Nothing is done with the flags here, only parsing and validation.
---
 lib/parse-sexp.cc         | 116 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------
 test/T081-sexpr-search.sh |  31 ++++++++++
 2 files changed, 127 insertions(+), 20 deletions(-)

diff --git a/lib/parse-sexp.cc b/lib/parse-sexp.cc
index 1be2a4be..14420c0e 100644
--- a/lib/parse-sexp.cc
+++ b/lib/parse-sexp.cc
@@ -10,6 +10,34 @@ typedef struct  {
     Xapian::Query initial;
 } _sexp_op_t;
 
+typedef enum {
+    SEXP_FLAG_NONE     = 0,
+    SEXP_FLAG_WILDCARD = 1 << 0,
+} _sexp_flag_t;
+
+/*
+ * define bitwise operators to hide casts */
+
+inline _sexp_flag_t
+operator| (_sexp_flag_t a, _sexp_flag_t b)
+{
+    return static_cast<_sexp_flag_t>(
+       static_cast<unsigned>(a) | static_cast<unsigned>(b));
+}
+
+inline _sexp_flag_t
+operator& (_sexp_flag_t a, _sexp_flag_t b)
+{
+    return static_cast<_sexp_flag_t>(
+       static_cast<unsigned>(a) & static_cast<unsigned>(b));
+}
+
+typedef struct  {
+    const char *name;
+    Xapian::Query::op xapian_op;
+    _sexp_flag_t flags_allowed;
+} _sexp_field_t;
+
 static _sexp_op_t operations[] =
 {
     { "and",    Xapian::Query::OP_AND,          Xapian::Query::MatchAll },
@@ -18,29 +46,36 @@ static _sexp_op_t operations[] =
     { }
 };
 
-typedef struct  {
+static _sexp_field_t fields[] =
+{
+    { "attachment",   Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE,       SEXP_FLAG_WILDCARD },
+    { "body",         Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE,       SEXP_FLAG_WILDCARD },
+    { "date",         Xapian::Query::OP_INVALID,      SEXP_FLAG_NONE },
+    { "from",         Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE,       SEXP_FLAG_NONE },
+    { "folder",       Xapian::Query::OP_OR,           SEXP_FLAG_NONE },
+    { "id",           Xapian::Query::OP_OR,           SEXP_FLAG_NONE },
+    { "is",           Xapian::Query::OP_AND,          SEXP_FLAG_WILDCARD },
+    { "mid",          Xapian::Query::OP_OR,           SEXP_FLAG_NONE },
+    { "mimetype",     Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE,       SEXP_FLAG_NONE },
+    { "path",         Xapian::Query::OP_OR,           SEXP_FLAG_NONE },
+    { "property",     Xapian::Query::OP_AND,          SEXP_FLAG_WILDCARD },
+    { "query",        Xapian::Query::OP_INVALID,      SEXP_FLAG_NONE },
+    { "subject",      Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE,       SEXP_FLAG_NONE },
+    { "tag",          Xapian::Query::OP_AND,          SEXP_FLAG_WILDCARD },
+    { "thread",       Xapian::Query::OP_OR,           SEXP_FLAG_NONE },
+    { "to",           Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE,       SEXP_FLAG_NONE },
+    { }
+};
+
+typedef struct {
     const char *name;
-    Xapian::Query::op xapian_op;
-} _sexp_field_t;
+    _sexp_flag_t flag;
+} _sexp_keyword_t;
 
-static _sexp_field_t fields[] =
+static _sexp_keyword_t keywords[] =
 {
-    { "attachment",     Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE },
-    { "body",           Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE },
-    { "date",           Xapian::Query::OP_INVALID },
-    { "from",           Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE },
-    { "folder",         Xapian::Query::OP_OR },
-    { "id",             Xapian::Query::OP_OR },
-    { "is",             Xapian::Query::OP_AND },
-    { "mid",            Xapian::Query::OP_OR },
-    { "mimetype",       Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE },
-    { "path",           Xapian::Query::OP_OR },
-    { "property",       Xapian::Query::OP_AND },
-    { "query",          Xapian::Query::OP_INVALID },
-    { "subject",        Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE },
-    { "tag",            Xapian::Query::OP_AND },
-    { "thread",         Xapian::Query::OP_OR },
-    { "to",             Xapian::Query::OP_PHRASE },
+    { "any", SEXP_FLAG_WILDCARD },
+    { "*", SEXP_FLAG_WILDCARD },
     { }
 };
 
@@ -168,6 +203,38 @@ _sexp_parse_date (notmuch_database_t *notmuch, const 
sexp_t *sx, Xapian::Query &
     }
 }
 
+static notmuch_status_t
+_sexp_parse_keywords (notmuch_database_t *notmuch, const char *prefix, const 
sexp_t *sx,
+                     _sexp_flag_t mask,
+                     _sexp_flag_t &flags, const sexp_t *&rest)
+{
+    flags = SEXP_FLAG_NONE;
+
+    for (; sx && sx->ty == SEXP_VALUE && sx->aty == SEXP_BASIC && sx->val[0] 
== ':'; sx = sx->next) {
+       _sexp_keyword_t *keyword;
+       for (keyword = keywords; keyword && keyword->name; keyword++) {
+           if (strcasecmp (keyword->name, sx->val + 1) == 0) {
+               if ((mask & keyword->flag) == 0) {
+                   _notmuch_database_log_append (notmuch,
+                                                 "unsupported keyword '%s' for 
prefix '%s'\n",
+                                                 sx->val, prefix);
+                   return NOTMUCH_STATUS_BAD_QUERY_SYNTAX;
+               } else {
+                   flags = flags | keyword->flag;
+                   break;
+               }
+           }
+       }
+       if (! keyword || ! keyword->name) {
+           _notmuch_database_log (notmuch, "unknown keyword %s\n", sx->val);
+           return NOTMUCH_STATUS_BAD_QUERY_SYNTAX;
+       }
+    }
+
+    rest = sx;
+    return NOTMUCH_STATUS_SUCCESS;
+}
+
 /* Here we expect the s-expression to be a proper list, with first
  * element defining and operation, or as a special case the empty
  * list */
@@ -206,6 +273,15 @@ _sexp_to_xapian_query (notmuch_database_t *notmuch, const 
sexp_t *sx, Xapian::Qu
 
     for (const _sexp_field_t *field = fields; field && field->name; field++) {
        if (strcasecmp (field->name, hd_sexp (sx)->val) == 0) {
+           _sexp_flag_t flags;
+           const sexp_t *rest;
+
+           notmuch_status_t status = _sexp_parse_keywords (notmuch, 
sx->list->val,
+                                                           sx->list->next, 
field->flags_allowed,
+                                                           flags, rest);
+           if (status)
+               return status;
+
            /* some fields need to be handled specially */
            if (strcasecmp (field->name, "date") == 0) {
                return _sexp_parse_date (notmuch, sx, output);
diff --git a/test/T081-sexpr-search.sh b/test/T081-sexpr-search.sh
index 89f1c36f..f4454ac2 100755
--- a/test/T081-sexpr-search.sh
+++ b/test/T081-sexpr-search.sh
@@ -259,4 +259,35 @@ unimplemented prefix foo
 EOF
 test_expect_equal_file EXPECTED OUTPUT
 
+test_begin_subtest "unknown keyword"
+notmuch search --query-syntax=sexp '(subject :foo)' >OUTPUT 2>&1
+cat <<EOF > EXPECTED
+notmuch search: Syntax error in query
+unknown keyword :foo
+EOF
+test_expect_equal_file EXPECTED OUTPUT
+
+test_begin_subtest "unsupported keyword for prefix"
+notmuch search --query-syntax=sexp '(subject :any)' >OUTPUT 2>&1
+cat <<EOF > EXPECTED
+notmuch search: Syntax error in query
+unsupported keyword ':any' for prefix 'subject'
+EOF
+test_expect_equal_file EXPECTED OUTPUT
+
+test_begin_subtest "known keyword :any"
+test_expect_success 'notmuch search --query-syntax=sexp "(tag :any)"'
+
+test_begin_subtest "known keyword :*"
+test_expect_success 'notmuch search --query-syntax=sexp "(tag :*)"'
+
+test_begin_subtest "multiple known keywords"
+test_expect_success 'notmuch search --query-syntax=sexp "(tag :any :*)"'
+
+test_begin_subtest "quoted unknown keyword"
+test_expect_success 'notmuch search --query-syntax=sexp "(subject \":foo\")"'
+
+test_begin_subtest "unknown keyword after non-keyword"
+test_expect_success 'notmuch search --query-syntax=sexp "(subject foo :foo)"'
+
 test_done
-- 
2.30.2
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