Hi Andrea, On 09/11/2015 10:47 AM, Michael Kerrisk (man-pages) wrote: > On 05/14/2015 07:30 PM, Andrea Arcangeli wrote: >> Add documentation. > > Hi Andrea, > > I do not recall... Did you write a man page also for this new system call?
No response to my last mail, so I'll try again... Did you write any man page for this interface? Thanks, Michael >> Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarca...@redhat.com> >> --- >> Documentation/vm/userfaultfd.txt | 140 >> +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ >> 1 file changed, 140 insertions(+) >> create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/userfaultfd.txt >> >> diff --git a/Documentation/vm/userfaultfd.txt >> b/Documentation/vm/userfaultfd.txt >> new file mode 100644 >> index 0000000..c2f5145 >> --- /dev/null >> +++ b/Documentation/vm/userfaultfd.txt >> @@ -0,0 +1,140 @@ >> += Userfaultfd = >> + >> +== Objective == >> + >> +Userfaults allow the implementation of on-demand paging from userland >> +and more generally they allow userland to take control various memory >> +page faults, something otherwise only the kernel code could do. >> + >> +For example userfaults allows a proper and more optimal implementation >> +of the PROT_NONE+SIGSEGV trick. >> + >> +== Design == >> + >> +Userfaults are delivered and resolved through the userfaultfd syscall. >> + >> +The userfaultfd (aside from registering and unregistering virtual >> +memory ranges) provides two primary functionalities: >> + >> +1) read/POLLIN protocol to notify a userland thread of the faults >> + happening >> + >> +2) various UFFDIO_* ioctls that can manage the virtual memory regions >> + registered in the userfaultfd that allows userland to efficiently >> + resolve the userfaults it receives via 1) or to manage the virtual >> + memory in the background >> + >> +The real advantage of userfaults if compared to regular virtual memory >> +management of mremap/mprotect is that the userfaults in all their >> +operations never involve heavyweight structures like vmas (in fact the >> +userfaultfd runtime load never takes the mmap_sem for writing). >> + >> +Vmas are not suitable for page- (or hugepage) granular fault tracking >> +when dealing with virtual address spaces that could span >> +Terabytes. Too many vmas would be needed for that. >> + >> +The userfaultfd once opened by invoking the syscall, can also be >> +passed using unix domain sockets to a manager process, so the same >> +manager process could handle the userfaults of a multitude of >> +different processes without them being aware about what is going on >> +(well of course unless they later try to use the userfaultfd >> +themselves on the same region the manager is already tracking, which >> +is a corner case that would currently return -EBUSY). >> + >> +== API == >> + >> +When first opened the userfaultfd must be enabled invoking the >> +UFFDIO_API ioctl specifying a uffdio_api.api value set to UFFD_API (or >> +a later API version) which will specify the read/POLLIN protocol >> +userland intends to speak on the UFFD. The UFFDIO_API ioctl if >> +successful (i.e. if the requested uffdio_api.api is spoken also by the >> +running kernel), will return into uffdio_api.features and >> +uffdio_api.ioctls two 64bit bitmasks of respectively the activated >> +feature of the read(2) protocol and the generic ioctl available. >> + >> +Once the userfaultfd has been enabled the UFFDIO_REGISTER ioctl should >> +be invoked (if present in the returned uffdio_api.ioctls bitmask) to >> +register a memory range in the userfaultfd by setting the >> +uffdio_register structure accordingly. The uffdio_register.mode >> +bitmask will specify to the kernel which kind of faults to track for >> +the range (UFFDIO_REGISTER_MODE_MISSING would track missing >> +pages). The UFFDIO_REGISTER ioctl will return the >> +uffdio_register.ioctls bitmask of ioctls that are suitable to resolve >> +userfaults on the range registered. Not all ioctls will necessarily be >> +supported for all memory types depending on the underlying virtual >> +memory backend (anonymous memory vs tmpfs vs real filebacked >> +mappings). >> + >> +Userland can use the uffdio_register.ioctls to manage the virtual >> +address space in the background (to add or potentially also remove >> +memory from the userfaultfd registered range). This means a userfault >> +could be triggering just before userland maps in the background the >> +user-faulted page. >> + >> +The primary ioctl to resolve userfaults is UFFDIO_COPY. That >> +atomically copies a page into the userfault registered range and wakes >> +up the blocked userfaults (unless uffdio_copy.mode & >> +UFFDIO_COPY_MODE_DONTWAKE is set). Other ioctl works similarly to >> +UFFDIO_COPY. >> + >> +== QEMU/KVM == >> + >> +QEMU/KVM is using the userfaultfd syscall to implement postcopy live >> +migration. Postcopy live migration is one form of memory >> +externalization consisting of a virtual machine running with part or >> +all of its memory residing on a different node in the cloud. The >> +userfaultfd abstraction is generic enough that not a single line of >> +KVM kernel code had to be modified in order to add postcopy live >> +migration to QEMU. >> + >> +Guest async page faults, FOLL_NOWAIT and all other GUP features work >> +just fine in combination with userfaults. Userfaults trigger async >> +page faults in the guest scheduler so those guest processes that >> +aren't waiting for userfaults (i.e. network bound) can keep running in >> +the guest vcpus. >> + >> +It is generally beneficial to run one pass of precopy live migration >> +just before starting postcopy live migration, in order to avoid >> +generating userfaults for readonly guest regions. >> + >> +The implementation of postcopy live migration currently uses one >> +single bidirectional socket but in the future two different sockets >> +will be used (to reduce the latency of the userfaults to the minimum >> +possible without having to decrease /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_wmem). >> + >> +The QEMU in the source node writes all pages that it knows are missing >> +in the destination node, into the socket, and the migration thread of >> +the QEMU running in the destination node runs UFFDIO_COPY|ZEROPAGE >> +ioctls on the userfaultfd in order to map the received pages into the >> +guest (UFFDIO_ZEROCOPY is used if the source page was a zero page). >> + >> +A different postcopy thread in the destination node listens with >> +poll() to the userfaultfd in parallel. When a POLLIN event is >> +generated after a userfault triggers, the postcopy thread read() from >> +the userfaultfd and receives the fault address (or -EAGAIN in case the >> +userfault was already resolved and waken by a UFFDIO_COPY|ZEROPAGE run >> +by the parallel QEMU migration thread). >> + >> +After the QEMU postcopy thread (running in the destination node) gets >> +the userfault address it writes the information about the missing page >> +into the socket. The QEMU source node receives the information and >> +roughly "seeks" to that page address and continues sending all >> +remaining missing pages from that new page offset. Soon after that >> +(just the time to flush the tcp_wmem queue through the network) the >> +migration thread in the QEMU running in the destination node will >> +receive the page that triggered the userfault and it'll map it as >> +usual with the UFFDIO_COPY|ZEROPAGE (without actually knowing if it >> +was spontaneously sent by the source or if it was an urgent page >> +requested through an userfault). >> + >> +By the time the userfaults start, the QEMU in the destination node >> +doesn't need to keep any per-page state bitmap relative to the live >> +migration around and a single per-page bitmap has to be maintained in >> +the QEMU running in the source node to know which pages are still >> +missing in the destination node. The bitmap in the source node is >> +checked to find which missing pages to send in round robin and we seek >> +over it when receiving incoming userfaults. After sending each page of >> +course the bitmap is updated accordingly. It's also useful to avoid >> +sending the same page twice (in case the userfault is read by the >> +postcopy thread just before UFFDIO_COPY|ZEROPAGE runs in the migration >> +thread). >> -- >> To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-api" in >> the body of a message to majord...@vger.kernel.org >> More majordomo info at http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html >> > > -- Michael Kerrisk Linux man-pages maintainer; http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/ Linux/UNIX System Programming Training: http://man7.org/training/ -- To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe kvm" in the body of a message to majord...@vger.kernel.org More majordomo info at http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html