down, as well as`

`the upstroke power.`

`16,500 x 55 = 907,500 x 4 = 3,630,000 x 6 = 21,780,000 x 0.9 = 19,602,000 /`

`33000 = 594 H.P. on the downstroke. But wait again. The motors only run for`

`2.2 seconds per revolution, leaving 5.8 seconds that they are not operating,`

`and not using any power. Maybe they could be run from capacitors, or`

`batteries, and so spread their 600 h.p. usage over time?`

`It appears that the power from the downstroke alone is enough to power the`

`machine.`

`****See below to understand where I am getting these figures, that is`

`where some of my 'thinking' took place.`

`932.8 + 594 = 1526.8 total h.p. created with 600 used to operate, a C.O.P.`

`of 255%? It would seem that even if more electric motors were needed to`

`open the cylinder in the time allotted, there is still going to be plenty of`

`power left over. It also seems that no matter what method is used to open`

`the cylinder, there is still plenty of power.`

`What about a shorter r.p.m., say 7.5 seconds, instead of ten? 16,500 x 55`

`= 907,500 x 3 = 2,722,500 x 8 = 21,780,000 x 0.9 = 19,602,000 / 33,000 =`

`594. Exactly the same.`

`Lets move the fulcrum a little, to 58 feet, with the p.t.o. still at 65',`

`or 7' beyond the fulcrum. 20 / 58 = 0.344 x 7 = 2.4 ft throw on crank, a`

`radius of 1.2`

`25,911.6 x 51 = 1321491.6 x 3 = 3964474.8 x 8 = 31715798.4 x 1.2 =`

`38058958.08 / 33,000 = 1153.3 h.p. (?1?!) and a little more--`

`to 57 feet, with pto @ 65', 8 feet beyond fulcrum, 20 / 57 = 0.350 x 8 =`

`2.8 ft. throw, 1.4 r.`

`25911.6 x 49 = 1269668.4 x 3 = 3809005.2 x 8 = 30472041.6 x 1.4 =`

`42660858.24 / 33000 = 1292.7 ? Wait a minute. What is happening here? Lets`

`split the lever. 32.5. 0.625 feet movement of lever per foot @ 20 feet.`

`Lever is split , so 20 foot movement on both sides equally. 20 ft. throw, 10`

`rad. 25911.6 x 3 x 8 x 10 = 6218784 / 33000 = 188.4 Fulcrum at 45' ? - .44`

`x 20 = 8.8 ft. throw, 4.4 rad.`

25911.6 x 25 x 3 x 8 x 4.4 = 68406624 / 33000 = 2072.9

`16,500 x 25 x 3 x 8 x 4.4 = 43560000 / 33000 = 1320`

`1320 + 2072.9 = 3392.9 H.P. a C.O.P. of 565% (????)`

`Fulcrum at 40 ft. 12.5 throw, 6.25 rad. 25911.6 x 15 x 3 x 8 x 6.25 =`

`58301100 / 33000 = 1766 .7`

`16,500 x 15 x 3 x 8 x 6.25 = 37125000 / 33000 = 1125`

`It would seem that a 45 foot fulcrum is better. Also, as the`

`fulcrum is moved along the length of the lever, the 'at rest' weight of the`

`lever will change somewhat. I could calculate for optimal placement, but I`

`don't see the necessity.`

`*****I have a 48" pipe that is 65' long. The fulcrum is at 60 ', so the`

`calculating point is 55'. The piston will start at 20' deep. The piston has`

`a screw in it which is controlled by an electric motor that opens and closes`

`the piston, to create the volume. The piston and pipe are common, with the`

`end of the pipe that is out of the water being open to the air. The piston`

`is 12' in diameter, and has an extension of 6'. 678.5 cubic feet x 62.5 =`

`42,411.6 lbs. The pipe-lever, piston, and motor have a combined under water`

`weight of 6500 lbs. 42411.6 minus 6500 = 35911.6 x 55 feet = 1,975,138 ft`

`lbs. 20 / 55 = 0.36 x 5 = 1.8 foot throw, and a 0.9 crank radius. 4 second`

`rise x 6 revs.`

1,975,138 x 4 x 6 x 1.8 = 853,259,616 / 33,000 = 2585.6 h.p.

`12' diameter is 144" x 144" x 0.7854 = 16286 sq. inches x the pressure at 20`

`feet 0.445 x 20 = 8.9 x 16286 = 144,945.4 150,000 lbs.`

`100 hp. motor - 100 x 33000 = 3,300,000 / 60 seconds = 55,000 ft. lbs. per`

`sec. @ 1650 rpm (?) = 27.5 rev. per second. Screw has 10 teeth per inch.`

2.7 inch per second. 0.27 per rev.

`We need 3 100 h.p. motors, or one 300 h.p. motor to get more than the`

`150,000 lbs. of force that is needed to open the cylinder.`

`one 100 h.p. motor weighs 2,000 x 3 = 6,000, plus the 4,500 pipe-lever =`

`10,500.`

`42,411.6 minus 10,500 = 31,911.6 x 55 x 4 x 6 x 1.8 = 75,821,961.6 / 33,000`

`= 2297.6 h.p. minus 300 for motor = 1997.6`

`Speed. @ 2.7 inches per second, it will take 23 seconds to open the`

`cylinder @ 10 threads per inch.`

`Lets go to 2 threads per inch, on a 4 inch shaft, 27.5 x 2 = 55 inches per`

`second. Also I will double the motors.`

`600 h.p. x 33,000 = 19800000 / 60 sec. = 330,000 ft.lbs. per second, more`

`than enough to open the cylinder. Now the motors weigh 12,000 + 4500 =`

`16,500 from 42411.6 = 25911.6 x 4 x 6 x 55 x 0.9 = 30,782,980.8 / 33,000 =`

`932.8 minus 600 = 332.8 usable, about 1-3rd. extra. This all depends on a`

`10 second revolution, but the actual revolution time really does not matter,`

`as it will be at least a few seconds. Since this system is a sealed from the`

`water, the displacement figures are absolute, so no figuring for depth (`

`other than piston pressure), is required.`

`What about a huge compressor to operate the machine. Compressors that`

`operate at 180 p.s.i. usually do so at about a 3 to 1 c.f.m. to horse power`

`ratio. So, if I had a 600 h.p. compressor, it should produce 1800 c.f.m. at`

`180 psi. 1800 / 60 = 30 cubic feet per second, at 180 p.s.i. If we had a`

`pipe that was 1.5 feet in diameter, and 65 feet long, it's capacity is 18" x`

`18" 0.8754 = 254.46 x 780" = 198486.288 / 1728 = 114.8 cubic feet x 62.5 =`

`7179 lbs. buoyancy. The pipe and trussing together weigh 10,000, so we have`

`a net weight of 10,000 - 7179 = 2821 lbs. On the end of the lever we will`

`put a chamber instead of a piston, one that will hold 210 cubic feet of air.`

`At the chamber, there will be several large air valves that will allow air`

`to fill the chamber from the pipe when the lever is at bottom dead center.`

`In the operating respect, this machine will be similar to the first one I`

`described, with the compressor running from the crank, but the pipe is`

`totally sealed to hold air pressure, and the compressor's output is`

`connected to the fulcrum end of the lever. this machine will have a depth of`

`20', with a revolution of 8 seconds. The pressure at 20' is 8.9 p.s.i. So`

`the air bubble will be about 40% as large as it will be at 1', so 40% of 210`

`is 84 + 210 = 294 / 2 = 147 x 62.5 = 9187.5 lbs. average.`

`9187.5 - 2821 = 6366.5 net lift x 25 = 159162.5 x 3 = 477487.5 x 8 =`

`3819900 x 4.4 = 16807560 / 33000 = 509 on the upstroke, which is not enough.`

`Will this compressor open a piston, instead? 144" x 144" x 0.7854 = 16286 x`

`8.9 = 144946 lbs. to open, 180 x 16286 =`

`2,931,480 minus 150,000 = 2,781,480, or easily enough pressure on the`

`piston to open rapidly at depth. As I have already shown the figures for`

`this lever above, I will not recalculate here. It does occur to me that a`

`12' piston moving 6' in one second will create one hell of a recoil. Maybe I`

`need to make two opposing pistons, each half the size, so there will be no`

`recoil against the lever. But, how do I now get the piston to dump all of`

`the air and close at top dead center? It will be full of air at 180 p.s.i.`

`Maybe there will be a very long air hydraulic cylinder that extends back`

`into the pipe, and around the backside periphery of the main cylinder are`

`valves that will open, and the pressure in the spring cylinder will force`

`the piston closed, as the air is allowed to vent through these valves into`

`the water. Of course, this will increase the opening pressure at the piston,`

`but the pressure was so high to start with, another 200,000 lbs. shouldn't`

`make any difference. In an opposing two piston model, the spring cylinder`

`will have to be connected mechanically to a concentric, as will the pistons.`

`This should work beautifully, with the compressor, or the electric motor`

`machine. I rather like the electric motor idea, though.`

`Well, I think it is about time to end this exercise in theory and go`

`build something. I hope you have enjoyed wading through this with me, and I`

`hope that I have energized your imagination, as this is principally why I`

`wrote this in the first place. Regretfully, I do not have any drawings as`

`yet, but I will produce some soon. I am not entirely sure of my mathematics,`

`either, ( I am sure that mistakes exist here), and the 'powers that be' say`

`that this cannot possibly work. While I am not entirely pleased to splash`

`one of my ideas all over the net, I think it is about high time that people`

`can have energy that does not require paying a monthly bill, and is green.`

`Since this is now 'out there', ANYONE can build his own. I am not`

`particularly worried about 'patent stealers', because this idea is only one`

`of many, better ideas I have, and that I will hold close, for now. PLEASE`

`contact me with any questions or comments, and criticisms, as that is what`

`will keep me honest.`

Mitch. [EMAIL PROTECTED]