- use a quote blocks where needed; - fix the chapter/section/subsection markups; - use ``foo`` for monotonic; - use .. note:: for /sbin/init file permissions; - adjust whitespaces and blank lines; - add it to the user's book.
Signed-off-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <mche...@s-opensource.com> --- Documentation/initrd.txt | 199 +++++++++++++++++++++++------------------- Documentation/user/index.rst | 1 + Documentation/user/initrd.rst | 1 + 3 files changed, 110 insertions(+), 91 deletions(-) create mode 120000 Documentation/user/initrd.rst diff --git a/Documentation/initrd.txt b/Documentation/initrd.txt index 4e1839ccb555..a03dabaaf3a3 100644 --- a/Documentation/initrd.txt +++ b/Documentation/initrd.txt @@ -2,7 +2,7 @@ Using the initial RAM disk (initrd) =================================== Written 1996,2000 by Werner Almesberger <werner.almesber...@epfl.ch> and - Hans Lermen <ler...@fgan.de> +Hans Lermen <ler...@fgan.de> initrd provides the capability to load a RAM disk by the boot loader. @@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ where the kernel comes up with a minimum set of compiled-in drivers, and where additional modules are loaded from initrd. This document gives a brief overview of the use of initrd. A more detailed -discussion of the boot process can be found in . +discussion of the boot process can be found in [#f1]_. Operation @@ -27,10 +27,10 @@ When using initrd, the system typically boots as follows: 1) the boot loader loads the kernel and the initial RAM disk 2) the kernel converts initrd into a "normal" RAM disk and frees the memory used by initrd - 3) if the root device is not /dev/ram0, the old (deprecated) + 3) if the root device is not ``/dev/ram0``, the old (deprecated) change_root procedure is followed. see the "Obsolete root change mechanism" section below. - 4) root device is mounted. if it is /dev/ram0, the initrd image is + 4) root device is mounted. if it is ``/dev/ram0``, the initrd image is then mounted as root 5) /sbin/init is executed (this can be any valid executable, including shell scripts; it is run with uid 0 and can do basically everything @@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ When using initrd, the system typically boots as follows: 6) init mounts the "real" root file system 7) init places the root file system at the root directory using the pivot_root system call - 8) init execs the /sbin/init on the new root filesystem, performing + 8) init execs the ``/sbin/init`` on the new root filesystem, performing the usual boot sequence 9) the initrd file system is removed @@ -51,7 +51,7 @@ be accessible. Boot command-line options ------------------------- -initrd adds the following new options: +initrd adds the following new options:: initrd=<path> (e.g. LOADLIN) @@ -83,36 +83,36 @@ Recent kernels have support for populating a ramdisk from a compressed cpio archive. On such systems, the creation of a ramdisk image doesn't need to involve special block devices or loopbacks; you merely create a directory on disk with the desired initrd content, cd to that directory, and run (as an -example): +example):: -find . | cpio --quiet -H newc -o | gzip -9 -n > /boot/imagefile.img + find . | cpio --quiet -H newc -o | gzip -9 -n > /boot/imagefile.img -Examining the contents of an existing image file is just as simple: +Examining the contents of an existing image file is just as simple:: -mkdir /tmp/imagefile -cd /tmp/imagefile -gzip -cd /boot/imagefile.img | cpio -imd --quiet + mkdir /tmp/imagefile + cd /tmp/imagefile + gzip -cd /boot/imagefile.img | cpio -imd --quiet Installation ------------ First, a directory for the initrd file system has to be created on the -"normal" root file system, e.g. +"normal" root file system, e.g.:: -# mkdir /initrd + # mkdir /initrd -The name is not relevant. More details can be found on the pivot_root(2) -man page. +The name is not relevant. More details can be found on the +:manpage:`pivot_root(2)` man page. If the root file system is created during the boot procedure (i.e. if you're building an install floppy), the root file system creation -procedure should create the /initrd directory. +procedure should create the ``/initrd`` directory. If initrd will not be mounted in some cases, its content is still -accessible if the following device has been created: +accessible if the following device has been created:: -# mknod /dev/initrd b 1 250 -# chmod 400 /dev/initrd + # mknod /dev/initrd b 1 250 + # chmod 400 /dev/initrd Second, the kernel has to be compiled with RAM disk support and with support for the initial RAM disk enabled. Also, at least all components @@ -131,60 +131,76 @@ kernels, at least three types of devices are suitable for that: We'll describe the loopback device method: 1) make sure loopback block devices are configured into the kernel - 2) create an empty file system of the appropriate size, e.g. - # dd if=/dev/zero of=initrd bs=300k count=1 - # mke2fs -F -m0 initrd + 2) create an empty file system of the appropriate size, e.g.:: + + # dd if=/dev/zero of=initrd bs=300k count=1 + # mke2fs -F -m0 initrd + (if space is critical, you may want to use the Minix FS instead of Ext2) - 3) mount the file system, e.g. - # mount -t ext2 -o loop initrd /mnt - 4) create the console device: + 3) mount the file system, e.g.:: + + # mount -t ext2 -o loop initrd /mnt + + 4) create the console device:: + # mkdir /mnt/dev # mknod /mnt/dev/console c 5 1 + 5) copy all the files that are needed to properly use the initrd - environment. Don't forget the most important file, /sbin/init - Note that /sbin/init's permissions must include "x" (execute). + environment. Don't forget the most important file, ``/sbin/init`` + + .. note:: ``/sbin/init`` permissions must include "x" (execute). + 6) correct operation the initrd environment can frequently be tested - even without rebooting with the command - # chroot /mnt /sbin/init + even without rebooting with the command:: + + # chroot /mnt /sbin/init + This is of course limited to initrds that do not interfere with the general system state (e.g. by reconfiguring network interfaces, overwriting mounted devices, trying to start already running demons, etc. Note however that it is usually possible to use pivot_root in such a chroot'ed initrd environment.) - 7) unmount the file system - # umount /mnt + 7) unmount the file system:: + + # umount /mnt + 8) the initrd is now in the file "initrd". Optionally, it can now be - compressed - # gzip -9 initrd + compressed:: + + # gzip -9 initrd For experimenting with initrd, you may want to take a rescue floppy and -only add a symbolic link from /sbin/init to /bin/sh. Alternatively, you -can try the experimental newlib environment  to create a small +only add a symbolic link from ``/sbin/init`` to ``/bin/sh``. Alternatively, you +can try the experimental newlib environment [#f2]_ to create a small initrd. Finally, you have to boot the kernel and load initrd. Almost all Linux boot loaders support initrd. Since the boot process is still compatible with an older mechanism, the following boot command line parameters -have to be given: +have to be given:: root=/dev/ram0 rw (rw is only necessary if writing to the initrd file system.) -With LOADLIN, you simply execute +With LOADLIN, you simply execute:: LOADLIN <kernel> initrd=<disk_image> -e.g. LOADLIN C:\LINUX\BZIMAGE initrd=C:\LINUX\INITRD.GZ root=/dev/ram0 rw -With LILO, you add the option INITRD=<path> to either the global section -or to the section of the respective kernel in /etc/lilo.conf, and pass -the options using APPEND, e.g. +e.g.:: + + LOADLIN C:\LINUX\BZIMAGE initrd=C:\LINUX\INITRD.GZ root=/dev/ram0 rw + +With LILO, you add the option ``INITRD=<path>`` to either the global section +or to the section of the respective kernel in ``/etc/lilo.conf``, and pass +the options using APPEND, e.g.:: image = /bzImage initrd = /boot/initrd.gz append = "root=/dev/ram0 rw" -and run /sbin/lilo +and run ``/sbin/lilo`` For other boot loaders, please refer to the respective documentation. @@ -204,33 +220,33 @@ The procedure involves the following steps: - unmounting the initrd file system and de-allocating the RAM disk Mounting the new root file system is easy: it just needs to be mounted on -a directory under the current root. Example: +a directory under the current root. Example:: -# mkdir /new-root -# mount -o ro /dev/hda1 /new-root + # mkdir /new-root + # mount -o ro /dev/hda1 /new-root The root change is accomplished with the pivot_root system call, which -is also available via the pivot_root utility (see pivot_root(8) man -page; pivot_root is distributed with util-linux version 2.10h or higher -). pivot_root moves the current root to a directory under the new +is also available via the ``pivot_root`` utility (see :manpage:`pivot_root(8)` +man page; ``pivot_root`` is distributed with util-linux version 2.10h or higher +[#f3]_). ``pivot_root`` moves the current root to a directory under the new root, and puts the new root at its place. The directory for the old root -must exist before calling pivot_root. Example: +must exist before calling ``pivot_root``. Example:: -# cd /new-root -# mkdir initrd -# pivot_root . initrd + # cd /new-root + # mkdir initrd + # pivot_root . initrd Now, the init process may still access the old root via its executable, shared libraries, standard input/output/error, and its current root directory. All these references are dropped by the -following command: +following command:: -# exec chroot . what-follows <dev/console >dev/console 2>&1 + # exec chroot . what-follows <dev/console >dev/console 2>&1 -Where what-follows is a program under the new root, e.g. /sbin/init +Where what-follows is a program under the new root, e.g. ``/sbin/init`` If the new root file system will be used with udev and has no valid -/dev directory, udev must be initialized before invoking chroot in order -to provide /dev/console. +``/dev`` directory, udev must be initialized before invoking chroot in order +to provide ``/dev/console``. Note: implementation details of pivot_root may change with time. In order to ensure compatibility, the following points should be observed: @@ -244,13 +260,13 @@ to ensure compatibility, the following points should be observed: - use relative paths for dev/console in the exec command Now, the initrd can be unmounted and the memory allocated by the RAM -disk can be freed: +disk can be freed:: -# umount /initrd -# blockdev --flushbufs /dev/ram0 + # umount /initrd + # blockdev --flushbufs /dev/ram0 It is also possible to use initrd with an NFS-mounted root, see the -pivot_root(8) man page for details. +:manpage:`pivot_root(8)` man page for details. Usage scenarios @@ -263,21 +279,21 @@ as follows: 1) system boots from floppy or other media with a minimal kernel (e.g. support for RAM disks, initrd, a.out, and the Ext2 FS) and loads initrd - 2) /sbin/init determines what is needed to (1) mount the "real" root FS + 2) ``/sbin/init`` determines what is needed to (1) mount the "real" root FS (i.e. device type, device drivers, file system) and (2) the distribution media (e.g. CD-ROM, network, tape, ...). This can be done by asking the user, by auto-probing, or by using a hybrid approach. - 3) /sbin/init loads the necessary kernel modules - 4) /sbin/init creates and populates the root file system (this doesn't + 3) ``/sbin/init`` loads the necessary kernel modules + 4) ``/sbin/init`` creates and populates the root file system (this doesn't have to be a very usable system yet) - 5) /sbin/init invokes pivot_root to change the root file system and + 5) ``/sbin/init`` invokes ``pivot_root`` to change the root file system and execs - via chroot - a program that continues the installation 6) the boot loader is installed 7) the boot loader is configured to load an initrd with the set of - modules that was used to bring up the system (e.g. /initrd can be + modules that was used to bring up the system (e.g. ``/initrd`` can be modified, then unmounted, and finally, the image is written from - /dev/ram0 or /dev/rd/0 to a file) + ``/dev/ram0`` or ``/dev/rd/0`` to a file) 8) now the system is bootable and additional installation tasks can be performed @@ -290,7 +306,7 @@ different hardware configurations in a single administrative domain. In such cases, it is desirable to generate only a small set of kernels (ideally only one) and to keep the system-specific part of configuration information as small as possible. In this case, a common initrd could be -generated with all the necessary modules. Then, only /sbin/init or a file +generated with all the necessary modules. Then, only ``/sbin/init`` or a file read by it would have to be different. A third scenario is more convenient recovery disks, because information @@ -301,9 +317,9 @@ auto-detection). Last not least, CD-ROM distributors may use it for better installation from CD, e.g. by using a boot floppy and bootstrapping a bigger RAM disk -via initrd from CD; or by booting via a loader like LOADLIN or directly +via initrd from CD; or by booting via a loader like ``LOADLIN`` or directly from the CD-ROM, and loading the RAM disk from CD without need of -floppies. +floppies. Obsolete root change mechanism @@ -316,51 +332,52 @@ continued availability. It works by mounting the "real" root device (i.e. the one set with rdev in the kernel image or with root=... at the boot command line) as the root file system when linuxrc exits. The initrd file system is then -unmounted, or, if it is still busy, moved to a directory /initrd, if +unmounted, or, if it is still busy, moved to a directory ``/initrd``, if such a directory exists on the new root file system. In order to use this mechanism, you do not have to specify the boot command options root, init, or rw. (If specified, they will affect the real root file system, not the initrd environment.) - + If /proc is mounted, the "real" root device can be changed from within linuxrc by writing the number of the new root FS device to the special -file /proc/sys/kernel/real-root-dev, e.g. +file /proc/sys/kernel/real-root-dev, e.g.:: # echo 0x301 >/proc/sys/kernel/real-root-dev Note that the mechanism is incompatible with NFS and similar file systems. -This old, deprecated mechanism is commonly called "change_root", while -the new, supported mechanism is called "pivot_root". +This old, deprecated mechanism is commonly called ``change_root``, while +the new, supported mechanism is called ``pivot_root``. Mixed change_root and pivot_root mechanism ------------------------------------------ -In case you did not want to use root=/dev/ram0 to trigger the pivot_root -mechanism, you may create both /linuxrc and /sbin/init in your initrd image. +In case you did not want to use ``root=/dev/ram0`` to trigger the pivot_root +mechanism, you may create both ``/linuxrc`` and ``/sbin/init`` in your initrd +image. -/linuxrc would contain only the following: +``/linuxrc`` would contain only the following:: -#! /bin/sh -mount -n -t proc proc /proc -echo 0x0100 >/proc/sys/kernel/real-root-dev -umount -n /proc + #! /bin/sh + mount -n -t proc proc /proc + echo 0x0100 >/proc/sys/kernel/real-root-dev + umount -n /proc Once linuxrc exited, the kernel would mount again your initrd as root, -this time executing /sbin/init. Again, it would be the duty of this init -to build the right environment (maybe using the root= device passed on -the cmdline) before the final execution of the real /sbin/init. +this time executing ``/sbin/init``. Again, it would be the duty of this init +to build the right environment (maybe using the ``root= device`` passed on +the cmdline) before the final execution of the real ``/sbin/init``. Resources --------- - Almesberger, Werner; "Booting Linux: The History and the Future" +.. [#f1] Almesberger, Werner; "Booting Linux: The History and the Future" http://www.almesberger.net/cv/papers/ols2k-9.ps.gz - newlib package (experimental), with initrd example - http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/ - util-linux: Miscellaneous utilities for Linux - http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/ +.. [#f2] newlib package (experimental), with initrd example + https://www.sourceware.org/newlib/ +.. [#f3] util-linux: Miscellaneous utilities for Linux + https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/ diff --git a/Documentation/user/index.rst b/Documentation/user/index.rst index be25afffb380..3087bc4a8c74 100644 --- a/Documentation/user/index.rst +++ b/Documentation/user/index.rst @@ -10,6 +10,7 @@ Contents: README REPORTING-BUGS BUG-HUNTING + initrd dynamic-debug-howto SecurityBugs kernel-parameters diff --git a/Documentation/user/initrd.rst b/Documentation/user/initrd.rst new file mode 120000 index 000000000000..9621d0bc244e --- /dev/null +++ b/Documentation/user/initrd.rst @@ -0,0 +1 @@ +../initrd.txt \ No newline at end of file -- 2.7.4 -- To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe linux-doc" in the body of a message to majord...@vger.kernel.org More majordomo info at http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html