On 01/12/16 21:12, Wei Huang wrote:

Hi Wei,

> On 12/01/2016 02:27 PM, Andre Przywara wrote:
>> Hi,
>>
>> On 01/12/16 05:16, Wei Huang wrote:
>>> From: Christopher Covington <c...@codeaurora.org>
>>>
>>> Calculate the numbers of cycles per instruction (CPI) implied by ARM
>>> PMU cycle counter values. The code includes a strict checking facility
>>> intended for the -icount option in TCG mode in the configuration file.
>>>
>>> Signed-off-by: Christopher Covington <c...@codeaurora.org>
>>> Signed-off-by: Wei Huang <w...@redhat.com>
>>> Reviewed-by: Andrew Jones <drjo...@redhat.com>
>>> ---
>>>  arm/pmu.c         | 123 
>>> +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
>>>  arm/unittests.cfg |  14 +++++++
>>>  2 files changed, 136 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
>>>
>>> diff --git a/arm/pmu.c b/arm/pmu.c
>>> index 3566a27..29d7c2c 100644
>>> --- a/arm/pmu.c
>>> +++ b/arm/pmu.c
>>> @@ -69,6 +69,27 @@ static inline void set_pmccfiltr(uint32_t value)
>>>     set_pmxevtyper(value);
>>>     isb();
>>>  }
>>> +
>>> +/*
>>> + * Extra instructions inserted by the compiler would be difficult to 
>>> compensate
>>> + * for, so hand assemble everything between, and including, the PMCR 
>>> accesses
>>> + * to start and stop counting. isb instructions were inserted to make sure
>>> + * pmccntr read after this function returns the exact instructions 
>>> executed in
>>> + * the controlled block. Total instrs = isb + mcr + 2*loop = 2 + 2*loop.
>>> + */
>>> +static inline void precise_instrs_loop(int loop, uint32_t pmcr)
>>> +{
>>> +   asm volatile(
>>> +   "       mcr     p15, 0, %[pmcr], c9, c12, 0\n"
>>> +   "       isb\n"
>>> +   "1:     subs    %[loop], %[loop], #1\n"
>>> +   "       bgt     1b\n"
>>> +   "       mcr     p15, 0, %[z], c9, c12, 0\n"
>>> +   "       isb\n"
>>> +   : [loop] "+r" (loop)
>>> +   : [pmcr] "r" (pmcr), [z] "r" (0)
>>> +   : "cc");
>>> +}
>>>  #elif defined(__aarch64__)
>>>  DEFINE_GET_SYSREG32(pmcr, el0)
>>>  DEFINE_SET_SYSREG32(pmcr, el0)
>>> @@ -77,6 +98,27 @@ DEFINE_GET_SYSREG64(pmccntr, el0);
>>>  DEFINE_SET_SYSREG64(pmccntr, el0);
>>>  DEFINE_SET_SYSREG32(pmcntenset, el0);
>>>  DEFINE_SET_SYSREG32(pmccfiltr, el0);
>>> +
>>> +/*
>>> + * Extra instructions inserted by the compiler would be difficult to 
>>> compensate
>>> + * for, so hand assemble everything between, and including, the PMCR 
>>> accesses
>>> + * to start and stop counting. isb instructions are inserted to make sure
>>> + * pmccntr read after this function returns the exact instructions executed
>>> + * in the controlled block. Total instrs = isb + msr + 2*loop = 2 + 2*loop.
>>> + */
>>> +static inline void precise_instrs_loop(int loop, uint32_t pmcr)
>>> +{
>>> +   asm volatile(
>>> +   "       msr     pmcr_el0, %[pmcr]\n"
>>> +   "       isb\n"
>>> +   "1:     subs    %[loop], %[loop], #1\n"
>>> +   "       b.gt    1b\n"
>>> +   "       msr     pmcr_el0, xzr\n"
>>> +   "       isb\n"
>>> +   : [loop] "+r" (loop)
>>> +   : [pmcr] "r" (pmcr)
>>> +   : "cc");
>>> +}
>>>  #endif
>>>  
>>>  /*
>>> @@ -134,6 +176,79 @@ static bool check_cycles_increase(void)
>>>     return success;
>>>  }
>>>  
>>> +/*
>>> + * Execute a known number of guest instructions. Only even instruction 
>>> counts
>>> + * greater than or equal to 4 are supported by the in-line assembly code. 
>>> The
>>> + * control register (PMCR_EL0) is initialized with the provided value 
>>> (allowing
>>> + * for example for the cycle counter or event counters to be reset). At 
>>> the end
>>> + * of the exact instruction loop, zero is written to PMCR_EL0 to disable
>>> + * counting, allowing the cycle counter or event counters to be read at the
>>> + * leisure of the calling code.
>>> + */
>>> +static void measure_instrs(int num, uint32_t pmcr)
>>> +{
>>> +   int loop = (num - 2) / 2;
>>> +
>>> +   assert(num >= 4 && ((num - 2) % 2 == 0));
>>> +   precise_instrs_loop(loop, pmcr);
>>> +}
>>> +
>>> +/*
>>> + * Measure cycle counts for various known instruction counts. Ensure that 
>>> the
>>> + * cycle counter progresses (similar to check_cycles_increase() but with 
>>> more
>>> + * instructions and using reset and stop controls). If supplied a positive,
>>> + * nonzero CPI parameter, also strictly check that every measurement 
>>> matches
>>> + * it. Strict CPI checking is used to test -icount mode.
>>> + */
>>> +static bool check_cpi(int cpi)
>>> +{
>>> +   uint32_t pmcr = get_pmcr() | PMU_PMCR_LC | PMU_PMCR_C | PMU_PMCR_E;
>>> +
>>> +   /* init before event access, this test only cares about cycle count */
>>> +   set_pmcntenset(1 << PMU_CYCLE_IDX);
>>> +   set_pmccfiltr(0); /* count cycles in EL0, EL1, but not EL2 */
>>> +
>>> +   if (cpi > 0)
>>> +           printf("Checking for CPI=%d.\n", cpi);
>>> +   printf("instrs : cycles0 cycles1 ...\n");
>>
>> Do we really need this line?
>>
>> In general I find the output quite confusing, actually distracting from
>> the other, actual tests. To make it more readable, I tweaked it a bit to
>> look like:
> 
> Formatting the output can be useful and it indeed makes the output
> easier to read.
> 
>>   4: 9996  173  222  122  118  119  120  212  240  233 avg=1155: 288 cpi
>>  36:  773  282  291  314  291  335  315  264  162  308 avg= 333:   9 cpi
>>  68:  229  356  400  339  203  201  335  233  201  372 avg= 286:   4 cpi
>> ....
>> with some padding hints and limiting the line to at most 80 characters, by:
>>
>>> +
>>> +   for (unsigned int i = 4; i < 300; i += 32) {
>>> +           uint64_t avg, sum = 0;
>>> +
>>> +           printf("%d :", i);
>>
>>                 printf("%3d: ", i);
>>
>>> +           for (int j = 0; j < NR_SAMPLES; j++) {
>>> +                   uint64_t cycles;
>>> +
>>> +                   set_pmccntr(0);
>>> +                   measure_instrs(i, pmcr);
>>> +                   cycles = get_pmccntr();
>>> +                   printf(" %"PRId64"", cycles);
>>
>>                         printf(" %4"PRId64"", cycles);
>>
>>> +
>>> +                   if (!cycles) {
>>> +                           printf("\ncycles not incrementing!\n");
>>> +                           return false;
>>> +                   } else if (cpi > 0 && cycles != i * cpi) {
>>> +                           printf("\nunexpected cycle count received!\n");
>>> +                           return false;
>>> +                   } else if ((cycles >> 32) != 0) {
>>> +                           /* The cycles taken by the loop above should
>>> +                            * fit in 32 bits easily. We check the upper
>>> +                            * 32 bits of the cycle counter to make sure
>>> +                            * there is no supprise. */
>>> +                           printf("\ncycle count bigger than 32bit!\n");
>>> +                           return false;
>>> +                   }
>>> +
>>> +                   sum += cycles;
>>> +           }
>>> +           avg = sum / NR_SAMPLES;
>>> +           printf(" sum=%"PRId64" avg=%"PRId64" avg_ipc=%"PRId64" "
>>> +                  "avg_cpi=%"PRId64"\n", sum, avg, i / avg, avg / i);
>>
>>                 printf(" avg=%4"PRId64": %3"PRId64" %s\n",
>>                        sum / NR_SAMPLES, i > avg ? i / avg : avg / i,
>>                        i > avg ? "ipc" : "cpi");
>>
>> In general I question the usefulness of the cpi/ipc output, it didn't
>> seem meaningful in any way to me, neither in KVM or in TCG.
> 
> For KVM, CPI is useful for (vaguely) figuring out the total time spent
> on emulation: KVM exit, perf_event calls, returning results. This
> especially is true when i is small. For TCG, CPI is related to the cpi
> parameter passed from main() function. The average CPI in check_cpi()
> should always be the same as the one from main() under TCG mode;
> otherwise QEMU is wrong. So I think CPI is still useful. But I agree
> that IPC can be removed.

If you follow my snippet above, it gives you both. One of them is always
zero anyway, so we just need to print one number and the proper unit.

>> See the last line (68: ...) in the example above, we shouldn't use an
>> average with that deviation for statistical purposes.
>> For KVM I get values ranging from 60 to 4383 cpi, which doesn't convey
>> any real information to me, in fact the actual cycles look like constant
>> to me, probably due to emulation overhead.
> 
> Constants should only happen under TCG modes, which is expected.

Ah, OK, thanks for the explanation. So I am absolutely fine with keeping
those numbers in then.

Sorry for the noise and my rather harsh comments!

Thanks!
Andre.

>> So what are we supposed to learn from those numbers?
>>
>> Cheers,
>> Andre.
>>
>>> +   }
>>> +
>>> +   return true;
>>> +}
>>> +
>>>  void pmu_init(void)
>>>  {
>>>     uint32_t dfr0;
>>> @@ -144,13 +259,19 @@ void pmu_init(void)
>>>     report_info("PMU version: %d", pmu_version);
>>>  }
>>>  
>>> -int main(void)
>>> +int main(int argc, char *argv[])
>>>  {
>>> +   int cpi = 0;
>>> +
>>> +   if (argc > 1)
>>> +           cpi = atol(argv[1]);
>>> +
>>>     report_prefix_push("pmu");
>>>  
>>>     pmu_init();
>>>     report("Control register", check_pmcr());
>>>     report("Monotonically increasing cycle count", check_cycles_increase());
>>> +   report("Cycle/instruction ratio", check_cpi(cpi));
>>>  
>>>     return report_summary();
>>>  }
>>> diff --git a/arm/unittests.cfg b/arm/unittests.cfg
>>> index 816f494..044d97c 100644
>>> --- a/arm/unittests.cfg
>>> +++ b/arm/unittests.cfg
>>> @@ -63,3 +63,17 @@ groups = pci
>>>  [pmu]
>>>  file = pmu.flat
>>>  groups = pmu
>>> +
>>> +# Test PMU support (TCG) with -icount IPC=1
>>> +[pmu-tcg-icount-1]
>>> +file = pmu.flat
>>> +extra_params = -icount 0 -append '1'
>>> +groups = pmu
>>> +accel = tcg
>>> +
>>> +# Test PMU support (TCG) with -icount IPC=256
>>> +[pmu-tcg-icount-256]
>>> +file = pmu.flat
>>> +extra_params = -icount 8 -append '256'
>>> +groups = pmu
>>> +accel = tcg
>>>

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