On Tue, Feb 13, 2018 at 12:58:51PM +0000, Will Deacon wrote:
> If d_alloc_parallel runs concurrently with __d_add, it is possible for
> d_alloc_parallel to continuously retry whilst i_dir_seq has been
> incremented to an odd value by __d_add:
> 
> CPU0:
> __d_add
>       n = start_dir_add(dir);
>               cmpxchg(&dir->i_dir_seq, n, n + 1) == n
> 
> CPU1:
> d_alloc_parallel
> retry:
>       seq = smp_load_acquire(&parent->d_inode->i_dir_seq) & ~1;
>       hlist_bl_lock(b);
>               bit_spin_lock(0, (unsigned long *)b); // Always succeeds
> 
> CPU0:
>       __d_lookup_done(dentry)
>               hlist_bl_lock
>                       bit_spin_lock(0, (unsigned long *)b); // Never succeeds
> 
> CPU1:
>       if (unlikely(parent->d_inode->i_dir_seq != seq)) {
>               hlist_bl_unlock(b);
>               goto retry;
>       }
> 
> Since the simple bit_spin_lock used to implement hlist_bl_lock does not

And cannot, a single bit is just not enough state.

> provide any fairness guarantees, then CPU1 can starve CPU0 of the lock
> and prevent it from reaching end_dir_add(dir), therefore CPU1 cannot
> exit its retry loop because the sequence number always has the bottom
> bit set.
> 
> This patch resolves the livelock by not taking hlist_bl_lock in
> d_alloc_parallel if the sequence counter is odd, since any subsequent
> masked comparison with i_dir_seq will fail anyway.
> 

Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <pet...@infradead.org>

> Cc: Al Viro <v...@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
> Signed-off-by: Will Deacon <will.dea...@arm.com>
> ---
>  fs/dcache.c | 8 +++++++-
>  1 file changed, 7 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
> 
> diff --git a/fs/dcache.c b/fs/dcache.c
> index 7c38f39958bc..b243deec298c 100644
> --- a/fs/dcache.c
> +++ b/fs/dcache.c
> @@ -2474,7 +2474,7 @@ struct dentry *d_alloc_parallel(struct dentry *parent,
>  
>  retry:
>       rcu_read_lock();
> -     seq = smp_load_acquire(&parent->d_inode->i_dir_seq) & ~1;
> +     seq = smp_load_acquire(&parent->d_inode->i_dir_seq);
>       r_seq = read_seqbegin(&rename_lock);
>       dentry = __d_lookup_rcu(parent, name, &d_seq);
>       if (unlikely(dentry)) {
> @@ -2495,6 +2495,12 @@ struct dentry *d_alloc_parallel(struct dentry *parent,
>               rcu_read_unlock();
>               goto retry;
>       }
> +
> +     if (unlikely(seq & 1)) {
> +             rcu_read_unlock();
> +             goto retry;
> +     }
> +
>       hlist_bl_lock(b);
>       if (unlikely(parent->d_inode->i_dir_seq != seq)) {

Also, should that not read:

        if (unlikely(READ_ONCE(parent->d_inode->i_dir_seq) != seq)) {

I mean, load-tearing can only result in additional failure, but still.

>               hlist_bl_unlock(b);


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