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Thanks to Patrick Bond for his comments. As the author of numerous interesting and well-argued books and articles about the exploitation of Africa (as well as other regions), his thoughts are certainly welcomed in such a debate.

However, I think Patrick Bond is mistaken about the theoretical concept of "sub-imperialism". It is certainly true that there are states with monopolies which extract more surplus and those which extract less (to take his example of the different figures for repatriated profits). For those interested I would like to refer to my book on the super-exploitation of South which contains many statistics and analysis of this issue (The Great Robbery of the South. Continuity and Changes in the Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial World by Monopoly Capital Consequences for the Marxist Theory of Imperialism, 2013, http://www.great-robbery-of-the-south.net/. As the book has been sold out it can be downloaded for free at this website.)

However, I think it is wrong to create a new category ("/sub-imperialism/") in addition to the two central categories which were developed by the leading Marxist theoreticians when the epoch of imperialism unfolded ("/imperialist/" respectively "/(semi-)colonial countries/"). To give an analogy: there are many different layers inside the bourgeoisie – starting from the monopolist faction, the middle bourgeoisie, the small bourgeoisie (not to be confused with the petty-bourgeoisie!), etc.). However, all these different factions are part of the bourgeoisie and neither represents a new class category (let us say a "sub-bourgeoisie").

In my opinion, the problem with the introduction of the category "sub-imperialism" becomes apparent in Bonds brief reply to my pamphlet. He characterizes "all the BRICS" as "sub-imperialist" which for him (referring to Marini) means that they are "/powers that act as deputy sheriffs/". This raises the question: whose "/deputy sheriffs/" are China and Russia? In my opinion, these two states are emerging imperialist powers (for a list of literature which argues this case see below). If Bond believes that they are "/deputy sheriffs/" one wonders in which service they are. In the service of Washington, Brussels or Tokyo? Certainly not, as the accelerating rivalry including sanctions, military threats etc. between these two sides demonstrate.

In summary, I believe that the category of "sub-imperialism" is wrong when checked by reality and theoretically confusing.

Here are some of my writings on China as an emerging imperialist power:

China‘s transformation into an imperialist power. A study of the economic, political and military aspects of China as a Great Power, http://www.thecommunists.net/publications/revcom-number-4

The China Question and the Marxist Theory of Imperialism, December 2014, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/reply-to-csr-pco-on-china/

China’s Emergence as an Imperialist Power, in: “New Politics” (Vol:XV-1, Whole #: 57), http://newpol.org/content/china%E2%80%99s-emergence-%E2%80%A8imperialist-power

And here are some of my writings on Russia as an emerging imperialist power:

Russia as a Great Imperialist Power. The formation of Russian Monopoly Capital and its Empire – A Reply to our Critics, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialist-russia/

Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism and the Rise of Russia as a Great Power. On the Understanding and Misunderstanding of Today’s Inter-Imperialist Rivalry in the Light of Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism, August 2014, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialism-theory-and-russia/

See also:

Is Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism Incompatible with the Concept of Permanent Revolution? https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialism-theory-and-permanent-revolution/

Russia and China as Great Imperialist Powers. A Summary of the RCIT’s Analysis, 28 March 2014, in: /Revolutionary Communism/ No. 22, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialist-china-and-russia/

Revolutionär-Kommunistische Organisation BEFREIUNG
(Österreichische Sektion der RCIT,www.thecommunists.net)
Tel./SMS/WhatsApp/Telegram: +43-650-4068314

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