More interesting items from Boccaccini's work, which
describe some of the factors towards the creation of
the Qumran community.  The author believes the Qumran
community is an offshoot of the Essene movement, and
that the Enochian elements of the Essene movement considered
their priesthood much older than the Zadokite priesthood.
Details below.....

Page 73:
"While the Zadokites founded their legitimacy on 
their responsibility to be the faithful keepers of the cosmic
order, the Enochians argued that this world had been corrupted by an
original sin of angels, who had contaminated God's creation
by crossing the boundary between heaven and earth and
by revealing secret knowledge to human beings.

Despite God's reaction and the subsequent flood, the original
order was not, and could not be, restored.  The good angels,
led by Michael, defeated the evil angels, led by Semyaz
and Azaz'el.  The mortal bodies of the giants, the offspring
of the evil union of angels and women, were killed, but their
immortal souls survived as evil spirits (! En 15:8-10) and
continue to roam about the world in order to corrupt human
beings and destroy cosmic order.

While Zadokite Judaism describes creation as a process from
past disorder to current divine order, the Enochians claim
that God's past order has been replaced by the current 
disorder.  While being  a member of the heavenly court
(Job 1:6-12; 2:1-7; Zech 3:1-2; 1 Chr 21:1), Enochic Judaism
would be ultimately responsible for the creation of the concept
of the devil.  While Zadokite Judaism struggles to separate
evil and impurity from the demonic and makes their spread
depend on human choice, Enochic Judaism removes control of
these disruptive forces from humans."

"...The myth of the fallen angels was not merely a bizarre
or folkloric expansion of ancient legends; it disrupted the
very foundations of Zadokite Judaism.  Enochic Judaism
directly challenged the legitimacy of the second temple and
its priesthood...."

Page 74:
"...the attribution to Enoch of priestly characteristics 
[Footnote 45:  M. Himmelfarb, "Enoch as Priest and Scribe,"
in Ascent to Heaven in Jewish and Christian Apocalypses
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1993) 23-25...] suggests
the existence of a pure prediluvian, and pre-fall, priesthood
and disrupts the foundations of the Zadokite priesthood, 
which claimed its origin in Aaron at the time of the exodus,
in an age that, for the Enochians, was already corrupted
after the angelic sin and the flood."

Page 185:
"The roots of the Essene movement (and therefore of the 
Qumran community) are in a priestly anti-Zadokite tradition
of the second temple period that expressed itself in the
earliest Enochic literature (Book of the Watchers, Aramaic
Levi, Astronomical Book).  The generative idea of this dissident
movement was that the good universe created by God was no longer
such, since it had been corrupted by the sin of rebellious
angels.  Claiming to represent a competing (and more ancient)
priestly line than that of the ruling Zadokite priesthood,
the Enochians did not recognize the legitimacy of the second
temple and maintained that Israel was still living in exile."

"The view that Essenism was a Zadokite reaction following the
Maccabean crisis has no foundation in our sources.  After the 
death of Onias III, the strictly Zadokite party fled to Egpyt,
and the closest heirs of Zadokite Judaism, the Sadducees,
accepted the Hasmonean rule and priesthood.  The Essenes
had many reasons to oppose the Hasmoneans, but their Enochic
genetic code never made them miss the Zadokite high priests."

Page 186:
"...What in the early second temple period was probably only
a minority phenomenon of some priestly families spread [to
other priestly families] and won adherents during the Maccabean
crisis.  The end of the Zadokite priesthood gave confidence to
the group, while the harshness of the struggle seemed to prove
the soundness of their ideas about the spread of evil and the
degeneration of history."

"The Enochians contributed to the coalition of groups (the
Hasidim) that supported the Maccabees against the high priest
Menelaus and King Antiochus IV (Dream Visions).  The success
of the uprising opened new horizons.  A group or documents expressed
dissatisfaction with the earlier Enochic concept that all human
beings, including the Jews, were affected by evil.  God's historical
determinism restored the foundations of Israel's election and gave sense
to a concrete political and religious agenda for the chosen people even
in this corrupted world.  The inclusive theology of
Jubilees and the Temple Scroll suggests that the Enochians became
the center of a vast and composite movement that aimed to replace
the Zadokite leadership."

"....The self-consciousness of the Enochians as the chosen among the 
chosen and as having a message significant for the entirety of Israel
gave to their party a clear and distinct identity and led them to seek a
certain degree of separation from the rest of the people (Proto-Epistle
of Enoch, Halakhic Letter).  It is probably at this point that the
Enochians (or part of the movement they initiated) became the "Essenes"
of Philo and Josephus, with the establishment of communities in towns and
villages.   This may explain why ancient historiography presented the
Essene movement as both a new phenomenon and a venerable movement.  The
many similarities between the life of the Essene communities in Palestine
and the life of the Qumran community show that the structure of the
Essene communities was already formed in its basic lines before the
emergency of the Qumran community." [!]

Page 187:
"After the polemical phase of the parting of the ways between Enochic
Judaism and Qumranic Judaism at the beginning of the first century BCE,
the Qumran community remained marginal to the ideological debate that saw
Essene Judaism still competing with the other varieties of middle
Judaism.  The Qumran sectarians implemented and strengthened their own
separate identity within the Essene movement, and built on individual
predestination and a dualistic world view that made God the source of
both good and evil."

Page 188:
"Mainstream Essenes [i.e., non-Qumranite Essenes] maintained a 
more moderate approach that led them to reject the doctrine of individual
predestination held by their sibling movement.  The religious and social
sources of disagreement with the Jewish society of the time were not
pushed so hard as to justify a complete separation.  The non-Qumran
Essenes stood as champions of "the poor" of this world and bearers of a
heroic morality, which allowed them to continue to play a recognized,
influential role as some of the major Jewish movements of their time
(Josephus and Philo)."

Page 195:
"It has taken some time to realize that the Qumran library comprised not
only the documents of a marginal sectarian community but also a
substantial body of Essene literature from the second temple period,
independent of Qumran [i.e., Enochian].  "Their Qumran secessionists have
in one way given the Essenes a sectarian reputation, but they have also,
it seems, redeemed themselves somewhat by handing over to us the means to
rediscover a mainstream Jewish movement" [quoted from P.R.
Davies, Behind the Essenes:  History and Ideology in the Dead Sea
Scrolls, BJS 94 (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987) 134.]  Thanks to the
Enochic/Essene hypothesis, we need no longer face the mystery of four 
thousand Essenes, creative and strong-minded, yet vanishing like the lady
in the Hitchcock movie, disappearing as though they had never been. 
Thanks to the Enochic/Essene hypothesis, those four thousand
Essenes, forgotten and neglected, may come back to life adn, through the
Enochic literature, speak again."

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