Apart from the mentioned book of Neumann, I could recommend Sengpiel
Audio. It is still available in the internet and supported by the son of
You will find many answers there. Some pages are available in english
too, such as the conversion calculations:
As a quick reply to your questions: These patterns are generated by more
than one diapgragm and / or effects caused by substraction of the sound
from different directions eventually making use of accoustic time
delays. For instance the Cardioid mic does:
But it is important to understand, that these abstractions are focussing
ideal cases. Practically no microphone comes close to these simple cases
As entry point, this page might be of interest:
It also has visualisation of the mic systems.
Am 29.05.2018 um 03:53 schrieb Rich Breen:
Microphones can be either pressure or velocity; any basic microphone
design book/paper will cover the differences.
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