Charles Brown 
Althusser says:

"In 1845, Marx broke radically with every 
theory that based history and politics on an 
essence of man. This unique rupture contained 
three indissociable elements. 

(1) The formation of a theory of history and 
politics based on radically new concepts: the 
concepts of social formation, productive forces, 
relations of production, superstructure, ideologies,
 determination in the last instance by the economy, 
specific determination of the other levels, etc. 

(2) A radical critique of the theoretical 
pretensions of every philosophical humanism. 

(3) The definition of humanism as an ideology. "

CB: By at least 1848 with the _Manifesto 
of the 
Communist Party_, we can infer that 
Marx has 
relocated the essence of humans , 
his humanism in Althusser's sense, 
in human labor. 

CB: However, Althusser does _not_
say what I am saying here about 1848
and Marx relocating human essence
in human labor.


This is in part 
the reason that
 history is a history of class 
struggles. For 
exploitation of labor triggers a 
human instinct in 
exploited laborers to  recover 
and enjoy all 
the fruits of their labor, 
appropriate all the 
products of their work. History 
as exploited laborers win victories
the immense
superstructure with each revolution.

CB: Althusser doesn't say this , though.
I do.


Althusser's claim that Marx's radical
new theory is scientific is correct
because the new theory deals with
_necessary_ connections in human
society. Labor is necessary for
human life.

Capital I: "So far therefore as 
labour is a creator 
of use value, is useful labour, it is a 
necessary condition, independent of all forms of 
society, for the existence of the human race; 
it is an eternal nature-imposed necessity, 
without which there can be no material exchanges 
between man and Nature, and therefore no life. "

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