On Wed, Aug 8, 2018 at 9:18 PM, Ravi Bangoria
<ravi.bango...@linux.ibm.com> wrote:
> Userspace Statically Defined Tracepoints[1] are dtrace style markers
> inside userspace applications. Applications like PostgreSQL, MySQL,
> Pthread, Perl, Python, Java, Ruby, Node.js, libvirt, QEMU, glib etc
> have these markers embedded in them. These markers are added by developer
> at important places in the code. Each marker source expands to a single
> nop instruction in the compiled code but there may be additional
> overhead for computing the marker arguments which expands to couple of
> instructions. In case the overhead is more, execution of it can be
> omitted by runtime if() condition when no one is tracing on the marker:
>
>     if (reference_counter > 0) {
>         Execute marker instructions;
>     }
>
> Default value of reference counter is 0. Tracer has to increment the
> reference counter before tracing on a marker and decrement it when
> done with the tracing.
>
> Implement the reference counter logic in core uprobe. User will be
> able to use it from trace_uprobe as well as from kernel module. New
> trace_uprobe definition with reference counter will now be:
>
>     <path>:<offset>[(ref_ctr_offset)]
>
> where ref_ctr_offset is an optional field. For kernel module, new
> variant of uprobe_register() has been introduced:
>
>     uprobe_register_refctr(inode, offset, ref_ctr_offset, consumer)
>
> No new variant for uprobe_unregister() because it's assumed to have
> only one reference counter for one uprobe.
>
> [1] https://sourceware.org/systemtap/wiki/UserSpaceProbeImplementation
>
> Note: 'reference counter' is called as 'semaphore' in original Dtrace
> (or Systemtap, bcc and even in ELF) documentation and code. But the
> term 'semaphore' is misleading in this context. This is just a counter
> used to hold number of tracers tracing on a marker. This is not really
> used for any synchronization. So we are referring it as 'reference
> counter' in kernel / perf code.
>
> Signed-off-by: Ravi Bangoria <ravi.bango...@linux.ibm.com>
> Reviewed-by: Masami Hiramatsu <mhira...@kernel.org>
> [Only trace_uprobe.c]
> ---
>  include/linux/uprobes.h     |   5 +
>  kernel/events/uprobes.c     | 246 
> ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
>  kernel/trace/trace.c        |   2 +-
>  kernel/trace/trace_uprobe.c |  38 ++++++-
>  4 files changed, 280 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/include/linux/uprobes.h b/include/linux/uprobes.h
> index bb9d2084af03..103a48a48872 100644
> --- a/include/linux/uprobes.h
> +++ b/include/linux/uprobes.h
> @@ -123,6 +123,7 @@ extern unsigned long uprobe_get_swbp_addr(struct pt_regs 
> *regs);
>  extern unsigned long uprobe_get_trap_addr(struct pt_regs *regs);
>  extern int uprobe_write_opcode(struct arch_uprobe *auprobe, struct mm_struct 
> *mm, unsigned long vaddr, uprobe_opcode_t);
>  extern int uprobe_register(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, struct 
> uprobe_consumer *uc);
> +extern int uprobe_register_refctr(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, loff_t 
> ref_ctr_offset, struct uprobe_consumer *uc);
>  extern int uprobe_apply(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, struct 
> uprobe_consumer *uc, bool);
>  extern void uprobe_unregister(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, struct 
> uprobe_consumer *uc);
>  extern int uprobe_mmap(struct vm_area_struct *vma);
> @@ -160,6 +161,10 @@ uprobe_register(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, 
> struct uprobe_consumer *uc)
>  {
>         return -ENOSYS;
>  }
> +static inline int uprobe_register_refctr(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, 
> loff_t ref_ctr_offset, struct uprobe_consumer *uc)
> +{
> +       return -ENOSYS;
> +}
>  static inline int
>  uprobe_apply(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset, struct uprobe_consumer *uc, 
> bool add)
>  {
> diff --git a/kernel/events/uprobes.c b/kernel/events/uprobes.c
> index c0418ba52ba8..61b0481ef417 100644
> --- a/kernel/events/uprobes.c
> +++ b/kernel/events/uprobes.c
> @@ -73,6 +73,7 @@ struct uprobe {
>         struct uprobe_consumer  *consumers;
>         struct inode            *inode;         /* Also hold a ref to inode */
>         loff_t                  offset;
> +       loff_t                  ref_ctr_offset;
>         unsigned long           flags;
>
>         /*
> @@ -88,6 +89,15 @@ struct uprobe {
>         struct arch_uprobe      arch;
>  };
>
> +struct delayed_uprobe {
> +       struct list_head list;
> +       struct uprobe *uprobe;
> +       struct mm_struct *mm;
> +};
> +
> +static DEFINE_MUTEX(delayed_uprobe_lock);
> +static LIST_HEAD(delayed_uprobe_list);
> +
>  /*
>   * Execute out of line area: anonymous executable mapping installed
>   * by the probed task to execute the copy of the original instruction
> @@ -282,6 +292,157 @@ static int verify_opcode(struct page *page, unsigned 
> long vaddr, uprobe_opcode_t
>         return 1;
>  }
>
> +static struct delayed_uprobe *
> +delayed_uprobe_check(struct uprobe *uprobe, struct mm_struct *mm)
> +{
> +       struct delayed_uprobe *du;
> +
> +       list_for_each_entry(du, &delayed_uprobe_list, list)
> +               if (du->uprobe == uprobe && du->mm == mm)
> +                       return du;
> +       return NULL;
> +}
> +
> +static int delayed_uprobe_add(struct uprobe *uprobe, struct mm_struct *mm)
> +{
> +       struct delayed_uprobe *du;
> +
> +       if (delayed_uprobe_check(uprobe, mm))
> +               return 0;
> +
> +       du = kzalloc(sizeof(*du), GFP_KERNEL);
> +       if (!du)
> +               return -ENOMEM;
> +
> +       du->uprobe = uprobe;
> +       du->mm = mm;
> +       list_add(&du->list, &delayed_uprobe_list);
> +       return 0;
> +}
> +
> +static void delayed_uprobe_delete(struct delayed_uprobe *du)
> +{
> +       if (!du)
> +               return;
Do we really need this check?

> +       list_del(&du->list);
> +       kfree(du);
> +}
> +
> +static void delayed_uprobe_remove(struct uprobe *uprobe, struct mm_struct 
> *mm)
> +{
> +       struct list_head *pos, *q;
> +       struct delayed_uprobe *du;
> +
> +       if (!uprobe && !mm)
> +               return;
And do we really need this check?

> +
> +       list_for_each_safe(pos, q, &delayed_uprobe_list) {
> +               du = list_entry(pos, struct delayed_uprobe, list);
> +
> +               if (uprobe && mm && du->uprobe == uprobe && du->mm == mm)
> +                       delayed_uprobe_delete(du);
> +               else if (!uprobe && du->mm == mm)
> +                       delayed_uprobe_delete(du);
> +               else if (!mm && du->uprobe == uprobe)
> +                       delayed_uprobe_delete(du);
> +       }
> +}
> +
> +static bool valid_ref_ctr_vma(struct uprobe *uprobe,
> +                             struct vm_area_struct *vma)
> +{
> +       unsigned long vaddr = offset_to_vaddr(vma, uprobe->ref_ctr_offset);
> +
> +       return uprobe->ref_ctr_offset &&
> +               vma->vm_file &&
> +               file_inode(vma->vm_file) == uprobe->inode &&
> +               (vma->vm_flags & (VM_WRITE|VM_SHARED)) == VM_WRITE &&
> +               vma->vm_start <= vaddr &&
> +               vma->vm_end > vaddr;
> +}
> +
> +static struct vm_area_struct *
> +find_ref_ctr_vma(struct uprobe *uprobe, struct mm_struct *mm)
> +{
> +       struct vm_area_struct *tmp;
> +
> +       for (tmp = mm->mmap; tmp; tmp = tmp->vm_next)
> +               if (valid_ref_ctr_vma(uprobe, tmp))
> +                       return tmp;
> +
> +       return NULL;
> +}
> +
> +static int
> +__update_ref_ctr(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long vaddr, short d)
> +{
> +       void *kaddr;
> +       struct page *page;
> +       struct vm_area_struct *vma;
> +       int ret = 0;
It is not necessary to initialize ret here.

> +       short *ptr;
> +
> +       if (vaddr == 0 || d == 0)
> +               return -EINVAL;
> +
> +       ret = get_user_pages_remote(NULL, mm, vaddr, 1,
> +                       FOLL_WRITE, &page, &vma, NULL);
> +       if (unlikely(ret <= 0)) {
> +               /*
> +                * We are asking for 1 page. If get_user_pages_remote() fails,
> +                * it may return 0, in that case we have to return error.
> +                */
> +               ret = (ret == 0) ? -EBUSY : ret;
> +               pr_warn("Failed to %s ref_ctr. (%d)\n",
> +                       d > 0 ? "increment" : "decrement", ret);
This warning is not really useful. Seems this function has little information
about which uprobe is failing here. Maybe we only need warning in the caller
(or caller of caller).

> +               return ret;
> +       }
> +
> +       kaddr = kmap_atomic(page);
> +       ptr = kaddr + (vaddr & ~PAGE_MASK);
> +
> +       if (unlikely(*ptr + d < 0)) {
> +               pr_warn("ref_ctr going negative. vaddr: 0x%lx, "
> +                       "curr val: %d, delta: %d\n", vaddr, *ptr, d);
> +               ret = -EINVAL;
> +               goto out;
> +       }
> +
> +       *ptr += d;
> +       ret = 0;
> +out:
> +       kunmap_atomic(kaddr);
> +       put_page(page);
> +       return ret;
> +}
> +
> +static int update_ref_ctr(struct uprobe *uprobe, struct mm_struct *mm,
> +                         bool is_register)
What's the reason of bool is_register here vs. short d in __update_ref_ctr()?
Can we use short for both?

> +{
> +       struct vm_area_struct *rc_vma;
> +       unsigned long rc_vaddr;
> +       int ret = 0;
> +
> +       rc_vma = find_ref_ctr_vma(uprobe, mm);
> +
> +       if (rc_vma) {
> +               rc_vaddr = offset_to_vaddr(rc_vma, uprobe->ref_ctr_offset);
> +               ret = __update_ref_ctr(mm, rc_vaddr, is_register ? 1 : -1);
> +
> +               if (is_register)
> +                       return ret;
> +       }
Mixing __update_ref_ctr() here and delayed_uprobe_add() in the same
function is a little confusing (at least for me). How about we always use
delayed uprobe for uprobe_mmap() and use non-delayed in other case(s)?

> +
> +       mutex_lock(&delayed_uprobe_lock);
> +       if (is_register)
> +               ret = delayed_uprobe_add(uprobe, mm);
> +       else
> +               delayed_uprobe_remove(uprobe, mm);
> +       mutex_unlock(&delayed_uprobe_lock);
> +
> +       return ret;
> +}
> +
>  /*
>   * NOTE:
>   * Expect the breakpoint instruction to be the smallest size instruction for
> @@ -302,9 +463,13 @@ static int verify_opcode(struct page *page, unsigned 
> long vaddr, uprobe_opcode_t
>  int uprobe_write_opcode(struct arch_uprobe *auprobe, struct mm_struct *mm,
>                         unsigned long vaddr, uprobe_opcode_t opcode)
>  {
> +       struct uprobe *uprobe;
>         struct page *old_page, *new_page;
>         struct vm_area_struct *vma;
> -       int ret;
> +       int ret, is_register, ref_ctr_updated = 0;
> +
> +       is_register = is_swbp_insn(&opcode);
> +       uprobe = container_of(auprobe, struct uprobe, arch);
>
>  retry:
>         /* Read the page with vaddr into memory */
> @@ -317,6 +482,15 @@ int uprobe_write_opcode(struct arch_uprobe *auprobe, 
> struct mm_struct *mm,
>         if (ret <= 0)
>                 goto put_old;
>
> +       /* We are going to replace instruction, update ref_ctr. */
> +       if (!ref_ctr_updated && uprobe->ref_ctr_offset) {
> +               ret = update_ref_ctr(uprobe, mm, is_register);
> +               if (ret)
> +                       goto put_old;
> +
> +               ref_ctr_updated = 1;
> +       }
> +
>         ret = anon_vma_prepare(vma);
>         if (ret)
>                 goto put_old;
> @@ -337,6 +511,11 @@ int uprobe_write_opcode(struct arch_uprobe *auprobe, 
> struct mm_struct *mm,
>
>         if (unlikely(ret == -EAGAIN))
>                 goto retry;
> +
> +       /* Revert back reference counter if instruction update failed. */
> +       if (ret && is_register && ref_ctr_updated)
> +               update_ref_ctr(uprobe, mm, false);
> +
>         return ret;
>  }
>
> @@ -378,8 +557,15 @@ static struct uprobe *get_uprobe(struct uprobe *uprobe)
>
>  static void put_uprobe(struct uprobe *uprobe)
>  {
> -       if (atomic_dec_and_test(&uprobe->ref))
> +       if (atomic_dec_and_test(&uprobe->ref)) {
> +               /*
> +                * If application munmap(exec_vma) before uprobe_unregister()
> +                * gets called, we don't get a chance to remove uprobe from
> +                * delayed_uprobe_list in remove_breakpoint(). Do it here.
> +                */
> +               delayed_uprobe_remove(uprobe, NULL);
>                 kfree(uprobe);
> +       }
>  }
>
>  static int match_uprobe(struct uprobe *l, struct uprobe *r)
> @@ -484,7 +670,8 @@ static struct uprobe *insert_uprobe(struct uprobe *uprobe)
>         return u;
>  }
>
> -static struct uprobe *alloc_uprobe(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset)
> +static struct uprobe *alloc_uprobe(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset,
> +                                  loff_t ref_ctr_offset)
>  {
>         struct uprobe *uprobe, *cur_uprobe;
>
> @@ -494,6 +681,7 @@ static struct uprobe *alloc_uprobe(struct inode *inode, 
> loff_t offset)
>
>         uprobe->inode = inode;
>         uprobe->offset = offset;
> +       uprobe->ref_ctr_offset = ref_ctr_offset;
>         init_rwsem(&uprobe->register_rwsem);
>         init_rwsem(&uprobe->consumer_rwsem);
>
> @@ -895,7 +1083,7 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(uprobe_unregister);
>   * else return 0 (success)
>   */
>  static int __uprobe_register(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset,
> -                            struct uprobe_consumer *uc)
> +                            loff_t ref_ctr_offset, struct uprobe_consumer 
> *uc)
>  {
>         struct uprobe *uprobe;
>         int ret;
> @@ -912,7 +1100,7 @@ static int __uprobe_register(struct inode *inode, loff_t 
> offset,
>                 return -EINVAL;
>
>   retry:
> -       uprobe = alloc_uprobe(inode, offset);
> +       uprobe = alloc_uprobe(inode, offset, ref_ctr_offset);
>         if (!uprobe)
>                 return -ENOMEM;
>         /*
> @@ -938,10 +1126,17 @@ static int __uprobe_register(struct inode *inode, 
> loff_t offset,
>  int uprobe_register(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset,
>                     struct uprobe_consumer *uc)
>  {
> -       return __uprobe_register(inode, offset, uc);
> +       return __uprobe_register(inode, offset, 0, uc);
>  }
>  EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(uprobe_register);
>
> +int uprobe_register_refctr(struct inode *inode, loff_t offset,
> +                          loff_t ref_ctr_offset, struct uprobe_consumer *uc)
> +{
> +       return __uprobe_register(inode, offset, ref_ctr_offset, uc);
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(uprobe_register_refctr);
> +
>  /*
>   * uprobe_apply - unregister a already registered probe.
>   * @inode: the file in which the probe has to be removed.
> @@ -1060,6 +1255,31 @@ static void build_probe_list(struct inode *inode,
>         spin_unlock(&uprobes_treelock);
>  }
>
> +static int delayed_uprobe_install(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
This function name is confusing. How about we call it delayed_ref_ctr_incr() or
something similar? Also, we should add comments to highlight this is vma is not
the vma containing the uprobe, but the vma containing the ref_ctr.

> +{
> +       struct list_head *pos, *q;
> +       struct delayed_uprobe *du;
> +       unsigned long vaddr;
> +       int ret = 0, err = 0;
> +
> +       mutex_lock(&delayed_uprobe_lock);
> +       list_for_each_safe(pos, q, &delayed_uprobe_list) {
> +               du = list_entry(pos, struct delayed_uprobe, list);
> +
> +               if (!valid_ref_ctr_vma(du->uprobe, vma))
> +                       continue;
> +
> +               vaddr = offset_to_vaddr(vma, du->uprobe->ref_ctr_offset);
> +               ret = __update_ref_ctr(vma->vm_mm, vaddr, 1);
> +               /* Record an error and continue. */
> +               if (ret && !err)
> +                       err = ret;
I think this is a good place (when ret != 0) to call pr_warn(). I guess we can
print which mm get error for which uprobe (inode+offset).

> +               delayed_uprobe_delete(du);
> +       }
> +       mutex_unlock(&delayed_uprobe_lock);
> +       return err;
> +}
> +
>  /*
>   * Called from mmap_region/vma_adjust with mm->mmap_sem acquired.
>   *
> @@ -1072,7 +1292,15 @@ int uprobe_mmap(struct vm_area_struct *vma)
>         struct uprobe *uprobe, *u;
>         struct inode *inode;
>
> -       if (no_uprobe_events() || !valid_vma(vma, true))
> +       if (no_uprobe_events())
> +               return 0;
> +
> +       if (vma->vm_file &&
> +           (vma->vm_flags & (VM_WRITE|VM_SHARED)) == VM_WRITE &&
> +           test_bit(MMF_HAS_UPROBES, &vma->vm_mm->flags))
> +               delayed_uprobe_install(vma);
> +
> +       if (!valid_vma(vma, true))
>                 return 0;
>
>         inode = file_inode(vma->vm_file);
> @@ -1246,6 +1474,10 @@ void uprobe_clear_state(struct mm_struct *mm)
>  {
>         struct xol_area *area = mm->uprobes_state.xol_area;
>
> +       mutex_lock(&delayed_uprobe_lock);
> +       delayed_uprobe_remove(NULL, mm);
> +       mutex_unlock(&delayed_uprobe_lock);
> +
>         if (!area)
>                 return;
>
> diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace.c b/kernel/trace/trace.c
> index 823687997b01..616160b85860 100644
> --- a/kernel/trace/trace.c
> +++ b/kernel/trace/trace.c
> @@ -4620,7 +4620,7 @@ static const char readme_msg[] =
>    "place (kretprobe): [<module>:]<symbol>[+<offset>]|<memaddr>\n"
>  #endif
>  #ifdef CONFIG_UPROBE_EVENTS
> -       "\t    place: <path>:<offset>\n"
> +  "   place (uprobe): <path>:<offset>[(ref_ctr_offset)]\n"
>  #endif
>         "\t     args: <name>=fetcharg[:type]\n"
>         "\t fetcharg: %<register>, @<address>, @<symbol>[+|-<offset>],\n"
> diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_uprobe.c b/kernel/trace/trace_uprobe.c
> index bf89a51e740d..bf2be098eb08 100644
> --- a/kernel/trace/trace_uprobe.c
> +++ b/kernel/trace/trace_uprobe.c
> @@ -59,6 +59,7 @@ struct trace_uprobe {
>         struct inode                    *inode;
>         char                            *filename;
>         unsigned long                   offset;
> +       unsigned long                   ref_ctr_offset;
>         unsigned long                   nhit;
>         struct trace_probe              tp;
>  };
> @@ -364,10 +365,10 @@ static int register_trace_uprobe(struct trace_uprobe 
> *tu)
>  static int create_trace_uprobe(int argc, char **argv)
>  {
>         struct trace_uprobe *tu;
> -       char *arg, *event, *group, *filename;
> +       char *arg, *event, *group, *filename, *rctr, *rctr_end;
>         char buf[MAX_EVENT_NAME_LEN];
>         struct path path;
> -       unsigned long offset;
> +       unsigned long offset, ref_ctr_offset;
>         bool is_delete, is_return;
>         int i, ret;
>
> @@ -376,6 +377,7 @@ static int create_trace_uprobe(int argc, char **argv)
>         is_return = false;
>         event = NULL;
>         group = NULL;
> +       ref_ctr_offset = 0;
>
>         /* argc must be >= 1 */
>         if (argv[0][0] == '-')
> @@ -450,6 +452,26 @@ static int create_trace_uprobe(int argc, char **argv)
>                 goto fail_address_parse;
>         }
>
> +       /* Parse reference counter offset if specified. */
> +       rctr = strchr(arg, '(');
> +       if (rctr) {
> +               rctr_end = strchr(rctr, ')');
> +               if (rctr > rctr_end || *(rctr_end + 1) != 0) {
> +                       ret = -EINVAL;
> +                       pr_info("Invalid reference counter offset.\n");
> +                       goto fail_address_parse;
> +               }
> +
> +               *rctr++ = '\0';
> +               *rctr_end = '\0';
> +               ret = kstrtoul(rctr, 0, &ref_ctr_offset);
> +               if (ret) {
> +                       pr_info("Invalid reference counter offset.\n");
> +                       goto fail_address_parse;
> +               }
> +       }
> +
> +       /* Parse uprobe offset. */
>         ret = kstrtoul(arg, 0, &offset);
>         if (ret)
>                 goto fail_address_parse;
> @@ -484,6 +506,7 @@ static int create_trace_uprobe(int argc, char **argv)
>                 goto fail_address_parse;
>         }
>         tu->offset = offset;
> +       tu->ref_ctr_offset = ref_ctr_offset;
>         tu->path = path;
>         tu->filename = kstrdup(filename, GFP_KERNEL);
>
> @@ -602,6 +625,9 @@ static int probes_seq_show(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
>                         trace_event_name(&tu->tp.call), tu->filename,
>                         (int)(sizeof(void *) * 2), tu->offset);
>
> +       if (tu->ref_ctr_offset)
> +               seq_printf(m, "(0x%lx)", tu->ref_ctr_offset);
> +
>         for (i = 0; i < tu->tp.nr_args; i++)
>                 seq_printf(m, " %s=%s", tu->tp.args[i].name, 
> tu->tp.args[i].comm);
>
> @@ -917,7 +943,13 @@ probe_event_enable(struct trace_uprobe *tu, struct 
> trace_event_file *file,
>
>         tu->consumer.filter = filter;
>         tu->inode = d_real_inode(tu->path.dentry);
> -       ret = uprobe_register(tu->inode, tu->offset, &tu->consumer);
> +       if (tu->ref_ctr_offset) {
> +               ret = uprobe_register_refctr(tu->inode, tu->offset,
> +                               tu->ref_ctr_offset, &tu->consumer);
> +       } else {
> +               ret = uprobe_register(tu->inode, tu->offset, &tu->consumer);
> +       }
> +
>         if (ret)
>                 goto err_buffer;
>
> --
> 2.14.4
>

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