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I should add that Marx's views reflect the particular ire of the German
radicals over Lincoln's removal of John C. Fremont after the latter
attempted to use his military authority to end slavery in Missouri.  That
decision, Lincoln argued, could not be left to local commanders, and would
alienate Unionist slaveholders in the border states. This issue continued
to be fought out right through to the end of the war, because Lincoln did
not include slave territory in Federal hands to be part of the Emancipation
Proclamation . . . though neither the slaves nor the Unionists in such
places paid this technicality much attention.

A journalistic piece, the essay makes several errors of judgment based on
accounts in the foreign press, including the exaggerated version of
Confederate successes in the fall of 1862.  Most importantly, though, it
errs in denying that Lincoln was the product of a popular revolution, a
position directly refuted in the letter the IWA sent Lincoln in 1864 . . .
or the Marxist assessment of the conflict as a Second American
Revolution--warts and all . . . a 'bourgeois revolution," to be sure.

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