This is a port on kernel 4.16 of the work done by Peter Zijlstra to handle page fault without holding the mm semaphore .
The idea is to try to handle user space page faults without holding the mmap_sem. This should allow better concurrency for massively threaded process since the page fault handler will not wait for other threads memory layout change to be done, assuming that this change is done in another part of the process's memory space. This type page fault is named speculative page fault. If the speculative page fault fails because of a concurrency is detected or because underlying PMD or PTE tables are not yet allocating, it is failing its processing and a classic page fault is then tried. The speculative page fault (SPF) has to look for the VMA matching the fault address without holding the mmap_sem, this is done by introducing a rwlock which protects the access to the mm_rb tree. Previously this was done using SRCU but it was introducing a lot of scheduling to process the VMA's freeing operation which was hitting the performance by 20% as reported by Kemi Wang .Using a rwlock to protect access to the mm_rb tree is limiting the locking contention to these operations which are expected to be in a O(log n) order. In addition to ensure that the VMA is not freed in our back a reference count is added and 2 services (get_vma() and put_vma()) are introduced to handle the reference count. When a VMA is fetch from the RB tree using get_vma() is must be later freeed using put_vma(). Furthermore, to allow the VMA to be used again by the classic page fault handler a service is introduced can_reuse_spf_vma(). This service is expected to be called with the mmap_sem hold. It checked that the VMA is still matching the specified address and is releasing its reference count as the mmap_sem is hold it is ensure that it will not be freed in our back. In general, the VMA's reference count could be decremented when holding the mmap_sem but it should not be increased as holding the mmap_sem is ensuring that the VMA is stable. I can't see anymore the overhead I got while will-it-scale benchmark anymore. The VMA's attributes checked during the speculative page fault processing have to be protected against parallel changes. This is done by using a per VMA sequence lock. This sequence lock allows the speculative page fault handler to fast check for parallel changes in progress and to abort the speculative page fault in that case. Once the VMA is found, the speculative page fault handler would check for the VMA's attributes to verify that the page fault has to be handled correctly or not. Thus the VMA is protected through a sequence lock which allows fast detection of concurrent VMA changes. If such a change is detected, the speculative page fault is aborted and a *classic* page fault is tried. VMA sequence lockings are added when VMA attributes which are checked during the page fault are modified. When the PTE is fetched, the VMA is checked to see if it has been changed, so once the page table is locked, the VMA is valid, so any other changes leading to touching this PTE will need to lock the page table, so no parallel change is possible at this time. The locking of the PTE is done with interrupts disabled, this allows to check for the PMD to ensure that there is not an ongoing collapsing operation. Since khugepaged is firstly set the PMD to pmd_none and then is waiting for the other CPU to have catch the IPI interrupt, if the pmd is valid at the time the PTE is locked, we have the guarantee that the collapsing opertion will have to wait on the PTE lock to move foward. This allows the SPF handler to map the PTE safely. If the PMD value is different than the one recorded at the beginning of the SPF operation, the classic page fault handler will be called to handle the operation while holding the mmap_sem. As the PTE lock is done with the interrupts disabled, the lock is done using spin_trylock() to avoid dead lock when handling a page fault while a TLB invalidate is requested by an other CPU holding the PTE. Support for THP is not done because when checking for the PMD, we can be confused by an in progress collapsing operation done by khugepaged. The issue is that pmd_none() could be true either if the PMD is not already populated or if the underlying PTE are in the way to be collapsed. So we cannot safely allocate a PMD if pmd_none() is true. This series a new software performance event named 'speculative-faults' or 'spf'. It counts the number of successful page fault event handled in a speculative way. When recording 'faults,spf' events, the faults one is counting the total number of page fault events while 'spf' is only counting the part of the faults processed in a speculative way. There are some trace events introduced by this series. They allow to identify why the page faults where not processed in a speculative way. This doesn't take in account the faults generated by a monothreaded process which directly processed while holding the mmap_sem. This trace events are grouped in a system named 'pagefault', they are: - pagefault:spf_pte_lock : if the pte was already locked by another thread - pagefault:spf_vma_changed : if the VMA has been changed in our back - pagefault:spf_vma_noanon : the vma->anon_vma field was not yet set. - pagefault:spf_vma_notsup : the VMA's type is not supported - pagefault:spf_vma_access : the VMA's access right are not respected - pagefault:spf_pmd_changed : the upper PMD pointer has changed in our back. To record all the related events, the easier is to run perf with the following arguments : $ perf stat -e 'faults,spf,pagefault:*' <command> This series builds on top of v4.16-rc2-mmotm-2018-02-21-14-48 and is functional on x86 and PowerPC. --------------------- Real Workload results As mentioned in previous email, we did non official runs using a "popular in memory multithreaded database product" on 176 cores SMT8 Power system which showed a 30% improvements in the number of transaction processed per second. This run has been done on the v6 series, but changes introduced in this new verion should not impact the performance boost seen. Here are the perf data captured during 2 of these runs on top of the v8 series: vanilla spf faults 89.418 101.364 spf n/a 97.989 With the SPF kernel, most of the page fault were processed in a speculative way. ------------------ Benchmarks results Base kernel is v4.16-rc4-mmotm-2018-03-09-16-34 SPF is BASE + this series Kernbench: ---------- Here are the results on a 16 CPUs X86 guest using kernbench on a 4.13-rc4 kernel (kernel is build 5 times): Average Half load -j 8 Run (std deviation) BASE SPF Elapsed Time 151.36 (1.40139) 151.748 (1.09716) 0.26% User Time 1023.19 (3.58972) 1027.35 (2.30396) 0.41% System Time 125.026 (1.8547) 124.504 (0.980015) -0.42% Percent CPU 758.2 (5.54076) 758.6 (3.97492) 0.05% Context Switches 54924 (453.634) 54851 (382.293) -0.13% Sleeps 105589 (704.581) 105282 (435.502) -0.29% Average Optimal load -j 16 Run (std deviation) BASE SPF Elapsed Time 74.804 (1.25139) 74.368 (0.406288) -0.58% User Time 962.033 (64.5125) 963.93 (66.8797) 0.20% System Time 110.771 (15.0817) 110.387 (14.8989) -0.35% Percent CPU 1045.7 (303.387) 1049.1 (306.255) 0.33% Context Switches 76201.8 (22433.1) 76170.4 (22482.9) -0.04% Sleeps 110289 (5024.05) 110220 (5248.58) -0.06% During a run on the SPF, perf events were captured: Performance counter stats for '../kernbench -M': 510334017 faults 200 spf 0 pagefault:spf_pte_lock 0 pagefault:spf_vma_changed 0 pagefault:spf_vma_noanon 2174 pagefault:spf_vma_notsup 0 pagefault:spf_vma_access 0 pagefault:spf_pmd_changed Very few speculative page fault were recorded as most of the processes involved are monothreaded (sounds that on this architecture some threads were created during the kernel build processing). Here are the kerbench results on a 80 CPUs Power8 system: Average Half load -j 40 Run (std deviation) BASE SPF Elapsed Time 116.958 (0.73401) 117.43 (0.927497) 0.40% User Time 4472.35 (7.85792) 4480.16 (19.4909) 0.17% System Time 136.248 (0.587639) 136.922 (1.09058) 0.49% Percent CPU 3939.8 (20.6567) 3931.2 (17.2829) -0.22% Context Switches 92445.8 (236.672) 92720.8 (270.118) 0.30% Sleeps 318475 (1412.6) 317996 (1819.07) -0.15% Average Optimal load -j 80 Run (std deviation) BASE SPF Elapsed Time 106.976 (0.406731) 107.72 (0.329014) 0.70% User Time 5863.47 (1466.45) 5865.38 (1460.27) 0.03% System Time 159.995 (25.0393) 160.329 (24.6921) 0.21% Percent CPU 5446.2 (1588.23) 5416 (1565.34) -0.55% Context Switches 223018 (137637) 224867 (139305) 0.83% Sleeps 330846 (13127.3) 332348 (15556.9) 0.45% During a run on the SPF, perf events were captured: Performance counter stats for '../kernbench -M': 116612488 faults 0 spf 0 pagefault:spf_pte_lock 0 pagefault:spf_vma_changed 0 pagefault:spf_vma_noanon 473 pagefault:spf_vma_notsup 0 pagefault:spf_vma_access 0 pagefault:spf_pmd_changed Most of the processes involved are monothreaded so SPF is not activated but there is no impact on the performance. Ebizzy: ------- The test is counting the number of records per second it can manage, the higher is the best. I run it like this 'ebizzy -mTRp'. To get consistent result I repeated the test 100 times and measure the average result. The number is the record processes per second, the higher is the best. BASE SPF delta 16 CPUs x86 VM 14902.6 95905.16 543.55% 80 CPUs P8 node 37240.24 78185.67 109.95% Here are the performance counter read during a run on a 16 CPUs x86 VM: Performance counter stats for './ebizzy -mRTp': 888157 faults 884773 spf 92 pagefault:spf_pte_lock 2379 pagefault:spf_vma_changed 0 pagefault:spf_vma_noanon 80 pagefault:spf_vma_notsup 0 pagefault:spf_vma_access 0 pagefault:spf_pmd_changed And the ones captured during a run on a 80 CPUs Power node: Performance counter stats for './ebizzy -mRTp': 762134 faults 728663 spf 19101 pagefault:spf_pte_lock 13969 pagefault:spf_vma_changed 0 pagefault:spf_vma_noanon 272 pagefault:spf_vma_notsup 0 pagefault:spf_vma_access 0 pagefault:spf_pmd_changed In ebizzy's case most of the page fault were handled in a speculative way, leading the ebizzy performance boost. ------------------ Changes since v8: - Don't check PMD when locking the pte when THP is disabled Thanks to Daniel Jordan for reporting this. - Rebase on 4.16 Changes since v7: - move pte_map_lock() and pte_spinlock() upper in mm/memory.c (patch 4 & 5) - make pte_unmap_same() compatible with the speculative page fault (patch 6) Changes since v6: - Rename config variable to CONFIG_SPECULATIVE_PAGE_FAULT (patch 1) - Review the way the config variable is set (patch 1 to 3) - Introduce mm_rb_write_*lock() in mm/mmap.c (patch 18) - Merge patch introducing pte try locking in the patch 18. Changes since v5: - use rwlock agains the mm RB tree in place of SRCU - add a VMA's reference count to protect VMA while using it without holding the mmap_sem. - check PMD value to detect collapsing operation - don't try speculative page fault for mono threaded processes - try to reuse the fetched VMA if VM_RETRY is returned - go directly to the error path if an error is detected during the SPF path - fix race window when moving VMA in move_vma() Changes since v4: - As requested by Andrew Morton, use CONFIG_SPF and define it earlier in the series to ease bisection. Changes since v3: - Don't build when CONFIG_SMP is not set - Fixed a lock dependency warning in __vma_adjust() - Use READ_ONCE to access p*d values in handle_speculative_fault() - Call memcp_oom() service in handle_speculative_fault() Changes since v2: - Perf event is renamed in PERF_COUNT_SW_SPF - On Power handle do_page_fault()'s cleaning - On Power if the VM_FAULT_ERROR is returned by handle_speculative_fault(), do not retry but jump to the error path - If VMA's flags are not matching the fault, directly returns VM_FAULT_SIGSEGV and not VM_FAULT_RETRY - Check for pud_trans_huge() to avoid speculative path - Handles _vm_normal_page()'s introduced by 6f16211df3bf ("mm/device-public-memory: device memory cache coherent with CPU") - add and review few comments in the code Changes since v1: - Remove PERF_COUNT_SW_SPF_FAILED perf event. - Add tracing events to details speculative page fault failures. - Cache VMA fields values which are used once the PTE is unlocked at the end of the page fault events. - Ensure that fields read during the speculative path are written and read using WRITE_ONCE and READ_ONCE. - Add checks at the beginning of the speculative path to abort it if the VMA is known to not be supported. Changes since RFC V5  - Port to 4.13 kernel - Merging patch fixing lock dependency into the original patch - Replace the 2 parameters of vma_has_changed() with the vmf pointer - In patch 7, don't call __do_fault() in the speculative path as it may want to unlock the mmap_sem. - In patch 11-12, don't check for vma boundaries when page_add_new_anon_rmap() is called during the spf path and protect against anon_vma pointer's update. - In patch 13-16, add performance events to report number of successful and failed speculative events.  http://linux-kernel.2935.n7.nabble.com/RFC-PATCH-0-6-Another-go-at-speculative-page-faults-tt965642.html#none  https://patchwork.kernel.org/patch/9999687/ Laurent Dufour (20): mm: Introduce CONFIG_SPECULATIVE_PAGE_FAULT x86/mm: Define CONFIG_SPECULATIVE_PAGE_FAULT powerpc/mm: Define CONFIG_SPECULATIVE_PAGE_FAULT mm: Introduce pte_spinlock for FAULT_FLAG_SPECULATIVE mm: make pte_unmap_same compatible with SPF mm: Protect VMA modifications using VMA sequence count mm: protect mremap() against SPF hanlder mm: Protect SPF handler against anon_vma changes mm: Cache some VMA fields in the vm_fault structure mm/migrate: Pass vm_fault pointer to migrate_misplaced_page() mm: Introduce __lru_cache_add_active_or_unevictable mm: Introduce __maybe_mkwrite() mm: Introduce __vm_normal_page() mm: Introduce __page_add_new_anon_rmap() mm: Protect mm_rb tree with a rwlock mm: Adding speculative page fault failure trace events perf: Add a speculative page fault sw event perf tools: Add support for the SPF perf event mm: Speculative page fault handler return VMA powerpc/mm: Add speculative page fault Peter Zijlstra (4): mm: Prepare for FAULT_FLAG_SPECULATIVE mm: VMA sequence count mm: Provide speculative fault infrastructure x86/mm: Add speculative pagefault handling arch/powerpc/Kconfig | 1 + arch/powerpc/mm/fault.c | 31 +- arch/x86/Kconfig | 1 + arch/x86/mm/fault.c | 38 ++- fs/proc/task_mmu.c | 5 +- fs/userfaultfd.c | 17 +- include/linux/hugetlb_inline.h | 2 +- include/linux/migrate.h | 4 +- include/linux/mm.h | 92 +++++- include/linux/mm_types.h | 7 + include/linux/pagemap.h | 4 +- include/linux/rmap.h | 12 +- include/linux/swap.h | 10 +- include/trace/events/pagefault.h | 87 +++++ include/uapi/linux/perf_event.h | 1 + kernel/fork.c | 3 + mm/Kconfig | 3 + mm/hugetlb.c | 2 + mm/init-mm.c | 3 + mm/internal.h | 20 ++ mm/khugepaged.c | 5 + mm/madvise.c | 6 +- mm/memory.c | 594 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---- mm/mempolicy.c | 51 ++- mm/migrate.c | 4 +- mm/mlock.c | 13 +- mm/mmap.c | 211 +++++++++--- mm/mprotect.c | 4 +- mm/mremap.c | 13 + mm/rmap.c | 5 +- mm/swap.c | 6 +- mm/swap_state.c | 8 +- tools/include/uapi/linux/perf_event.h | 1 + tools/perf/util/evsel.c | 1 + tools/perf/util/parse-events.c | 4 + tools/perf/util/parse-events.l | 1 + tools/perf/util/python.c | 1 + 37 files changed, 1097 insertions(+), 174 deletions(-) create mode 100644 include/trace/events/pagefault.h -- 2.7.4