Hi Jacob,

On 7/16/20 8:45 PM, Jacob Pan wrote:
> IOMMU UAPI is newly introduced to support communications between guest
> virtual IOMMU and host IOMMU. There has been lots of discussions on how
> it should work with VFIO UAPI and userspace in general.
> 
> This document is indended to clarify the UAPI design and usage. The
intended
> mechanics of how future extensions should be achieved are also covered
> in this documentation.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Liu Yi L <yi.l....@intel.com>
> Signed-off-by: Jacob Pan <jacob.jun....@linux.intel.com>
> ---
>  Documentation/userspace-api/iommu.rst | 339 
> ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  1 file changed, 339 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/userspace-api/iommu.rst
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/userspace-api/iommu.rst 
> b/Documentation/userspace-api/iommu.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..efc3e1838235
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/userspace-api/iommu.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,339 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +.. iommu:
> +
> +=====================================
> +IOMMU Userspace API
> +=====================================
> +
> +IOMMU UAPI is used for virtualization cases where communications are
> +needed between physical and virtual IOMMU drivers. For native
s/native/baremetal?
> +usage, IOMMU is a system device which does not need to communicate
the IOMMU?
> +with user space directly.
> +
> +The primary use cases are guest Shared Virtual Address (SVA) and
> +guest IO virtual address (IOVA), wherein a virtual IOMMU (vIOMMU) is
> +required to communicate with the physical IOMMU in the host.
wherin the vIOMMU implementation relies on the physical IOMMU and for
this reason requires interactions with the host driver.

> +
> +.. contents:: :local:
> +
> +Functionalities
> +===============
> +Communications of user and kernel involve both directions. The
> +supported user-kernel APIs are as follows:
> +
> +1. Alloc/Free PASID
> +2. Bind/unbind guest PASID (e.g. Intel VT-d)
> +3. Bind/unbind guest PASID table (e.g. ARM sMMU)
s/sMMU/SMMU
> +4. Invalidate IOMMU caches
> +5. Service IO page faults (page request and response)
Report errors to the guest and serve page requests?
> +
> +Requirements
> +============
> +The IOMMU UAPIs are generic and extensible to meet the following
> +requirements:
> +
> +1. Emulated and para-virtualised vIOMMUs
> +2. Multiple vendors (Intel VT-d, ARM sMMU, etc.)
SMMU
> +3. Extensions to the UAPI shall not break existing user space
> +
> +Interfaces
> +==========
> +Although the data structures defined in IOMMU UAPI are self-contained,
> +there is no user API functions introduced. Instead, IOMMU UAPI is
> +designed to work with existing user driver frameworks such as VFIO.
> +
> +Extension Rules & Precautions
> +-----------------------------
> +When IOMMU UAPI gets extended, the data structures can *only* be
> +modified in two ways:
> +
> +1. Adding new fields by re-purposing the padding[] field. No size change.
> +2. Adding new union members at the end. May increase in size.
May increase the structure sizes
> +
> +No new fields can be added *after* the variable sized union in that it
> +will break backward compatibility when offset moves. In both cases, a
> +new flag must be accompanied with a new field such that the IOMMU
a new flag must be introduced whenever a change affects the structure
using either method?
> +driver can process the data based on the new flag. Version field is
> +only reserved for the unlikely event of UAPI upgrade at its entirety.
> +
> +It's *always* the caller's responsibility to indicate the size of the
> +structure passed by setting argsz appropriately.
> +Though at the same time, argsz is user provided data which is not
> +trusted. The argsz field allows the user to indicate how much data
> +they're providing, it's still the kernel's responsibility to validate
he is providing
> +whether it's correct and sufficient for the requested operation.
> +
> +Compatibility Checking
> +----------------------
> +When IOMMU UAPI extension results in size increase, IOMMU UAPI core
in some structure size increase, the IOMMU UAPI code
> +and vendor driver shall handle the following cases:
> +
> +1. User and kernel has exact size match
> +2. An older user with older kernel header (smaller UAPI size) running on a
> +   newer kernel (larger UAPI size)
> +3. A newer user with newer kernel header (larger UAPI size) running
> +   on an older kernel.
> +4. A malicious/misbehaving user pass illegal/invalid size but within
> +   range. The data may contain garbage.> +
> +Feature Checking
> +----------------
> +While launching a guest with vIOMMU, it is important to ensure that host
> +can support the UAPI data structures to be used for vIOMMU-pIOMMU
> +communications. Without upfront compatibility checking, future faults
s/faults/failures?
> +are difficult to report even in normal conditions. For example, TLB
> +invalidations should always succeed. There is no architectural way to
> +report back to the vIOMMU if the UAPI data is incompatible. If that
> +happens, in order to protect IOMMU iosolation guarantee, we have to
in order to guarantee IOMMU isOlation
> +resort to not giving completion status in vIOMMU. This may result in
> +VM hang.
Why not simply saying a capability getter is offered to discover the
feature support and potential API incompatibility support at an early
stage. Detecting this later, when performing the actual cache/descriptor
handling operations appears to be tricky and difficult to escalate to
the guest.

> +
> +For this reason the following IOMMU UAPIs cannot fail:
> +
> +1. Free PASID
> +2. Unbind guest PASID
> +3. Unbind guest PASID table (SMMU)
> +4. Cache invalidate

hum practically iommu_uapi_sva_unbind_gpasid return an int though (see
below). So it sounds a bit misleading. What cannot fail?

> +
> +User applications such as QEMU are expected to import kernel UAPI
> +headers. Backward compatibility is supported per feature flags.
> +For example, an older QEMU (with older kernel header) can run on newer
> +kernel. Newer QEMU (with new kernel header) may refuse to initialize
> +on an older kernel if new feature flags are not supported by older
> +kernel. Simply recompiling existing code with newer kernel header should
> +not be an issue in that only existing flags are used.
> +
> +IOMMU vendor driver should report the below features to IOMMU UAPI
> +consumers (e.g. via VFIO).
> +
> +1. IOMMU_NESTING_FEAT_SYSWIDE_PASID
> +2. IOMMU_NESTING_FEAT_BIND_PGTBL
> +3. IOMMU_NESTING_FEAT_BIND_PASID_TABLE
> +4. IOMMU_NESTING_FEAT_CACHE_INVLD
> +5. IOMMU_NESTING_FEAT_PAGE_REQUEST
> +
> +Take VFIO as example, upon request from VFIO user space (e.g. QEMU),
> +VFIO kernel code shall query IOMMU vendor driver for the support of
> +the above features. Query result can then be reported back to the
> +user-space caller. Details can be found in
> +Documentation/driver-api/vfio.rst.
> +
> +
> +Data Passing Example with VFIO
> +------------------------------
> +As the ubiquitous userspace driver framework, VFIO is already IOMMU
> +aware and shares many key concepts such as device model, group, and
> +protection domain. Other user driver frameworks can also be extended
> +to support IOMMU UAPI but it is outside the scope of this document.
> +
> +In this tight-knit VFIO-IOMMU interface, the ultimate consumer of the
> +IOMMU UAPI data is the host IOMMU driver. VFIO facilitates user-kernel
> +transport, capability checking, security, and life cycle management of
> +process address space ID (PASID).
> +
> +Unlike normal user data passed via VFIO UAPI IOTCL, IOMMU driver is the
> +ultimate consumer of its UAPI data.
I don't really get this. Part of the VFIO API already mediates info
towards the IOMMU driver, no?

 At VFIO layer, the IOMMU UAPI data
> +is wrapped in a VFIO UAPI data. It follows the
> +pattern below::
> +
> +   struct {
> +     __u32 argsz;
> +     __u32 flags;
> +     __u8  data[];
> +   };
> +
> +Here data[] contains the IOMMU UAPI data structures. VFIO has the
> +freedom to bundle the data as well as parse data size based on its own flags.
> +
> +In order to determine the size and feature set of the user data, argsz
> +and flags are also embedded in the IOMMU UAPI data structures.
> +A "__u32 argsz" field is *always* at the beginning of each structure.
> +
> +For example:
> +::
> +
> +   struct iommu_cache_invalidate_info {
> +     __u32   argsz;
> +     #define IOMMU_CACHE_INVALIDATE_INFO_VERSION_1 1
> +     __u32   version;
there is no flags field in this struct, as opposed to what I can
understand from "argsz and flags are also embedded in the IOMMU UAPI
data structures"
> +     /* IOMMU paging structure cache */
> +     #define IOMMU_CACHE_INV_TYPE_IOTLB      (1 << 0) /* IOMMU IOTLB */
> +     #define IOMMU_CACHE_INV_TYPE_DEV_IOTLB  (1 << 1) /* Device IOTLB */
> +     #define IOMMU_CACHE_INV_TYPE_PASID      (1 << 2) /* PASID cache */
> +     #define IOMMU_CACHE_INV_TYPE_NR         (3)
> +     __u8    cache;
> +     __u8    granularity;
> +     __u8    padding[6];
> +     union {
> +             struct iommu_inv_pasid_info pasid_info;
> +             struct iommu_inv_addr_info addr_info;
> +     } granu;
> +   };
> +
> +VFIO is responsible for checking its own argsz and flags then invokes
s/flags then invokes/flags. It then invokes
> +appropriate IOMMU UAPI functions. User pointer is passed to IOMMU
the appropriate... I would say *The* user pointer is passed to *the*
IOMMU, here and at many places in the doc. But I would prefer a native
english speaker confirms.
> +layer for further processing. The responsibilities are divided as
> +follows:
> +
> +- Generic IOMMU layer checks argsz range based on UAPI data in the
> +  current kernel version
> +
> +- Generic IOMMU layer checks content of the UAPI data for non-zero
> +  reserved bits in flags, padding fields, and unsupported version.
> +  This is to ensure not breaking userspace in the future when these
> +  fields or flags are used.
> +
> +- Vendor IOMMU driver checks argsz based on vendor flags, UAPI data
> +  is consumed based on flags. Vendor driver has access to
> +  unadulterated argsz value in case of vendor specific future
> +  extensions.
> +
> +To illustrate the two cases with and without vendor data, cache
> +invalidation and bind guest PASID are given as examples respectively.

I am not sure duplicating the code here is necessary. I think when the
code gets upstream, it becomes the example to follow. The above
description can help in understanding why such checks are there and I
would stop here, personally.
> +
> +Example 1: Guest issues IOTLB invalidation, all guest provided data
> +are generic. Vendor driver does not need to check argsz.
> +
> +::
> +
> + static int iommu_check_cache_invl_data(struct iommu_cache_invalidate_info 
> *info)
> + {
> +     u32 mask;
> +
> +     if (info->version != IOMMU_CACHE_INVALIDATE_INFO_VERSION_1)
> +             return -EINVAL;
> +
> +     mask = (1 << IOMMU_CACHE_INV_TYPE_NR) - 1;
> +     if (info->cache & ~mask)
> +             return -EINVAL;
> +
> +     if (info->granularity >= IOMMU_INV_GRANU_NR)
> +             return -EINVAL;
> +
> +     switch (info->granularity) {
> +     case IOMMU_INV_GRANU_ADDR:
> +             mask = IOMMU_INV_ADDR_FLAGS_PASID |
> +                     IOMMU_INV_ADDR_FLAGS_ARCHID |
> +                     IOMMU_INV_ADDR_FLAGS_LEAF;
> +
> +             if (info->granu.addr_info.flags & ~mask)
> +                     return -EINVAL;
> +             break;
> +     case IOMMU_INV_GRANU_PASID:
> +             mask = IOMMU_INV_PASID_FLAGS_PASID |
> +                     IOMMU_INV_PASID_FLAGS_ARCHID;
> +             if (info->granu.pasid_info.flags & ~mask)
> +                     return -EINVAL;
> +
> +             break;
> +     case IOMMU_INV_GRANU_DOMAIN:
> +             /* No flags to check */
> +             break;
> +     default:
> +             return -EINVAL;
> +     }
> +
> +     if (info->padding[0] || info->padding[1])
> +             return -EINVAL;
> +
> +     return 0;
> + }
> +
> + int iommu_cache_invalidate(struct iommu_domain *domain, struct device *dev,
> +                        void __user *uinfo)
> + {
> +     struct iommu_cache_invalidate_info inv_info = { 0 };
> +     u32 minsz, maxsz;
> +     int ret = 0;
> +
> +     if (unlikely(!domain->ops->cache_invalidate))
> +             return -ENODEV;
> +
> +     /* Current kernel data size is the max to be copied from user */
> +     maxsz = sizeof(struct iommu_cache_invalidate_info);
> +
> +     /*
> +      * No new spaces can be added before the variable sized union, the
> +      * minimum size is the offset to the union.
> +      */
> +     minsz = offsetof(struct iommu_cache_invalidate_info, granu);
> +
> +     /* Copy minsz from user to get flags and argsz */
> +     if (copy_from_user(&inv_info, uinfo, minsz))
> +             return -EFAULT;
> +
> +     /* Fields before variable size union is mandatory */
> +     if (inv_info.argsz < minsz)
> +             return -EINVAL;
> +
> +     /* PASID and address granu requires additional info beyond minsz */
> +     if (inv_info.argsz == minsz &&
> +             ((inv_info.granularity == IOMMU_INV_GRANU_PASID) ||
> +                     (inv_info.granularity == IOMMU_INV_GRANU_ADDR)))
> +             return -EINVAL;
> +     /*
> +      * User might be using a newer UAPI header which has a larger data
> +      * size, we shall support the existing flags within the current
> +      * size. Copy the remaining user data _after_ minsz but not more
> +      * than the current kernel supported size.
> +      */
> +     if (copy_from_user((void *)&inv_info + minsz, uinfo + minsz,
> +                             min(inv_info.argsz, maxsz) - minsz))
> +             return -EFAULT;
> +
> +     /* Now the argsz is validated, check the content */
> +     ret = iommu_check_cache_invl_data(&inv_info);
> +     if (ret)
> +             return ret;
> +
> +     return domain->ops->cache_invalidate(domain, dev, &inv_info);
> + }
> + EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(iommu_cache_invalidate);
> +
> +
> +Example 2: Bind guest PASID which includes vendor specific data.
> +The IOMMU core processing of UAPI data follows the same flow as
> +Example 1. Vendor driver handles the additional vendor specific flags
> +as in VT-d driver below:
> +
> +::
> +
> + int intel_svm_bind_gpasid(struct iommu_domain *domain, struct device *dev,
> +                       struct iommu_gpasid_bind_data *data)
> + {
> +     struct intel_iommu *iommu = intel_svm_device_to_iommu(dev);
> +     struct dmar_domain *dmar_domain;
> +     struct intel_svm_dev *sdev;
> +     struct intel_svm *svm;
> +     int ret = 0;
> +
> +     if (WARN_ON(!iommu) || !data)
> +             return -EINVAL;
> +
> +     if (data->format != IOMMU_PASID_FORMAT_INTEL_VTD)
> +             return -EINVAL;
> +
> +     /* IOMMU core ensures argsz is more than the start of the union */
> +     if (data->argsz < offsetofend(struct iommu_gpasid_bind_data,
> +            vendor.vtd))
> +             return -EINVAL;
> +   ...
> + }
> +
> +
> +Sharing UAPI with in-kernel users
> +---------------------------------
> +For UAPIs that are shared with in-kernel users, a wrapper function is
> +provided to distinguish the callers. For example,
> +
> +Userspace caller ::
> +
> +  int iommu_uapi_sva_unbind_gpasid(struct iommu_domain *domain,
> +                                   struct device *dev,
> +                                   void __user *udata)
> +
> +In-kernel caller ::
> +
> +  int iommu_sva_unbind_gpasid(struct iommu_domain *domain,
> +                                   struct device *dev,
> +                                   struct iommu_gpasid_bind_data *data)
>Hope this helps. If some of my comments drive you in an opposite
direction of what was said earlier, please feel free to ignore them ;-)

Thanks

Eric

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