If a completion occurs after blk_mq_rq_timed_out() has reset
rq->aborted_gstate and the request is again in flight when the timeout
expires then a request will be completed twice: a first time by the
timeout handler and a second time when the regular completion occurs.

Additionally, the blk-mq timeout handling code ignores completions that
occur after blk_mq_check_expired() has been called and before
blk_mq_rq_timed_out() has reset rq->aborted_gstate. If a block driver
timeout handler always returns BLK_EH_RESET_TIMER then the result will
be that the request never terminates.

Since the request state can be updated from two different contexts,
namely regular completion and request timeout, this race cannot be
fixed with RCU synchronization only. Fix this race as follows:
- Introduce a spinlock to protect the request state and deadline changes.
- Use the deadline instead of the request generation to detect whether
  or not a request timer fired after reinitialization of a request.
- Store the request state in the lowest two bits of the deadline instead
  of the lowest two bits of 'gstate'.
- Remove all request member variables that became superfluous due to
  this change: gstate, aborted_gstate, gstate_seq and aborted_gstate_sync.
- Remove the request state information that became superfluous due to this
  patch, namely RQF_MQ_TIMEOUT_EXPIRED.
- Remove the code that became superfluous due to this change, namely
  the RCU lock and unlock statements in blk_mq_complete_request() and
  also the synchronize_rcu() call in the timeout handler.

This patch fixes the following kernel crash:

BUG: unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at           (null)
Oops: 0000 [#1] PREEMPT SMP
CPU: 2 PID: 151 Comm: kworker/2:1H Tainted: G        W        4.15.0-dbg+ #3
Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 
1.0.0-prebuilt.qemu-project.org 04/01/2014
Workqueue: kblockd blk_mq_timeout_work
RIP: 0010:scsi_times_out+0x17/0x2c0 [scsi_mod]
Call Trace:
blk_mq_terminate_expired+0x42/0x80
bt_iter+0x3d/0x50
blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter+0xe9/0x200
blk_mq_timeout_work+0x181/0x2e0
process_one_work+0x21c/0x6d0
worker_thread+0x35/0x380
kthread+0x117/0x130
ret_from_fork+0x24/0x30

Fixes: 1d9bd5161ba3 ("blk-mq: replace timeout synchronization with a RCU and 
generation based scheme")
Signed-off-by: Bart Van Assche <bart.vanass...@wdc.com>
Cc: Tejun Heo <t...@kernel.org>
Cc: Christoph Hellwig <h...@lst.de>
Cc: Sagi Grimberg <s...@grimberg.me>
Cc: Israel Rukshin <isra...@mellanox.com>,
Cc: Max Gurtovoy <m...@mellanox.com>
Cc: <sta...@vger.kernel.org> # v4.16
---
 block/blk-core.c       |   3 +-
 block/blk-mq-debugfs.c |   1 -
 block/blk-mq.c         | 178 +++++++++++--------------------------------------
 block/blk-mq.h         |  25 ++-----
 block/blk-timeout.c    |   1 -
 block/blk.h            |   4 +-
 include/linux/blkdev.h |  28 ++------
 7 files changed, 53 insertions(+), 187 deletions(-)

diff --git a/block/blk-core.c b/block/blk-core.c
index 2623e609db4a..83c7a58e4fb3 100644
--- a/block/blk-core.c
+++ b/block/blk-core.c
@@ -200,8 +200,7 @@ void blk_rq_init(struct request_queue *q, struct request 
*rq)
        rq->start_time = jiffies;
        set_start_time_ns(rq);
        rq->part = NULL;
-       seqcount_init(&rq->gstate_seq);
-       u64_stats_init(&rq->aborted_gstate_sync);
+       spin_lock_init(&rq->state_lock);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_rq_init);
 
diff --git a/block/blk-mq-debugfs.c b/block/blk-mq-debugfs.c
index 6f72413b6cab..80c7c585769f 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq-debugfs.c
+++ b/block/blk-mq-debugfs.c
@@ -345,7 +345,6 @@ static const char *const rqf_name[] = {
        RQF_NAME(STATS),
        RQF_NAME(SPECIAL_PAYLOAD),
        RQF_NAME(ZONE_WRITE_LOCKED),
-       RQF_NAME(MQ_TIMEOUT_EXPIRED),
        RQF_NAME(MQ_POLL_SLEPT),
 };
 #undef RQF_NAME
diff --git a/block/blk-mq.c b/block/blk-mq.c
index 7816d28b7219..1da16d5e5cf1 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq.c
+++ b/block/blk-mq.c
@@ -305,7 +305,6 @@ static struct request *blk_mq_rq_ctx_init(struct 
blk_mq_alloc_data *data,
        rq->special = NULL;
        /* tag was already set */
        rq->extra_len = 0;
-       rq->__deadline = 0;
 
        INIT_LIST_HEAD(&rq->timeout_list);
        rq->timeout = 0;
@@ -527,8 +526,7 @@ static void __blk_mq_complete_request(struct request *rq)
        bool shared = false;
        int cpu;
 
-       WARN_ON_ONCE(blk_mq_rq_state(rq) != MQ_RQ_IN_FLIGHT);
-       blk_mq_rq_update_state(rq, MQ_RQ_COMPLETE);
+       WARN_ON_ONCE(blk_mq_rq_state(rq) != MQ_RQ_COMPLETE);
 
        if (rq->internal_tag != -1)
                blk_mq_sched_completed_request(rq);
@@ -577,34 +575,26 @@ static void hctx_lock(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx, int 
*srcu_idx)
                *srcu_idx = srcu_read_lock(hctx->srcu);
 }
 
-static void blk_mq_rq_update_aborted_gstate(struct request *rq, u64 gstate)
+/**
+ * blk_mq_change_rq_state - atomically test and set request state
+ * @rq: Request pointer.
+ * @old: Old request state.
+ * @new: New request state.
+ */
+static bool blk_mq_change_rq_state(struct request *rq, enum mq_rq_state old,
+                                  enum mq_rq_state new)
 {
        unsigned long flags;
+       bool changed_state = false;
 
-       /*
-        * blk_mq_rq_aborted_gstate() is used from the completion path and
-        * can thus be called from irq context.  u64_stats_fetch in the
-        * middle of update on the same CPU leads to lockup.  Disable irq
-        * while updating.
-        */
-       local_irq_save(flags);
-       u64_stats_update_begin(&rq->aborted_gstate_sync);
-       rq->aborted_gstate = gstate;
-       u64_stats_update_end(&rq->aborted_gstate_sync);
-       local_irq_restore(flags);
-}
-
-static u64 blk_mq_rq_aborted_gstate(struct request *rq)
-{
-       unsigned int start;
-       u64 aborted_gstate;
-
-       do {
-               start = u64_stats_fetch_begin(&rq->aborted_gstate_sync);
-               aborted_gstate = rq->aborted_gstate;
-       } while (u64_stats_fetch_retry(&rq->aborted_gstate_sync, start));
+       spin_lock_irqsave(&rq->state_lock, flags);
+       if (blk_mq_rq_state(rq) == old) {
+               blk_mq_rq_update_state(rq, new);
+               changed_state = true;
+       }
+       spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rq->state_lock, flags);
 
-       return aborted_gstate;
+       return changed_state;
 }
 
 /**
@@ -618,27 +608,12 @@ static u64 blk_mq_rq_aborted_gstate(struct request *rq)
 void blk_mq_complete_request(struct request *rq)
 {
        struct request_queue *q = rq->q;
-       struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx = blk_mq_map_queue(q, rq->mq_ctx->cpu);
-       int srcu_idx;
 
        if (unlikely(blk_should_fake_timeout(q)))
                return;
 
-       /*
-        * If @rq->aborted_gstate equals the current instance, timeout is
-        * claiming @rq and we lost.  This is synchronized through
-        * hctx_lock().  See blk_mq_timeout_work() for details.
-        *
-        * Completion path never blocks and we can directly use RCU here
-        * instead of hctx_lock() which can be either RCU or SRCU.
-        * However, that would complicate paths which want to synchronize
-        * against us.  Let stay in sync with the issue path so that
-        * hctx_lock() covers both issue and completion paths.
-        */
-       hctx_lock(hctx, &srcu_idx);
-       if (blk_mq_rq_aborted_gstate(rq) != rq->gstate)
+       if (blk_mq_change_rq_state(rq, MQ_RQ_IN_FLIGHT, MQ_RQ_COMPLETE))
                __blk_mq_complete_request(rq);
-       hctx_unlock(hctx, srcu_idx);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_complete_request);
 
@@ -665,24 +640,14 @@ void blk_mq_start_request(struct request *rq)
        WARN_ON_ONCE(blk_mq_rq_state(rq) != MQ_RQ_IDLE);
 
        /*
-        * Mark @rq in-flight which also advances the generation number,
-        * and register for timeout.  Protect with a seqcount to allow the
-        * timeout path to read both @rq->gstate and @rq->deadline
-        * coherently.
-        *
-        * This is the only place where a request is marked in-flight.  If
-        * the timeout path reads an in-flight @rq->gstate, the
-        * @rq->deadline it reads together under @rq->gstate_seq is
-        * guaranteed to be the matching one.
+        * Mark @rq in-flight and register for timeout. Because blk_add_timer()
+        * updates the deadline, if a timer set by a previous incarnation of
+        * this request fires this request will be skipped by the timeout code.
         */
-       preempt_disable();
-       write_seqcount_begin(&rq->gstate_seq);
-
+       spin_lock_irq(&rq->state_lock);
        blk_mq_rq_update_state(rq, MQ_RQ_IN_FLIGHT);
        blk_add_timer(rq);
-
-       write_seqcount_end(&rq->gstate_seq);
-       preempt_enable();
+       spin_unlock_irq(&rq->state_lock);
 
        if (q->dma_drain_size && blk_rq_bytes(rq)) {
                /*
@@ -695,11 +660,6 @@ void blk_mq_start_request(struct request *rq)
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_start_request);
 
-/*
- * When we reach here because queue is busy, it's safe to change the state
- * to IDLE without checking @rq->aborted_gstate because we should still be
- * holding the RCU read lock and thus protected against timeout.
- */
 static void __blk_mq_requeue_request(struct request *rq)
 {
        struct request_queue *q = rq->q;
@@ -811,15 +771,13 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(blk_mq_tag_to_rq);
 struct blk_mq_timeout_data {
        unsigned long next;
        unsigned int next_set;
-       unsigned int nr_expired;
 };
 
 static void blk_mq_rq_timed_out(struct request *req, bool reserved)
 {
        const struct blk_mq_ops *ops = req->q->mq_ops;
        enum blk_eh_timer_return ret = BLK_EH_RESET_TIMER;
-
-       req->rq_flags |= RQF_MQ_TIMEOUT_EXPIRED;
+       unsigned long flags;
 
        if (ops->timeout)
                ret = ops->timeout(req, reserved);
@@ -829,13 +787,10 @@ static void blk_mq_rq_timed_out(struct request *req, bool 
reserved)
                __blk_mq_complete_request(req);
                break;
        case BLK_EH_RESET_TIMER:
-               /*
-                * As nothing prevents from completion happening while
-                * ->aborted_gstate is set, this may lead to ignored
-                * completions and further spurious timeouts.
-                */
-               blk_mq_rq_update_aborted_gstate(req, 0);
+               spin_lock_irqsave(&req->state_lock, flags);
                blk_add_timer(req);
+               blk_mq_rq_update_state(req, MQ_RQ_IN_FLIGHT);
+               spin_unlock_irqrestore(&req->state_lock, flags);
                break;
        case BLK_EH_NOT_HANDLED:
                break;
@@ -849,48 +804,23 @@ static void blk_mq_check_expired(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx 
*hctx,
                struct request *rq, void *priv, bool reserved)
 {
        struct blk_mq_timeout_data *data = priv;
-       unsigned long gstate, deadline;
-       int start;
-
-       might_sleep();
-
-       if (rq->rq_flags & RQF_MQ_TIMEOUT_EXPIRED)
-               return;
-
-       /* read coherent snapshots of @rq->state_gen and @rq->deadline */
-       while (true) {
-               start = read_seqcount_begin(&rq->gstate_seq);
-               gstate = READ_ONCE(rq->gstate);
-               deadline = blk_rq_deadline(rq);
-               if (!read_seqcount_retry(&rq->gstate_seq, start))
-                       break;
-               cond_resched();
-       }
+       unsigned long deadline;
+       bool timed_out = false;
 
-       /* if in-flight && overdue, mark for abortion */
-       if ((gstate & MQ_RQ_STATE_MASK) == MQ_RQ_IN_FLIGHT &&
+       spin_lock_irq(&rq->state_lock);
+       deadline = blk_rq_deadline(rq);
+       if (blk_mq_rq_state(rq) == MQ_RQ_IN_FLIGHT &&
            time_after_eq(jiffies, deadline)) {
-               blk_mq_rq_update_aborted_gstate(rq, gstate);
-               data->nr_expired++;
+               blk_mq_rq_update_state(rq, MQ_RQ_COMPLETE);
+               timed_out = true;
                hctx->nr_expired++;
        } else if (!data->next_set || time_after(data->next, deadline)) {
                data->next = deadline;
                data->next_set = 1;
        }
-}
+       spin_unlock_irq(&rq->state_lock);
 
-static void blk_mq_terminate_expired(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx,
-               struct request *rq, void *priv, bool reserved)
-{
-       /*
-        * We marked @rq->aborted_gstate and waited for RCU.  If there were
-        * completions that we lost to, they would have finished and
-        * updated @rq->gstate by now; otherwise, the completion path is
-        * now guaranteed to see @rq->aborted_gstate and yield.  If
-        * @rq->aborted_gstate still matches @rq->gstate, @rq is ours.
-        */
-       if (!(rq->rq_flags & RQF_MQ_TIMEOUT_EXPIRED) &&
-           READ_ONCE(rq->gstate) == rq->aborted_gstate)
+       if (timed_out)
                blk_mq_rq_timed_out(rq, reserved);
 }
 
@@ -898,11 +828,7 @@ static void blk_mq_timeout_work(struct work_struct *work)
 {
        struct request_queue *q =
                container_of(work, struct request_queue, timeout_work);
-       struct blk_mq_timeout_data data = {
-               .next           = 0,
-               .next_set       = 0,
-               .nr_expired     = 0,
-       };
+       struct blk_mq_timeout_data data = { };
        struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx;
        int i;
 
@@ -925,33 +851,6 @@ static void blk_mq_timeout_work(struct work_struct *work)
        /* scan for the expired ones and set their ->aborted_gstate */
        blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter(q, blk_mq_check_expired, &data);
 
-       if (data.nr_expired) {
-               bool has_rcu = false;
-
-               /*
-                * Wait till everyone sees ->aborted_gstate.  The
-                * sequential waits for SRCUs aren't ideal.  If this ever
-                * becomes a problem, we can add per-hw_ctx rcu_head and
-                * wait in parallel.
-                */
-               queue_for_each_hw_ctx(q, hctx, i) {
-                       if (!hctx->nr_expired)
-                               continue;
-
-                       if (!(hctx->flags & BLK_MQ_F_BLOCKING))
-                               has_rcu = true;
-                       else
-                               synchronize_srcu(hctx->srcu);
-
-                       hctx->nr_expired = 0;
-               }
-               if (has_rcu)
-                       synchronize_rcu();
-
-               /* terminate the ones we won */
-               blk_mq_queue_tag_busy_iter(q, blk_mq_terminate_expired, NULL);
-       }
-
        if (data.next_set) {
                data.next = blk_rq_timeout(round_jiffies_up(data.next));
                mod_timer(&q->timeout, data.next);
@@ -2087,8 +1986,7 @@ static int blk_mq_init_request(struct blk_mq_tag_set 
*set, struct request *rq,
                        return ret;
        }
 
-       seqcount_init(&rq->gstate_seq);
-       u64_stats_init(&rq->aborted_gstate_sync);
+       spin_lock_init(&rq->state_lock);
        return 0;
 }
 
diff --git a/block/blk-mq.h b/block/blk-mq.h
index 88c558f71819..d4d72f95d5a9 100644
--- a/block/blk-mq.h
+++ b/block/blk-mq.h
@@ -27,10 +27,7 @@ struct blk_mq_ctx {
        struct kobject          kobj;
 } ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
 
-/*
- * Bits for request->gstate.  The lower two bits carry MQ_RQ_* state value
- * and the upper bits the generation number.
- */
+/* Lowest two bits of request->__deadline. */
 enum mq_rq_state {
        MQ_RQ_IDLE              = 0,
        MQ_RQ_IN_FLIGHT         = 1,
@@ -38,7 +35,6 @@ enum mq_rq_state {
 
        MQ_RQ_STATE_BITS        = 2,
        MQ_RQ_STATE_MASK        = (1 << MQ_RQ_STATE_BITS) - 1,
-       MQ_RQ_GEN_INC           = 1 << MQ_RQ_STATE_BITS,
 };
 
 void blk_mq_freeze_queue(struct request_queue *q);
@@ -104,9 +100,9 @@ void blk_mq_release(struct request_queue *q);
  * blk_mq_rq_state() - read the current MQ_RQ_* state of a request
  * @rq: target request.
  */
-static inline int blk_mq_rq_state(struct request *rq)
+static inline enum mq_rq_state blk_mq_rq_state(struct request *rq)
 {
-       return READ_ONCE(rq->gstate) & MQ_RQ_STATE_MASK;
+       return rq->__deadline & MQ_RQ_STATE_MASK;
 }
 
 /**
@@ -115,22 +111,15 @@ static inline int blk_mq_rq_state(struct request *rq)
  * @state: new state to set.
  *
  * Set @rq's state to @state.  The caller is responsible for ensuring that
- * there are no other updaters.  A request can transition into IN_FLIGHT
- * only from IDLE and doing so increments the generation number.
+ * there are no other updaters.
  */
 static inline void blk_mq_rq_update_state(struct request *rq,
                                          enum mq_rq_state state)
 {
-       u64 old_val = READ_ONCE(rq->gstate);
-       u64 new_val = (old_val & ~MQ_RQ_STATE_MASK) | state;
-
-       if (state == MQ_RQ_IN_FLIGHT) {
-               WARN_ON_ONCE((old_val & MQ_RQ_STATE_MASK) != MQ_RQ_IDLE);
-               new_val += MQ_RQ_GEN_INC;
-       }
+       unsigned long d = rq->__deadline;
 
-       /* avoid exposing interim values */
-       WRITE_ONCE(rq->gstate, new_val);
+       d &= ~(unsigned long)MQ_RQ_STATE_MASK;
+       rq->__deadline = d | state;
 }
 
 static inline struct blk_mq_ctx *__blk_mq_get_ctx(struct request_queue *q,
diff --git a/block/blk-timeout.c b/block/blk-timeout.c
index 50a191720055..844a98edcf3f 100644
--- a/block/blk-timeout.c
+++ b/block/blk-timeout.c
@@ -217,7 +217,6 @@ void blk_add_timer(struct request *req)
                req->timeout = q->rq_timeout;
 
        blk_rq_set_deadline(req, jiffies + req->timeout);
-       req->rq_flags &= ~RQF_MQ_TIMEOUT_EXPIRED;
 
        /*
         * Only the non-mq case needs to add the request to a protected list.
diff --git a/block/blk.h b/block/blk.h
index b034fd2460c4..07275598d262 100644
--- a/block/blk.h
+++ b/block/blk.h
@@ -314,12 +314,12 @@ static inline void req_set_nomerge(struct request_queue 
*q, struct request *req)
  */
 static inline void blk_rq_set_deadline(struct request *rq, unsigned long time)
 {
-       rq->__deadline = time & ~0x1UL;
+       rq->__deadline = (time & ~0x3UL) | (rq->__deadline & 3UL);
 }
 
 static inline unsigned long blk_rq_deadline(struct request *rq)
 {
-       return rq->__deadline & ~0x1UL;
+       return rq->__deadline & ~0x3UL;
 }
 
 /*
diff --git a/include/linux/blkdev.h b/include/linux/blkdev.h
index 6075d1a6760c..e0a6a741afd0 100644
--- a/include/linux/blkdev.h
+++ b/include/linux/blkdev.h
@@ -27,7 +27,6 @@
 #include <linux/percpu-refcount.h>
 #include <linux/scatterlist.h>
 #include <linux/blkzoned.h>
-#include <linux/seqlock.h>
 #include <linux/u64_stats_sync.h>
 
 struct module;
@@ -125,8 +124,6 @@ typedef __u32 __bitwise req_flags_t;
 #define RQF_SPECIAL_PAYLOAD    ((__force req_flags_t)(1 << 18))
 /* The per-zone write lock is held for this request */
 #define RQF_ZONE_WRITE_LOCKED  ((__force req_flags_t)(1 << 19))
-/* timeout is expired */
-#define RQF_MQ_TIMEOUT_EXPIRED ((__force req_flags_t)(1 << 20))
 /* already slept for hybrid poll */
 #define RQF_MQ_POLL_SLEPT      ((__force req_flags_t)(1 << 21))
 
@@ -141,6 +138,7 @@ typedef __u32 __bitwise req_flags_t;
  * especially blk_mq_rq_ctx_init() to take care of the added fields.
  */
 struct request {
+       spinlock_t state_lock;          /* protects __deadline for blk-mq */
        struct request_queue *q;
        struct blk_mq_ctx *mq_ctx;
 
@@ -226,27 +224,11 @@ struct request {
        unsigned int extra_len; /* length of alignment and padding */
 
        /*
-        * On blk-mq, the lower bits of ->gstate (generation number and
-        * state) carry the MQ_RQ_* state value and the upper bits the
-        * generation number which is monotonically incremented and used to
-        * distinguish the reuse instances.
-        *
-        * ->gstate_seq allows updates to ->gstate and other fields
-        * (currently ->deadline) during request start to be read
-        * atomically from the timeout path, so that it can operate on a
-        * coherent set of information.
+        * access through blk_rq_set_deadline(), blk_rq_deadline() and
+        * blk_mark_rq_complete(), blk_clear_rq_complete() and
+        * blk_rq_is_complete() for legacy queues or blk_mq_rq_state() for
+        * blk-mq queues.
         */
-       seqcount_t gstate_seq;
-       u64 gstate;
-
-       /*
-        * ->aborted_gstate is used by the timeout to claim a specific
-        * recycle instance of this request.  See blk_mq_timeout_work().
-        */
-       struct u64_stats_sync aborted_gstate_sync;
-       u64 aborted_gstate;
-
-       /* access through blk_rq_set_deadline, blk_rq_deadline */
        unsigned long __deadline;
 
        struct list_head timeout_list;
-- 
2.16.2

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