Eine kleine Nachtmusik
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For the Venom album, see Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (album).

The Serenade No. 13 for strings in G major, K. 525 was written by
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1787. The work is more commonly known by
the title Eine kleine Nachtmusik. The German title means "a little
serenade", though it is often rendered more literally but less
accurately as "a little night music".[1] The work is written for a
chamber ensemble of two violins, viola, and cello with optional double
bass, but is often performed by string orchestras.[2]

    * 1 Composition, publication, and reception
    * 2 Movements
          o 2.1 Allegro
          o 2.2 Romanza
          o 2.3 Menuetto
          o 2.4 Rondo
    * 3 Possible extra movement
    * 4 Satire
    * 5 Notes
    * 6 References
    * 7 External links

[edit] Composition, publication, and reception

The serenade was completed in Vienna on 10 August 1787,[2] around the
time Mozart was working on the second act of his opera Don
Giovanni.[3] It is not known why it was composed.[4] Hildesheimer
(1991, 215), noting that most of Mozart's serenades were written on
commission, suggests that this serenade, too, was a commission, whose
origin and first performance were not committed to record.

The traditionally used name of the work comes from the entry Mozart
made for it in his personal catalog, which begins, "Eine kleine
Nacht-Musik." As Zaslaw and Cowdery point out, Mozart almost certainly
was not giving the piece a special title, but only entering in his
records that he had completed a little serenade.[5]

The work was not published until about 1827, long after Mozart's
death, by Johann André in Offenbach am Main.[2] It had been sold to
this publisher in 1799 by Mozart's widow Constanze, part of a large
bundle of her husband's compositions.

Today the serenade is widely performed and recorded; indeed both
Jacobson and Klein (2003, 38) and Hildesheimer (1992, 215) opine that
the serenade is the most popular of all Mozart's works. Of the music,
Hildesheimer writes, "even if we hear it on every street corner, its
high quality is undisputed, an occasional piece from a light but happy
[edit] Movements

    * I. Allegro
    * II. Romanze: Andante
    * III. Menuetto: Allegretto
    * IV. Rondo: Allegro

[edit] Allegro

Eine kleine nachtmusik.svg (The first theme)
Eine kleine Nachtmusik – 1. Allegro
Play sound
Performed by the Advent Chamber Orchestra
Problems listening to this file? See media help.

This first movement is in sonata-allegro form, which aggressively
ascends in a Mannheim rocket theme. The second theme is more graceful
and in D major, the dominant key of G major. The exposition closes in
D major and is repeated. The development section begins on D major and
touches on D minor and C major before the work returns to G major for
the recapitulation – a repetition of the exposition with both subjects
in the same key, as is conventional. During the recapitulation, it is
in G major with the primary themes from the exposition playing. The
movement ends in its tonic key, G major.
[edit] Romanza

The second movement, in C major, is a "Romanze", with the tempo marked
Andante. It is in rondo form, taking the shape A–B–A–C–A plus a final
Coda. The keys of the sections are C major for A and B, C minor for C.
The middle appearance of A is truncated, consisting of only the first
half of the theme.
[edit] Menuetto

The third movement, marked Allegretto, is a minuet and trio (A–B–A).
The minuet is in the home key of G major and the trio section is in D
[edit] Rondo
Eine kleine Nachtmusik – 4. Rondo
Play sound
Performed by Steamboat Electric, conducted by Hans-Peter Scholz
Problems listening to this file? See media help.

The fourth and last movement is in lively tempo, marked Allegro; the
key is again G major. The movement is written in sonata rondo form.
Mozart specifies repeats not just for the exposition section but also
for the following development+recapitulation section. The work ends
with a long coda.
[edit] Possible extra movement

In the catalog entry mentioned above, Mozart listed the work as having
five movements ("Allegro – Minuet and Trio. – Romance, Minuet and Trio
and Finale.").[5] The second movement in his listing, a minuet and
trio, was long thought lost and no one knows if it was Mozart or
someone else who removed it. Musicologist Alfred Einstein suggested,
however, that a minuet in Piano Sonata in B-flat, K. 498a, is the
missing movement.[7] The sonata's minuet has been recorded in an
arrangement for strings made by Jonathan Del Mar for Nimbus Records[8]
although music scholars are not certain that Einstein is
correct.[original research?]
[edit] Satire

Musicologist Peter Schickele composed a parody of this work named Eine
Kleine Nichtmusik, recorded on the album Portrait of P. D. Q. Bach in
1977. The piece consists of Eine kleine Nachtmusik played in its
entirety, along with snippets of dozens of famous tunes heard in
counterpoint throughout the piece, taken from both American folk music
and the classical repertoire.[9] As his alter ego P. D. Q. Bach,
Schickele wrote the opera in one irrevocable act A Little Nightmare
Music, S. 35 (1983).
[edit] Notes

   1. ^ See "Nachtmusik" and "Notturno" entries in Grove Music Online.
   2. ^ a b c Holoman (1992, 397)
   3. ^ Einstein, Alfred; translators Arthur Mendel, Nathan Broder
(1962). Mozart, his character, his work. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. p. 206. ISBN 9780195007329.
   4. ^ Holoman, D. Kern (1992). Evenings with the orchestra: a Norton
companion for concertgoers. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 398.
ISBN 9780393029369.
   5. ^ a b Zaslaw and Cowdery (1991, 250)
   6. ^ Hildesheimer (1992, 215)
   7. ^ Einstein, Alfred; Arthur Mendel, Nathan Broder (translators)
(1965). Mozart: His Character, His Work. New York: Oxford University
Press. p. 207. ISBN 9780195007329. OCLC 31827291.
   8. ^ "Nimbus Records, track list".
   9. ^ The Key of P. D. Q. Bach

[edit] References

    * Hildesheimer, Wolfgang (1991) Mozart. Translated by Marion
Faber. Macmillan. ISBN 0374522987.
    * Holoman, D. Kern (1992) Evenings with the orchestra: a Norton
companion for concertgoers. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393029360.
    * Jacobson, Julius H. (2003) The classical music experience:
discover the music of the world's greatest composers, Volume 2,
narrated by Kevin Kline, Sourcebooks, Inc. ISBN 1570719500.
    * Zaslaw, Neal N. and W. Cowdery, W. (1991) The Compleat Mozart: A
Guide to the Musical Works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Norton. (1991),
ISBN 0-393-02886-0.

[edit] External links

    * Serenade in G. Eine kleine Nachtmusik KV 525: Score and critical
report (German) in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe
    * Performance in MP3 format at Logos Virtual Library
    * MP3 file of Eine Kleine Nachtmusik – First Movement
    * Eine kleine Nachtmusik: Free scores at the International Music
Score Library Project.
    * Eine kleine Nachtmusik – Directory at the Werner Icking Music Archive

v • d • e
Serenades by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

No. 1 in D, K. 100 · No. 3 in D, K. 185 (Antretter) · No. 4 in D, K.
203 (Colleredo) · No. 5 in D, K. 204 · No. 6 in D, K. 239 (Serenata
Notturna) · No. 7 in D, K. 250 (Haffner) · No. 9 in D, K. 320
(Posthorn) · No. 10 in B♭, K. 361 (Gran Partita) · No. 11 in E♭, K.
375 · No. 12 in C minor, K. 388 · No. 13 in G, K. 525 (Eine kleine
List of compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Retrieved from "";
Categories: Compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart | Serenades |
Chamber music compositions | 1787 works

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