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Victor Horovitz  wrote:
Excuse me for being blunt, but your assertion is
ridiculous. The semitic word for sun is $VmV$. It is
shared by all semitic languages (Heb $eme$, Akkadian
$am$su, Ugaritic $p$, Arabic sams, etc). The Akkadian
nominal form would be $am$u with the nominative
ending. The form $ama$ is the absolute form used in
personal names, so $ama$ is simply the way one
adresses the sun (Mr. Sun). THe word for the heavenly
luminary precedes its deification, and does not derive
from it.  


Dear Victor:

The fact that the name $ama$ could mean Mr. Sun
presupposes that it could also have meant Lord Sun
ranking him among the nobility, in a monarchial
structure, where, perhaps, $ama$ was its king.  We
cannot rule out a form of pagan idolatry where a
deceased king is honored and considered the rising sun
in the eternal life.  In this case then the origin of
the name does not precludes that it was involved in
its very origin as a religio-mythic cult of a
primogenetor king who eternally lives and reigns and
who can give us enlightenment.  Judaism seems to have
broken off from this cultic sun-worship and imputed to
the one-uncreated-God the faculties and personality of
$ama$ and established monotheism as an outgrowth and a
response to this.

Victor Horovitz  wrote:
Although the sun may have been adored in Israelite
religion, biblical or post biblical, as has been
asserted by many scholars (see, for example Morton
Smith's article on Helios in Palestine in the Orlinsky
Volume of Eretz Israel, or Hadley? articles and
books), your argument is simply wrong, backward, and
irrelevant.

I agree that the Israeli sun worshipping would be
irrelevant since it would have been post Sumerian
period which first gave evidence to this phenomenon. 
Conseuently, Judaism would have been a development as
an outgrowth from Sumerian culture, which appears to
have lapsed back into its former Sumerian form from
time to time.

Victor Horovitz  wrote:
As for adoring the rising sun, in particular, I might
refer you to the famous Sun Disk inscription of
Nebobaladan (King, Babylonian Boundary Stones no. 36)
which tells that the statue of $ama$ was lost, and
until it was "miraculously" rediscovered, it was
substituted for by a "niphu".  Now, niphu designates a
sundisk model, round and decorated with a four pointed
star with wavy lines characteristic of $ama$ between
each arm of the star. If you look at a picture of the
tablet you will see such a niphu. What is relevant to
your suggestion about this, is that the Akkadian verb
napahu, from which niphu is derived, means to break
out in flames, and also "sun rise", so if we may learn
anything from this it may be that the accepted
non-anthropormorphic symbol of the Babylonian Sun God
$ama$ was a model of the rising sun.
Victor

Yes, Victor, $ama$ would have been associated with the
sun and time, hence he would be considered as
"father-time" or "the eternal one", or, perhaps
called, "Lord Sun-Rise".  It is from this origin that
it appears that Judaism was born.  Substituting or
replacing "Ehad" the "One" the eternal and uncreated
God, who is the source of all creation, with $ama$,
forms the new monotheistic religion of Judaism.  The
first Jews had adored the sun but as the "Father" who
could enlighten us and give revelations.  He could
speak through prophets, kings, priests, and reveal
himself to the human family.  The disolvement between
monolitheistic cult worship with the sun and without
it seems to have drifted in and out suggesting priests
from different schools existed and that the high
priests were selected shifting between these different
schools from time to time.

Best regards,
John


=====
John N. Lupia
501 North Avenue B-1
Elizabeth, New Jersey 07208-1731 USA

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