In The German Ideology, Marx conflates these two meanings of labor,
and treats labor as, in Balibar’s words, the “veritable site of truth
as well as the place from which the world is changed..." In Capital,
however, the disparity between these two senses of labor becomes
apparent. One manifestation of this is the virtual disappearance in
the text of the term "proletariat." As Balibar points out, the term
appears only twice in the first edition of Capital, published in 1867:
in the dedication to Wilhelm Wolff and in the two final sections on
the "General Law of Capitalist Accumulation".

CB: For what it's worth , this is not accurate. Here is at least a
third appearance of the term "proletariat" in Vol. I of _Capital_. It
is a footnote in the penultimate chapter quoting _The Manifesto of the
Communist Party_.  But it may not undermine Balibar's basic point
concerning labor as revolutionary subject.

2. The advance of industry, whose involuntary promoter is the
bourgeoisie, replaces the isolation of the labourers, due to
competition, by their revolutionary combination, due to association.
The development of Modern Industry, therefore, cuts from under its
feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie produces and
appropriates products. What the bourgeoisie, therefore, produces,
above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the
proletariat are equally inevitable.... Of all the classes that stand
face-to-face with the bourgeoisie today, the proletariat alone is a
really revolutionary class. The other classes perish and disappear in
the face of Modern Industry, the proletariat is its special and
essential product.... The lower middle classes, the small
manufacturers, the shopkeepers, the artisan, the peasant, all these
fight against the bourgeoisie, to save from extinction their existence
as fractions of the middle class... they are reactionary, for they try
to roll back the wheel of history. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels,
“Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei,” London, 1848, pp. 9, 11.

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