Repository: incubator-freemarker
Updated Branches:
  refs/heads/3 ebb39b845 -> a5ac9983f


http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/a5ac9983/freemarker-core/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/TemplateLanguageUtils.java
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diff --git 
a/freemarker-core/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/TemplateLanguageUtils.java
 
b/freemarker-core/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/TemplateLanguageUtils.java
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b/freemarker-core/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/TemplateLanguageUtils.java
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+/*
+ * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ * distributed with this work for additional information
+ * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ *
+ *   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ *
+ * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ * software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ * KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ * specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ * under the License.
+ */
+package org.apache.freemarker.core.util;
+
+import java.util.HashSet;
+import java.util.Set;
+
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.Environment;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core._CoreAPI;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.AdapterTemplateModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateBooleanModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateCallableModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateCollectionModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateCollectionModelEx;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateDateModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateDirectiveModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateFunctionModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateHashModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateHashModelEx;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateMarkupOutputModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateModelIterator;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateNodeModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateNodeModelEx;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateNumberModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateScalarModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateSequenceModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.WrapperTemplateModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.impl.BeanAndStringModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.impl.BeanModel;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.impl.JavaMethodModel;
+
+/**
+ * Static utility methods that perform tasks specific to the FreeMarker 
Template Language (FTL).
+ * This is meant to be used from outside FreeMarker (i.e., it's an official, 
published API), not just from inside it.
+ */
+// TODO [FM3] This name won't be good if the template language isn't called 
"FTL"...
+public final class TemplateLanguageUtils {
+
+    private static final char[] ESCAPES = createEscapes();
+
+    private TemplateLanguageUtils() {
+        // Not meant to be instantiated
+    }
+
+    private static char[] createEscapes() {
+        char[] escapes = new char['\\' + 1];
+        for (int i = 0; i < 32; ++i) {
+            escapes[i] = 1;
+        }
+        escapes['\\'] = '\\';
+        escapes['\''] = '\'';
+        escapes['"'] = '"';
+        escapes['<'] = 'l';
+        escapes['>'] = 'g';
+        escapes['&'] = 'a';
+        escapes['\b'] = 'b';
+        escapes['\t'] = 't';
+        escapes['\n'] = 'n';
+        escapes['\f'] = 'f';
+        escapes['\r'] = 'r';
+        return escapes;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Escapes a string according the FTL string literal escaping rules, 
assuming the literal is quoted with
+     * {@code quotation}; it doesn't add the quotation marks themselves. 
{@code '&'}, {@code '<'}, and {@code '>'}
+     * characters will be escaped.
+     *
+     * @param quotation Either {@code '"'} or {@code '\''}. It's assumed that 
the string literal whose part we calculate is
+     *                  enclosed within this kind of quotation mark. Thus, the 
other kind of quotation character will not be
+     *                  escaped in the result.
+     */
+    public static String escapeStringLiteralPart(String s, char quotation) {
+        return escapeStringLiteralPart(s, quotation, false, true, true, true);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Escapes a string according the FTL string literal escaping rules, 
assuming the literal is quoted with
+     * {@code quotation}; it doesn't add the quotation marks themselves.
+     *
+     * @param quotation See in {@link #escapeStringLiteralPart(String, char)}
+     * @param escapeAmp Whether to escape {@code '&'}
+     * @param escapeLT Whether to escape {@code '<'}
+     * @param escapeGT Whether to escape {@code '>'}
+     */
+    public static String escapeStringLiteralPart(String s, char quotation,
+            boolean escapeAmp, boolean escapeLT, boolean escapeGT) {
+        return escapeStringLiteralPart(s, quotation, false, escapeAmp, 
escapeLT, escapeGT);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Escapes a string according the FTL string literal escaping rules; it 
doesn't add the quotation marks themselves.
+     * As this method doesn't know if the string literal is quoted with 
regular quotation marks or apostrophe quote, it
+     * will escape both.
+     *
+     * @see #escapeStringLiteralPart(String, char)
+     */
+    public static String escapeStringLiteralPart(String s) {
+        return escapeStringLiteralPart(s, (char) 0, false);
+    }
+
+    private static String escapeStringLiteralPart(String s, char quotation, 
boolean addQuotation) {
+        return escapeStringLiteralPart(s, quotation, addQuotation, true, true, 
true);
+    }
+
+    private static String escapeStringLiteralPart(String s, char quotation, 
boolean addQuotation,
+            boolean escapeAmp, boolean escapeLT, boolean escapeGT) {
+        final int ln = s.length();
+
+        final char otherQuotation;
+        if (quotation == 0) {
+            otherQuotation = 0;
+        } else if (quotation == '"') {
+            otherQuotation = '\'';
+        } else if (quotation == '\'') {
+            otherQuotation = '"';
+        } else {
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unsupported quotation 
character: " + quotation);
+        }
+
+        final int escLn = ESCAPES.length;
+        StringBuilder buf = null;
+        for (int i = 0; i < ln; i++) {
+            char c = s.charAt(i);
+            char escape =
+                    c < escLn ? ESCAPES[c] :
+                            c == '{' && i > 0 && 
isInterpolationStart(s.charAt(i - 1)) ? '{' :
+                                    0;
+            if (escape == 0 || escape == otherQuotation
+                    || c == '&' && !escapeAmp || c == '<' && !escapeLT || c == 
'>' && !escapeGT) {
+                if (buf != null) {
+                    buf.append(c);
+                }
+            } else {
+                if (buf == null) {
+                    buf = new StringBuilder(s.length() + 4 + (addQuotation ? 2 
: 0));
+                    if (addQuotation) {
+                        buf.append(quotation);
+                    }
+                    buf.append(s.substring(0, i));
+                }
+                if (escape == 1) {
+                    // hex encoding for characters below 0x20
+                    // that have no other escape representation
+                    buf.append("\\x00");
+                    int c2 = (c >> 4) & 0x0F;
+                    c = (char) (c & 0x0F);
+                    buf.append((char) (c2 < 10 ? c2 + '0' : c2 - 10 + 'A'));
+                    buf.append((char) (c < 10 ? c + '0' : c - 10 + 'A'));
+                } else {
+                    buf.append('\\');
+                    buf.append(escape);
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+        if (buf == null) {
+            return addQuotation ? quotation + s + quotation : s;
+        } else {
+            if (addQuotation) {
+                buf.append(quotation);
+            }
+            return buf.toString();
+        }
+    }
+
+    private static boolean isInterpolationStart(char c) {
+        // Find related: [interpolation prefixes]
+        return c == '$';
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Unescapes a string that was escaped to be part of an FTL string 
literal. The string to unescape most not include
+     * the two quotation marks or two apostrophe-quotes that delimit the 
literal.
+     * <p>
+     * \\, \", \', \n, \t, \r, \b and \f will be replaced according to
+     * Java rules. In additional, it knows \g, \l, \a and \{ which are
+     * replaced with &lt;, &gt;, &amp; and { respectively.
+     * \x works as hexadecimal character code escape. The character
+     * codes are interpreted according to UCS basic plane (Unicode).
+     * "f\x006Fo", "f\x06Fo" and "f\x6Fo" will be "foo".
+     * "f\x006F123" will be "foo123" as the maximum number of digits is 4.
+     * <p>
+     * All other \X (where X is any character not mentioned above or 
End-of-string)
+     * will cause a ParseException.
+     *
+     * @param s String literal <em>without</em> the surrounding quotation marks
+     * @return String with all escape sequences resolved
+     * @throws GenericParseException if there string contains illegal escapes
+     */
+    public static String unescapeStringLiteralPart(String s) throws 
GenericParseException {
+
+        int idx = s.indexOf('\\');
+        if (idx == -1) {
+            return s;
+        }
+
+        int lidx = s.length() - 1;
+        int bidx = 0;
+        StringBuilder buf = new StringBuilder(lidx);
+        do {
+            buf.append(s.substring(bidx, idx));
+            if (idx >= lidx) {
+                throw new GenericParseException("The last character of string 
literal is backslash");
+            }
+            char c = s.charAt(idx + 1);
+            switch (c) {
+                case '"':
+                    buf.append('"');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case '\'':
+                    buf.append('\'');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case '\\':
+                    buf.append('\\');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case 'n':
+                    buf.append('\n');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case 'r':
+                    buf.append('\r');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case 't':
+                    buf.append('\t');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case 'f':
+                    buf.append('\f');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case 'b':
+                    buf.append('\b');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case 'g':
+                    buf.append('>');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case 'l':
+                    buf.append('<');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case 'a':
+                    buf.append('&');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case '{':
+                    buf.append('{');
+                    bidx = idx + 2;
+                    break;
+                case 'x': {
+                    idx += 2;
+                    int x = idx;
+                    int y = 0;
+                    int z = lidx > idx + 3 ? idx + 3 : lidx;
+                    while (idx <= z) {
+                        char b = s.charAt(idx);
+                        if (b >= '0' && b <= '9') {
+                            y <<= 4;
+                            y += b - '0';
+                        } else if (b >= 'a' && b <= 'f') {
+                            y <<= 4;
+                            y += b - 'a' + 10;
+                        } else if (b >= 'A' && b <= 'F') {
+                            y <<= 4;
+                            y += b - 'A' + 10;
+                        } else {
+                            break;
+                        }
+                        idx++;
+                    }
+                    if (x < idx) {
+                        buf.append((char) y);
+                    } else {
+                        throw new GenericParseException("Invalid \\x escape in 
a string literal");
+                    }
+                    bidx = idx;
+                    break;
+                }
+                default:
+                    throw new GenericParseException("Invalid escape sequence 
(\\" + c + ") in a string literal");
+            }
+            idx = s.indexOf('\\', bidx);
+        } while (idx != -1);
+        buf.append(s.substring(bidx));
+
+        return buf.toString();
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Creates a <em>quoted</em> FTL string literal from a string, using 
escaping where necessary. The result either
+     * uses regular quotation marks (UCS 0x22) or apostrophe-quotes (UCS 
0x27), or it will be a raw string literal
+     * (like {@code r"can contain backslash anywhere"}).
+     * This is decided based on the number of regular quotation marks, 
apostrophe-quotes, and backslashes.
+     *
+     * @param s The value that should be converted to an FTL string literal 
whose evaluated value equals to {@code s}
+     */
+    public static String toStringLiteral(String s) {
+        if (s == null) {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        int aposCnt = 0;
+        int quotCnt = 0;
+        int backslashCnt = 0;
+        for (int i = 0; i < s.length(); i++) {
+            char c = s.charAt(i);
+            if (c == '\'') {
+                aposCnt++;
+            } else if (c == '"') {
+                quotCnt++;
+            } else if (c == '\\') {
+                backslashCnt++;
+            }
+        }
+
+        if (backslashCnt != 0) {
+            if (quotCnt == 0) {
+                return "r\"" + s + "\"";
+            } else if (aposCnt == 0) {
+                return "r\'" + s + "\'";
+            }
+        }
+
+        char quotation;
+        if (aposCnt < quotCnt ) {
+            quotation = '\'';
+        } else {
+            quotation = '\"';
+        }
+        return escapeStringLiteralPart(s, quotation, true);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Tells if a character can occur on the beginning of an FTL identifier 
expression (without escaping).
+     */
+    public static boolean isNonEscapedIdentifierStart(final char c) {
+        // This code was generated on JDK 1.8.0_20 Win64 with 
src/main/misc/identifierChars/IdentifierCharGenerator.java
+        if (c < 0xAA) { // This branch was edited for speed.
+            if (c >= 'a' && c <= 'z' || c >= '@' && c <= 'Z') {
+                return true;
+            } else {
+                return c == '$' || c == '_';
+            }
+        } else { // c >= 0xAA
+            if (c < 0xA7F8) {
+                if (c < 0x2D6F) {
+                    if (c < 0x2128) {
+                        if (c < 0x2090) {
+                            if (c < 0xD8) {
+                                if (c < 0xBA) {
+                                    return c == 0xAA || c == 0xB5;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xBA
+                                    return c == 0xBA || c >= 0xC0 && c <= 0xD6;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0xD8
+                                if (c < 0x2071) {
+                                    return c >= 0xD8 && c <= 0xF6 || c >= 0xF8 
&& c <= 0x1FFF;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x2071
+                                    return c == 0x2071 || c == 0x207F;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        } else { // c >= 0x2090
+                            if (c < 0x2115) {
+                                if (c < 0x2107) {
+                                    return c >= 0x2090 && c <= 0x209C || c == 
0x2102;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x2107
+                                    return c == 0x2107 || c >= 0x210A && c <= 
0x2113;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0x2115
+                                if (c < 0x2124) {
+                                    return c == 0x2115 || c >= 0x2119 && c <= 
0x211D;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x2124
+                                    return c == 0x2124 || c == 0x2126;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        }
+                    } else { // c >= 0x2128
+                        if (c < 0x2C30) {
+                            if (c < 0x2145) {
+                                if (c < 0x212F) {
+                                    return c == 0x2128 || c >= 0x212A && c <= 
0x212D;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x212F
+                                    return c >= 0x212F && c <= 0x2139 || c >= 
0x213C && c <= 0x213F;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0x2145
+                                if (c < 0x2183) {
+                                    return c >= 0x2145 && c <= 0x2149 || c == 
0x214E;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x2183
+                                    return c >= 0x2183 && c <= 0x2184 || c >= 
0x2C00 && c <= 0x2C2E;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        } else { // c >= 0x2C30
+                            if (c < 0x2D00) {
+                                if (c < 0x2CEB) {
+                                    return c >= 0x2C30 && c <= 0x2C5E || c >= 
0x2C60 && c <= 0x2CE4;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x2CEB
+                                    return c >= 0x2CEB && c <= 0x2CEE || c >= 
0x2CF2 && c <= 0x2CF3;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0x2D00
+                                if (c < 0x2D2D) {
+                                    return c >= 0x2D00 && c <= 0x2D25 || c == 
0x2D27;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x2D2D
+                                    return c == 0x2D2D || c >= 0x2D30 && c <= 
0x2D67;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        }
+                    }
+                } else { // c >= 0x2D6F
+                    if (c < 0x31F0) {
+                        if (c < 0x2DD0) {
+                            if (c < 0x2DB0) {
+                                if (c < 0x2DA0) {
+                                    return c == 0x2D6F || c >= 0x2D80 && c <= 
0x2D96;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x2DA0
+                                    return c >= 0x2DA0 && c <= 0x2DA6 || c >= 
0x2DA8 && c <= 0x2DAE;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0x2DB0
+                                if (c < 0x2DC0) {
+                                    return c >= 0x2DB0 && c <= 0x2DB6 || c >= 
0x2DB8 && c <= 0x2DBE;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x2DC0
+                                    return c >= 0x2DC0 && c <= 0x2DC6 || c >= 
0x2DC8 && c <= 0x2DCE;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        } else { // c >= 0x2DD0
+                            if (c < 0x3031) {
+                                if (c < 0x2E2F) {
+                                    return c >= 0x2DD0 && c <= 0x2DD6 || c >= 
0x2DD8 && c <= 0x2DDE;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x2E2F
+                                    return c == 0x2E2F || c >= 0x3005 && c <= 
0x3006;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0x3031
+                                if (c < 0x3040) {
+                                    return c >= 0x3031 && c <= 0x3035 || c >= 
0x303B && c <= 0x303C;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x3040
+                                    return c >= 0x3040 && c <= 0x318F || c >= 
0x31A0 && c <= 0x31BA;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        }
+                    } else { // c >= 0x31F0
+                        if (c < 0xA67F) {
+                            if (c < 0xA4D0) {
+                                if (c < 0x3400) {
+                                    return c >= 0x31F0 && c <= 0x31FF || c >= 
0x3300 && c <= 0x337F;
+                                } else { // c >= 0x3400
+                                    return c >= 0x3400 && c <= 0x4DB5 || c >= 
0x4E00 && c <= 0xA48C;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0xA4D0
+                                if (c < 0xA610) {
+                                    return c >= 0xA4D0 && c <= 0xA4FD || c >= 
0xA500 && c <= 0xA60C;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xA610
+                                    return c >= 0xA610 && c <= 0xA62B || c >= 
0xA640 && c <= 0xA66E;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        } else { // c >= 0xA67F
+                            if (c < 0xA78B) {
+                                if (c < 0xA717) {
+                                    return c >= 0xA67F && c <= 0xA697 || c >= 
0xA6A0 && c <= 0xA6E5;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xA717
+                                    return c >= 0xA717 && c <= 0xA71F || c >= 
0xA722 && c <= 0xA788;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0xA78B
+                                if (c < 0xA7A0) {
+                                    return c >= 0xA78B && c <= 0xA78E || c >= 
0xA790 && c <= 0xA793;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xA7A0
+                                    return c >= 0xA7A0 && c <= 0xA7AA;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        }
+                    }
+                }
+            } else { // c >= 0xA7F8
+                if (c < 0xAB20) {
+                    if (c < 0xAA44) {
+                        if (c < 0xA8FB) {
+                            if (c < 0xA840) {
+                                if (c < 0xA807) {
+                                    return c >= 0xA7F8 && c <= 0xA801 || c >= 
0xA803 && c <= 0xA805;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xA807
+                                    return c >= 0xA807 && c <= 0xA80A || c >= 
0xA80C && c <= 0xA822;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0xA840
+                                if (c < 0xA8D0) {
+                                    return c >= 0xA840 && c <= 0xA873 || c >= 
0xA882 && c <= 0xA8B3;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xA8D0
+                                    return c >= 0xA8D0 && c <= 0xA8D9 || c >= 
0xA8F2 && c <= 0xA8F7;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        } else { // c >= 0xA8FB
+                            if (c < 0xA984) {
+                                if (c < 0xA930) {
+                                    return c == 0xA8FB || c >= 0xA900 && c <= 
0xA925;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xA930
+                                    return c >= 0xA930 && c <= 0xA946 || c >= 
0xA960 && c <= 0xA97C;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0xA984
+                                if (c < 0xAA00) {
+                                    return c >= 0xA984 && c <= 0xA9B2 || c >= 
0xA9CF && c <= 0xA9D9;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xAA00
+                                    return c >= 0xAA00 && c <= 0xAA28 || c >= 
0xAA40 && c <= 0xAA42;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        }
+                    } else { // c >= 0xAA44
+                        if (c < 0xAAC0) {
+                            if (c < 0xAA80) {
+                                if (c < 0xAA60) {
+                                    return c >= 0xAA44 && c <= 0xAA4B || c >= 
0xAA50 && c <= 0xAA59;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xAA60
+                                    return c >= 0xAA60 && c <= 0xAA76 || c == 
0xAA7A;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0xAA80
+                                if (c < 0xAAB5) {
+                                    return c >= 0xAA80 && c <= 0xAAAF || c == 
0xAAB1;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xAAB5
+                                    return c >= 0xAAB5 && c <= 0xAAB6 || c >= 
0xAAB9 && c <= 0xAABD;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        } else { // c >= 0xAAC0
+                            if (c < 0xAAF2) {
+                                if (c < 0xAADB) {
+                                    return c == 0xAAC0 || c == 0xAAC2;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xAADB
+                                    return c >= 0xAADB && c <= 0xAADD || c >= 
0xAAE0 && c <= 0xAAEA;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0xAAF2
+                                if (c < 0xAB09) {
+                                    return c >= 0xAAF2 && c <= 0xAAF4 || c >= 
0xAB01 && c <= 0xAB06;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xAB09
+                                    return c >= 0xAB09 && c <= 0xAB0E || c >= 
0xAB11 && c <= 0xAB16;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        }
+                    }
+                } else { // c >= 0xAB20
+                    if (c < 0xFB46) {
+                        if (c < 0xFB13) {
+                            if (c < 0xAC00) {
+                                if (c < 0xABC0) {
+                                    return c >= 0xAB20 && c <= 0xAB26 || c >= 
0xAB28 && c <= 0xAB2E;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xABC0
+                                    return c >= 0xABC0 && c <= 0xABE2 || c >= 
0xABF0 && c <= 0xABF9;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0xAC00
+                                if (c < 0xD7CB) {
+                                    return c >= 0xAC00 && c <= 0xD7A3 || c >= 
0xD7B0 && c <= 0xD7C6;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xD7CB
+                                    return c >= 0xD7CB && c <= 0xD7FB || c >= 
0xF900 && c <= 0xFB06;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        } else { // c >= 0xFB13
+                            if (c < 0xFB38) {
+                                if (c < 0xFB1F) {
+                                    return c >= 0xFB13 && c <= 0xFB17 || c == 
0xFB1D;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xFB1F
+                                    return c >= 0xFB1F && c <= 0xFB28 || c >= 
0xFB2A && c <= 0xFB36;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0xFB38
+                                if (c < 0xFB40) {
+                                    return c >= 0xFB38 && c <= 0xFB3C || c == 
0xFB3E;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xFB40
+                                    return c >= 0xFB40 && c <= 0xFB41 || c >= 
0xFB43 && c <= 0xFB44;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        }
+                    } else { // c >= 0xFB46
+                        if (c < 0xFF21) {
+                            if (c < 0xFDF0) {
+                                if (c < 0xFD50) {
+                                    return c >= 0xFB46 && c <= 0xFBB1 || c >= 
0xFBD3 && c <= 0xFD3D;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xFD50
+                                    return c >= 0xFD50 && c <= 0xFD8F || c >= 
0xFD92 && c <= 0xFDC7;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0xFDF0
+                                if (c < 0xFE76) {
+                                    return c >= 0xFDF0 && c <= 0xFDFB || c >= 
0xFE70 && c <= 0xFE74;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xFE76
+                                    return c >= 0xFE76 && c <= 0xFEFC || c >= 
0xFF10 && c <= 0xFF19;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        } else { // c >= 0xFF21
+                            if (c < 0xFFCA) {
+                                if (c < 0xFF66) {
+                                    return c >= 0xFF21 && c <= 0xFF3A || c >= 
0xFF41 && c <= 0xFF5A;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xFF66
+                                    return c >= 0xFF66 && c <= 0xFFBE || c >= 
0xFFC2 && c <= 0xFFC7;
+                                }
+                            } else { // c >= 0xFFCA
+                                if (c < 0xFFDA) {
+                                    return c >= 0xFFCA && c <= 0xFFCF || c >= 
0xFFD2 && c <= 0xFFD7;
+                                } else { // c >= 0xFFDA
+                                    return c >= 0xFFDA && c <= 0xFFDC;
+                                }
+                            }
+                        }
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Tells if a character can occur in an FTL identifier expression (without 
escaping) as other than the first
+     * character.
+     */
+    public static boolean isNonEscapedIdentifierPart(final char c) {
+        return isNonEscapedIdentifierStart(c) || (c >= '0' && c <= '9');
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Tells if a given character, for which {@link 
#isNonEscapedIdentifierStart(char)} and
+     * {@link #isNonEscapedIdentifierPart(char)} is {@code false}, can occur 
in an identifier if it's preceded by a
+     * backslash. Currently it return {@code true} for these: {@code '-'}, 
{@code '.'} and {@code ':'}.
+     */
+    public static boolean isEscapedIdentifierCharacter(final char c) {
+        return c == '-' || c == '.' || c == ':';
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Escapes characters in the string that can only occur in FTL identifiers 
(variable names) escaped.
+     * This means adding a backslash before any character for which {@link 
#isEscapedIdentifierCharacter(char)}
+     * is {@code true}. Other characters will be left unescaped, even if they 
aren't valid in FTL identifiers.
+     *
+     * @param s The identifier to escape. If {@code null}, {@code null} is 
returned.
+     */
+    public static String escapeIdentifier(String s) {
+        if (s == null) {
+            return null;
+        }
+
+        int ln = s.length();
+
+        // First we find out if we need to escape, and if so, what the length 
of the output will be:
+        int firstEscIdx = -1;
+        int lastEscIdx = 0;
+        int plusOutLn = 0;
+        for (int i = 0; i < ln; i++) {
+            char c = s.charAt(i);
+            if (isEscapedIdentifierCharacter(c)) {
+                if (firstEscIdx == -1) {
+                    firstEscIdx = i;
+                }
+                lastEscIdx = i;
+                plusOutLn++;
+            } else if (i == 0 && !isNonEscapedIdentifierStart(c)
+                    || i > 0 && !isNonEscapedIdentifierPart(c)) {
+                // TODO [FM3] But quoting is only allowed for target 
variables... that's a strange syntax anyway.
+                return toStringLiteral(s);
+            }
+        }
+
+        if (firstEscIdx == -1) {
+            return s; // Nothing to escape
+        } else {
+            char[] esced = new char[ln + plusOutLn];
+            if (firstEscIdx != 0) {
+                s.getChars(0, firstEscIdx, esced, 0);
+            }
+            int dst = firstEscIdx;
+            for (int i = firstEscIdx; i <= lastEscIdx; i++) {
+                char c = s.charAt(i);
+                if (isEscapedIdentifierCharacter(c)) {
+                    esced[dst++] = '\\';
+                }
+                esced[dst++] = c;
+            }
+            if (lastEscIdx != ln - 1) {
+                s.getChars(lastEscIdx + 1, ln, esced, dst);
+            }
+
+            return String.valueOf(esced);
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the type description of a value with FTL terms (not plain class 
name), as it should be used in
+     * type-related error messages and for debugging purposes. The exact 
format is not specified and might change over
+     * time, but currently it's something like {@code "string (wrapper: 
f.t.SimpleScalar)"} or
+     * {@code "sequence+hash+string (ArrayList wrapped into 
f.e.b.CollectionModel)"}.
+     *
+     * @param tm The value whose type we will describe. If {@code null}, then 
{@code "Null"} is returned (without the
+     *           quotation marks).
+     */
+    public static String getTypeDescription(TemplateModel tm) {
+        if (tm == null) {
+            return "Null";
+        } else {
+            Set typeNamesAppended = new HashSet();
+
+            StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
+
+            Class primaryInterface = getPrimaryTemplateModelInterface(tm);
+            if (primaryInterface != null) {
+                appendTemplateModelTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, 
primaryInterface);
+            }
+
+            appendTemplateModelTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, tm.getClass());
+
+            String javaClassName;
+            Class unwrappedClass = getUnwrappedClass(tm);
+            if (unwrappedClass != null) {
+                javaClassName = _ClassUtils.getShortClassName(unwrappedClass, 
true);
+            } else {
+                javaClassName = null;
+            }
+
+            sb.append(" (");
+            String modelClassName = 
_ClassUtils.getShortClassName(tm.getClass(), true);
+            if (javaClassName == null) {
+                sb.append("wrapper: ");
+                sb.append(modelClassName);
+            } else {
+                sb.append(javaClassName);
+                sb.append(" wrapped into ");
+                sb.append(modelClassName);
+            }
+            sb.append(")");
+
+            return sb.toString();
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Return the template language type name of callable class, as it should 
be shown in error messages.
+     *
+     * @param callable
+     *         Can't be {@code null}.
+     */
+    public static String getCallableTypeName(TemplateCallableModel callable) {
+        _NullArgumentException.check("callable", callable);
+
+        String result = "callable-of-unknown-kind";
+
+        String d = null;
+        if (callable instanceof TemplateDirectiveModel) {
+            d = _CoreAPI.isMacro(callable.getClass()) ? "macro" : "directive";
+            result = d;
+        }
+
+        if (callable instanceof TemplateFunctionModel) {
+            String f = callable instanceof JavaMethodModel ? "method" : 
"function";
+            result = d == null ? f : d + "+" + f;
+        }
+
+        return result;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the {@link TemplateModel} interface that is the most 
characteristic of the object, or {@code null}.
+     */
+    private static Class getPrimaryTemplateModelInterface(TemplateModel tm) {
+        if (tm instanceof BeanModel) {
+            if (tm instanceof BeanAndStringModel) {
+                Object wrapped = ((BeanModel) tm).getWrappedObject();
+                return wrapped instanceof String
+                        ? TemplateScalarModel.class
+                        : (tm instanceof TemplateHashModelEx ? 
TemplateHashModelEx.class : null);
+            } else {
+                return null;
+            }
+        } else {
+            return null;
+        }
+    }
+
+    private static void appendTemplateModelTypeName(StringBuilder sb, Set 
typeNamesAppended, Class cl) {
+        int initalLength = sb.length();
+
+        if (TemplateNodeModelEx.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "extended node");
+        } else if (TemplateNodeModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "node");
+        }
+
+        if (TemplateCallableModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            if (TemplateDirectiveModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+                appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, _CoreAPI.isMacro(cl) ? 
"macro" : "directive");
+            }
+            if (TemplateFunctionModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+                appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended,
+                        JavaMethodModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl) ? "method" 
: "function");
+            }
+        }
+
+        if (TemplateSequenceModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "sequence");
+        } else if (TemplateCollectionModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended,
+                    TemplateCollectionModelEx.class.isAssignableFrom(cl) ? 
"extended_collection" : "collection");
+        } else if (TemplateModelIterator.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "iterator");
+        }
+
+        if (Environment.Namespace.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "namespace");
+        } else if (TemplateHashModelEx.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "extendedHash");
+        } else if (TemplateHashModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "hash");
+        }
+
+        if (TemplateNumberModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "number");
+        }
+
+        if (TemplateDateModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "date_or_time_or_dateTime");
+        }
+
+        if (TemplateBooleanModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "boolean");
+        }
+
+        if (TemplateScalarModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "string");
+        }
+
+        if (TemplateMarkupOutputModel.class.isAssignableFrom(cl)) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "markupOutput");
+        }
+
+        if (sb.length() == initalLength) {
+            appendTypeName(sb, typeNamesAppended, "miscTemplateModel");
+        }
+    }
+
+    private static Class getUnwrappedClass(TemplateModel tm) {
+        Object unwrapped;
+        try {
+            if (tm instanceof WrapperTemplateModel) {
+                unwrapped = ((WrapperTemplateModel) tm).getWrappedObject();
+            } else if (tm instanceof AdapterTemplateModel) {
+                unwrapped = ((AdapterTemplateModel) 
tm).getAdaptedObject(Object.class);
+            } else {
+                unwrapped = null;
+            }
+        } catch (Throwable e) {
+            unwrapped = null;
+        }
+        return unwrapped != null ? unwrapped.getClass() : null;
+    }
+
+    private static void appendTypeName(StringBuilder sb, Set 
typeNamesAppended, String name) {
+        if (!typeNamesAppended.contains(name)) {
+            if (sb.length() != 0) sb.append("+");
+            sb.append(name);
+            typeNamesAppended.add(name);
+        }
+    }
+}

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/a5ac9983/freemarker-core/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/_StringUtils.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git 
a/freemarker-core/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/_StringUtils.java
 
b/freemarker-core/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/_StringUtils.java
index 9218005..e553be1 100644
--- 
a/freemarker-core/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/_StringUtils.java
+++ 
b/freemarker-core/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/core/util/_StringUtils.java
@@ -1541,18 +1541,18 @@ public class _StringUtils {
     }
 
     public static String toFTLIdentifierReferenceAfterDot(String name) {
-        return FTLUtil.escapeIdentifier(name);
+        return TemplateLanguageUtils.escapeIdentifier(name);
     }
 
     public static String toFTLTopLevelIdentifierReference(String name) {
-        return FTLUtil.escapeIdentifier(name);
+        return TemplateLanguageUtils.escapeIdentifier(name);
     }
 
     public static String toFTLTopLevelTragetIdentifier(final String name) {
         char quotationType = 0;
         scanForQuotationType: for (int i = 0; i < name.length(); i++) {
             final char c = name.charAt(i);
-            if (!(i == 0 ? FTLUtil.isNonEscapedIdentifierStart(c) : 
FTLUtil.isNonEscapedIdentifierPart(c)) && c != '@') {
+            if (!(i == 0 ? 
TemplateLanguageUtils.isNonEscapedIdentifierStart(c) : 
TemplateLanguageUtils.isNonEscapedIdentifierPart(c)) && c != '@') {
                 if ((quotationType == 0 || quotationType == '\\') && (c == '-' 
|| c == '.' || c == ':')) {
                     quotationType = '\\';
                 } else {
@@ -1565,9 +1565,9 @@ public class _StringUtils {
         case 0:
             return name;
         case '"':
-            return FTLUtil.toStringLiteral(name);
+            return TemplateLanguageUtils.toStringLiteral(name);
         case '\\':
-            return FTLUtil.escapeIdentifier(name);
+            return TemplateLanguageUtils.escapeIdentifier(name);
         default:
             throw new BugException();
         }

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/a5ac9983/freemarker-core/src/main/javacc/FTL.jj
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/freemarker-core/src/main/javacc/FTL.jj 
b/freemarker-core/src/main/javacc/FTL.jj
index 952f854..613b252 100644
--- a/freemarker-core/src/main/javacc/FTL.jj
+++ b/freemarker-core/src/main/javacc/FTL.jj
@@ -2165,7 +2165,7 @@ ASTExpStringLiteral ASTExpStringLiteral(boolean 
interpolate) :
             s = t.image.substring(2, t.image.length() -1);
         } else {
                try {
-                   s = FTLUtil.unescapeStringLiteralPart(t.image.substring(1, 
t.image.length() -1));
+                   s = 
TemplateLanguageUtils.unescapeStringLiteralPart(t.image.substring(1, 
t.image.length() -1));
             } catch (GenericParseException e) {
                 throw new ParseException(e.getMessage(), template, t);
             }
@@ -3633,7 +3633,7 @@ ASTDirOutputFormat OutputFormat() :
             }
         } else {
             throw new ParseException(
-                    "Parameter must be a string, but was: " + 
FTLUtil.getTypeDescription(paramTM),
+                    "Parameter must be a string, but was: " + 
TemplateLanguageUtils.getTypeDescription(paramTM),
                     paramExp);
         }
         

http://git-wip-us.apache.org/repos/asf/incubator-freemarker/blob/a5ac9983/freemarker-test-utils/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/test/templateutil/AssertDirective.java
----------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git 
a/freemarker-test-utils/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/test/templateutil/AssertDirective.java
 
b/freemarker-test-utils/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/test/templateutil/AssertDirective.java
index eb6930b..d833c13 100644
--- 
a/freemarker-test-utils/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/test/templateutil/AssertDirective.java
+++ 
b/freemarker-test-utils/src/main/java/org/apache/freemarker/test/templateutil/AssertDirective.java
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.ArgumentArrayLayout;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateBooleanModel;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateDirectiveModel;
 import org.apache.freemarker.core.model.TemplateModel;
-import org.apache.freemarker.core.util.FTLUtil;
+import org.apache.freemarker.core.util.TemplateLanguageUtils;
 
 public class AssertDirective implements TemplateDirectiveModel {
     public static AssertDirective INSTANCE = new AssertDirective();
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ public class AssertDirective implements 
TemplateDirectiveModel {
         }
         if (!(test instanceof TemplateBooleanModel)) {
             throw new AssertationFailedInTemplateException("Assertion 
failed:\n"
-                    + "The value had to be boolean, but it was of type" + 
FTLUtil.getTypeDescription(test),
+                    + "The value had to be boolean, but it was of type" + 
TemplateLanguageUtils.getTypeDescription(test),
                     env);
         }
         if (!((TemplateBooleanModel) test).getAsBoolean()) {


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