First things first.I want to express my unflinching solidarity with our Israeli colleagues, currently facing a difficult time.
Ian wrote: "1. If anyone has any light to shed on the Onias/Jason problem I would be happy to read it. 2. The distinction between the sons of Zadok and the sons of Aaron doesn't seem to have been debated, but I would like to hear if there are any bibliographical indications. Any comments would be welcome. 3. Does it seem reasonable to list members to use the mention of the sons of Zadok for dating purposes? (Note, that I make a distinction between sons of Zadok and Sadducees, the rump of the priesthood which followed older religious traditions and did not adhere to the "innovations" of the Pharisees.)" I donīt think there is any way to date anything (after Antiochus Epiphanes) on the basis of the mention of the Sons of Zadok . It seems certain that the Zadokites where the most powerful clan within the priesthood - i.e the Sons of Aaron - who were the only leading group after the exile and chances are that they remained a fairly influential clan even after (herodian)political circumstances determined the change of the system of highpriestly dinasties. Whether or not Hasmoneans were Zadokites or not remains a matter of debate, although the mention of the first Hasmonean Highpriest saying he will remain in function until a true profet(?) will arise (if I recall this correctly) seems to indicate that his lineage was not above controversy. Hence the probability that Shimon and his brothers werenīt regarded as Zadokites. Anyhow, the problems with the purity of lineage became certainly worse after Johananīs Hyrcanus acces to power, as we know from Josephus, (a Priest-King who was accused by a Pharisee, Elazar, to usurpe the highpriestly function, since his mother was said to have been captive before he was born). This incident -and for that matter Josephus own interpretation of it - is interesting as it denotes how much attention and importance was attached to the question of lineage throughout the 2,nd Temple period. (Remember also the genealogies in Qumran). All this can explain the popping up of a sect of Sadduccees, which I think, is absolutely rightly connected etimologically, to the sons of Zadok, as a group claiming the power on religious grounds, after it had been ousted from it, (or clinging to it despite opposition). However, there is nothing, appart from their name to suggest the Sadduccees succeeded what no other group did, namely to avoid succesive defections and schisms. As for the obsessive repetition of the phrase "Sons of Zadok" in the Qumran manuscripts I think it is logical to assume that it served both an ideological and a political purpose, being used against a temple hierarchy dominated by High priests chosen arbitrarily, from a religious point of view, for economic or political aims. This points to a rather late date of the manuscripts. It may very well be, that the vicious polemic on this issue was ultimately the reason for some extremely controversial appointments such as that of Pinchas, the derided last High priest of the Temple, right before its destruction by the Romans a man who must certainly have been considered a Zadokite by the Zealots appointing him after the casting of lots. Remarcable as well are the polemics against the zadokites (Sadduccees) throughout the Talmud and Tosefta, which reminds us a) of Johanan ben Zakaiīs problems with the Zealots not letting him get out of the besieged Jerusalem and b) the great importance attributed to fighting them even at a late date after the destruction of the Temple, when their practical significance as a highpriestly class had all but vanished and the return and rebuiding had become utterly hypothetical. As for Alcimus (AJ) not being of highpriestly stock, this is an extremely ambigious note, since it may mean anything, from Alcimus not being a Zadokite, to him not being the son of the previous Hight Priest as was the custom at that time, to him not being off aaronite descent. Best regards, Peter Janku For private reply, e-mail to "peter janku" <[EMAIL PROTECTED]> ---------------------------------------------------------------- To unsubscribe from Orion, e-mail to [EMAIL PROTECTED] with the message: "unsubscribe Orion." Archives are on the Orion Web site, http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il. (PLEASE REMOVE THIS TRAILOR BEFORE REPLYING TO THE MESSAGE)