Criminal Fifth Column
By Paul Barrett <> 
The Wall Street Journal | February 5, 2003

Over a quiet dinner at an Indian restaurant in upstate New York, Warith Deen
Umar offered his views of Islam and the Sept. 11 attacks. The hijackers
should be honored as martyrs, he said. The U.S. risks further terrorism
attacks because it oppresses Muslims around the world. "Without justice,
there will be warfare, and it can come to this country, too," he said. The
natural candidates to help press such an attack, in his view:
African-Americans who embraced Islam in prison.

During a long and extraordinary career, he has had an unusual opportunity to
spread these ideas. For about 20 years until he retired in 2000, Imam Umar
-- the title means prayer leader -- helped run New York's growing Islamic
prison program, recruiting and training dozens of chaplains, and ministering
to thousands of inmates himself. With help from the Saudi government, he
traveled to Saudi Arabia and brought that country's harsh form of Islam to
New York's expanding ranks of Muslim prisoners.

The 58-year-old cleric remains influential with many of the chaplains he
helped select as well as the inmates they work with. He continues to visit
New York state prisons as a volunteer chaplain. Until Tuesday, he also
worked part-time counseling inmates for the U.S. Bureau of Prisons.

"Even Muslims who say they are against terrorism secretly admire and
applaud" the hijackers, he wrote in an unpublished memoir. The Quran, he
said, does not condemn terrorism against oppressors of Muslims, even if
innocent people die. "This is the sort of teaching they don't want in
prison," he said. "But this is what I'm doing."

Prison officials in New York and many other states long have welcomed Muslim
imams and clergy of other faiths. Religion provides structured activity that
reduces security problems in prison, they say. It encourages inmates to
accept responsibility for their actions and turn their backs on crime upon
their release.

But there is another side to Islam behind bars. While Imam Umar says the
focus of his preaching usually "is on work, family and getting an
education," he also says that prison "is the perfect recruitment and
training grounds for radicalism and the Islamic religion."

A prison chaplain since 1975, he has seen Islam grow among inmates,
mirroring the vast increase in the incarceration of African-Americans, some
of whom adopt the religion as inmates. As the most influential Muslim prison
chaplain in New York, which has the fourth-largest state system in the
nation, he and some of his trainees adopted the fundamentalist offshoot of
Sunni Islam known as Wahhabism. Rooted in Saudi Arabia, it stresses a
literal reading of the Quran and intolerance for people and sects that don't
follow its absolutist teaching. The chaplains have operated with little
supervision from state prison officials, who say the constitutional
protection of religious freedom prevents them from closely monitoring
religious services.

Imam Umar -- born Wallace Gene Marks and later known as Wallace 10X -- twice
has traveled to Saudi Arabia for worship and study at the expense of the
Saudi government and its affiliated charities, part of an extensive program
aimed at spreading Islam in U.S. prisons. He and other prison chaplains also
have studied and attended conferences at an Islamic school in Virginia that
U.S. officials raided last year in a probe of organizations suspected of
helping move Saudi money to Middle Eastern terrorists. Although New York
state officials knew that a few chaplains were making pilgrimages to Saudi
Arabia, the state's prison commissioner said last week that he did not know
a large group had traveled at the Saudi government's expense.

Imam Umar and some of his colleagues have brought some of Wahhabism's
harshest prejudices to their captive flock. On Sept. 11, 2001, the chaplain
at the men's prison in remote Cape Vincent, N.Y., preached that God had
inflicted his punishment on the wicked and the victims deserved what they
got, according to a labor arbitrator's subsequent ruling upholding his
firing. Shocked officials at the prison didn't intervene for fear of
sparking a riot. About six weeks later, the chaplain at the Albion
Correctional Facility for women told inmates that Osama bin Laden "is a
soldier of Allah, a hero of Allah," prison officials say.

New York also has seen a rash of complaints from inmates who adhere to the
minority Shiite sect of Islam. The tension reflects a centuries-old split
between Shiites and the Sunni majority. Imam Umar and other chaplains have
imported into New York prisons Sunni absolutist perspectives, some inmates
say, including a bias against Shiites. Nearly all the chaplains he helped
hire are Sunni.

Anthony Cook, a Shiite inmate in New York, has been in protective custody
since 2001, when other Muslim inmates threatened his life, prison records
show. Shiite inmates charge that some chaplains encourage this kind of
animosity by delivering sermons that repeat a centuries-old slur that
Shiaism began as a Jewish conspiracy to contaminate Islam. Chaplains have
handed out religious literature to inmates calling Shiites "charlatans,"
"deviants" and enemies of genuine Islam, inmates say.

Imam Umar says he has always preached that "the Prophet said we are all
Muslims, not Shiite, not Sunni, just Muslims." He says it was "stupid" for
his colleagues to speak out so frankly in the aftermath of Sept. 11 but that
they were punished too harshly. Fear of this kind of official reaction is
why more Muslims don't speak their minds, he says.

Glenn S. Goord, New York's prison commissioner, says that he was unaware of
Imam Umar's extremist ideas. "Those are political views he expressed after
9/11. He retired way before 9/11 and didn't express those views before, that
I know of." He says he did not know that Imam Umar continues to visit state
prisons as a volunteer chaplain. "It sounds like he shouldn't," he adds.

James B. Flateau, the prison department's chief spokesman, says that Imam
Umar "misrepresents and distorts" the meaning of the Quran. Other Muslim
chaplains "in their hearts may agree," he adds, "but they are expected to
conform to recognized views of their religion while functioning within the

The Making of a Militant

Imam Umar helped pioneer government-paid Muslim prison ministry in the
1970s, but his earliest experiences behind bars were as a teenage criminal.
He says he spent his 15th and 16th birthdays in Illinois jails for purse
snatchings and drug crimes. "I went to jail too many times to count," he

Wallace Gene Marks, as he was then known, moved to New York in the late
1960s and befriended a group of fledgling militants in Harlem. He and his
friends talked "about taking off pigs [police officers] and spreading guns
and weapons to people," he says. They were overheard by two undercover
police officers.

He and four others, dubbed the Harlem Five, were tried on
conspiracy-to-murder charges in 1971. "We only had my 9mm handgun, another
defendant's 30-30 rifle and some crude hand-made bombs, fashioned with gun
powder and nails," he says. The Harlem Five argued that their talk had been
just bravado and beat the conspiracy charges. Wallace Marks, however, was
sent to prison for possessing weapons. "If it happened today, I would have
been called a terrorist," he says.

Before beginning his two-year prison term, he visited Nation of Islam leader
Louis Farrakhan, who promised that Allah would protect him. Mr. Marks became
a Nation of Islam leader in prison and later changed his name to Wallace
10X. In 1975, shortly after he was released, New York put the 30-year-old
parolee on its payroll as one of the state's first two Muslim chaplains.
Some of the other early Muslim chaplains also were ex-convicts. Eventually
he moved to the more orthodox Sunni school of Islam and changed his name to
Warith Deen Umar. (Warith Deen means "inheritor of the religion"; Umar was
an early Muslim leader.)

There are now 200,000 to 340,000 Muslim inmates nationwide, making up 10% to
17% of the prison and jail population, according to estimates by corrections
officials and Muslim organizations. Prisons in most states with large Muslim
populations, including New York and California, have to varying degrees
allowed for Friday group prayer, Muslim-approved meals and special schedules
during the Ramadan month of fasting and worship.

To serve its 13,000 Muslim inmates, New York employs 45 Muslim chaplains,
most of whom were hired under Imam Umar's supervision before he retired in
August 2000. California, which doesn't keep a tally of Muslim inmates,
employs 18 full-time Muslim chaplains. The federal Bureau of Prisons, with
12,000 Muslims among its 164,000 prisoners, employs 10 full-time Muslim
chaplains. That number does not include part-time chaplains, such as Imam
Umar, who until Tuesday worked for the bureau at its prison in Otisville,
N.Y., on a contractual basis.

After receiving questions about Imam Umar from The Wall Street Journal, the
federal prison agency said in a statement Tuesday, "For the convenience of
the government, the Bureau of Prisons has terminated the contract for
services with Imam Umar." The bureau added that it "does not tolerate
chaplains, or other staff, condoning or endorsing violence in their
communications with inmates." Imam Umar said late Tuesday that he will "not
sit back and accept this."

Imam Umar exercised wide influence through the National Association of
Muslim Chaplains, an advocacy group he helped found in the late 1970s. New
York officials say they deferred to the association in selecting new
chaplains. "We kind of never knew how we got the people," says Mr. Goord, a
26-year corrections-department veteran who became New York's prison
commissioner in 1996.

Religious staffing issues are "maddening," says the 51-year-old official.
"It's why I'm bald." He explains that choosing Muslim chaplains is
particularly tricky because Islam doesn't have centralized administrative
institutions, like Catholic archdioceses. Still, Mr. Goord says, "the Muslim
chaplains have been very, very positive for us, educating me, educating my
employees, educating the inmates."

But in the days and weeks after Sept. 11, he and his corrections staffers
say they were surprised to learn what some inmates were hearing from the
spiritual leaders that Imam Umar had helped hire and train. When news of the
attacks reached the men's prison in isolated Cape Vincent on the Canadian
border, all scheduled activities at the medium-security prison ceased.
Inmates, mostly from New York City, were permitted to gather around
televisions reporting the news.

Prison officials sought out their Muslim chaplain, Sufwan El Hadi, to say
something soothing to inmates. The 31-year-old imam, who studied from a
young age at Islamic schools in Brooklyn and New Jersey, had worked for the
corrections department for more than five years and had a reputation for
being mild-mannered.

But when he spoke at the collection of low-slung buildings surrounded by
chain-link fences that day, he was anything but that. In a loud, angry
voice, he addressed about 90 inmates and a group of officials in the prison
gymnasium, according to a labor arbitrator's subsequent ruling. Spicing his
English delivery with Arabic prayer, Imam El Hadi said that God had
inflicted his punishment on the wicked. The victims deserved what they got,
he said, and America deserved what it got.

Some inmates became visibly agitated. "What is this bulls -- ?" several were
heard saying after Imam El Hadi's talk, according to a deputy superintendent
of the prison. But "many people, inmates, came up to him and said, 'good
job, good job,' " says the imam's attorney, Amin Khalil Hussain-El.

The next day, Sept. 12, Muslim prisoners at Cape Vincent didn't wear their
distinctive kufis, or skull caps, afraid to be identified with their
religion. But at the nearby Watertown prison, where Imam El Hadi also
worked, a different scene unfolded. Imam El Hadi ran out into the prison
yard, pumping his arms above his head and chanting, while a group of Muslim
inmates crowded around him, smiling and laughing and patting each other on
the back, according to a guard's account cited in arbitrator Paul S.
Zonderman's ruling. On Sept. 13, officials told the imam he was a security
risk and put him on leave. He later was fired from his $55,000-a-year job.

Imam El Hadi contested the dismissal. He told a state investigator that he
had said to inmates that " 'God punishes wrongdoers and the disobedient,'
but did not mean that the victims were evil. I do not agree with the attacks
and do not believe in violence towards innocent people."

Mr. Hussain-El, the imam's lawyer, says the Watertown incident was
misinterpreted. He says Imam El Hadi had merely shouted a standard Muslim
greeting in Arabic and that inmates had responded enthusiastically because,
having heard of the controversy at Cape Vincent, "they were happy he was

Stressing the scene in the Watertown prison yard, the arbitrator concluded
last March that Imam El Hadi "has no place within a correctional facility"
and deserved to be fired.

About six weeks after the Sept. 11 attacks, Aminah Akbar, a veteran female
chaplain, told a crowd of 100 inmates at the Albion Correctional Facility
for women that Osama bin Laden "is a soldier of Allah," and added, "I am not
an American, I just live here," prison officials say. She was booed by some
inmates, and officials feared her talk would exacerbate tensions between
Muslims and non-Muslims at the prison.

Mr. Zonderman, who also arbitrated her case after she was fired, ruled that
Ms. Akbar, then about 60 years old, instead should have been suspended for
three months. He noted that her speech to inmates also included laudable
advice about education, jobs and demanding more respect from their men.

A union representative for Ms. Akbar told the arbitrator that her words had
been twisted by biased officials, and that she didn't assert Mr. bin Laden's
innocence. Ms. Akbar later retired, according to prison officials. She
didn't respond to faxed requests for comment.

Mr. Goord, the prison commissioner, says the two inflammatory incidents in
the wake of Sept. 11 were rare and dealt with swiftly. Most chaplains worked
to calm inmates and maintain order after Sept. 11, he says.

After Imam Umar retired in 2000, Mr. Goord says he decided to turn to
committees of imams in New York City and Syracuse for advice on hiring
Muslim clerics, instead of relying on the National Association of Muslim
Chaplains. "Umar did a great job," Mr. Goord says. "I wanted to open the
process." So far, four chaplains have been hired under the year-old system.

'Prison Outreach'

Prison dawa, or the spreading of the faith, has become a priority for many
Muslim groups in the U.S. and the Saudi Arabian government, which runs what
spokesman Nail Al-Jubeir calls a "prison outreach" program. The Islamic
Affairs Department of its Washington embassy ships out hundreds of copies of
the Quran each month, as well as religious pamphlets and videos, to prison
chaplains and Islamic groups who then pass them along to inmates.

The Saudi government also pays for prison chaplains, along with many other
American Muslims, to travel to Saudi Arabia for worship and study during the
hajj, the traditional winter pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are
supposed to make at least once in their lives. The trips typically cost
$3,000 a person and last several weeks, says Mr. Al-Jubeir, the Saudi

Since 1978, Imam Umar has made the pilgrimage to Mecca four times. In 1998
and 2000, he was a member of groups whose travel was financed by the Saudi
government and affiliated organizations. On the 2000 trip, Imam Umar was
among 17 prison chaplains and their wives from the U.S.

Taha Jabir Alalwani, the president of the Graduate School of Islamic and
Social Sciences in Leesburg, Va., helped arrange the trip in 2000 for the
prison-chaplain contingent. He made contacts on their behalf with Saudi
government offices and government-funded charities, he says. Mr. Alalwani
had gotten to know Imam Umar and other New York prison chaplains in the
1990s, when they studied at his school and attended conferences there. The
school awarded Imam Umar a masters degree in 2001.

Mr. Alalwani, a well-known Iraqi-born scholar, recalls warning the chaplains
before they left for Saudi Arabia in 2000: "Be careful. You may encounter
certain people, religious leaders with extremist attitudes and opinions that
wouldn't work here." The scholar says his Islamic school is a force for
moderation among Muslims in the U.S. The Kuwaiti and Malaysian governments
have paid for students to attend the school, but it doesn't take money from
Saudi Arabia, he says.

The U.S. government uses the school to help select chaplains for its prisons
and for the military.

Last March, a federal task force led by Customs Service agents raided the
graduate school and Mr. Alalwani's Virginia home, trucking away documents
and computer files. The search was part of a broad investigation of Islamic
organizations and charities in Virginia suspected by federal agents of
helping to move Saudi money to foreign terrorist groups, including al Qaeda
and Hamas.

Many American Muslim leaders have condemned the Customs Service task force,
known as Operation Green Quest, saying its mission reflects anti-Islam
prejudice. Mr. Alalwani strongly denies any association with terrorism. The
government hasn't brought any charges against him or his school or any other
of the Virginia-based organizations. Other investigations by Operation Green
Quest have resulted in 70 indictments, mostly on charges related to money
laundering, currency smuggling and fraud, a Customs Service spokesman says.
He denies the service is motivated by any bias against Muslims.

In its statement, the Bureau of Prisons declined to comment on the
investigation but added, "We would certainly take appropriate action with
respect to any school or organization that has ties to terrorist groups."

A Pentagon spokeswoman say the Department of Defense is aware of the
investigation and confirms that the military uses the school as an
"ecclesiastical certifying organization."

Imam Umar criticizes the Customs Service investigation as religiously
motivated intimidation. As for Mr. Alalwani's advice about Saudi Islam, Imam
Umar says he has found nothing objectionable about the views of Saudi
religious figures or scholars, with whom he has consulted periodically over
the years.

He says the Saudis should share more of their oil wealth with poor Muslims,
but he praises the kingdom's ruling family for promoting the ideas of
Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, an 18th-century religious puritan. The Saudis
"kept the religion in force," he says. "They follow the ways of the

Mr. Al-Jubeir, the Saudi spokesman, says that his countrymen don't use the
term Wahhabism, and consider it a crude epithet. But, he says, "we believe
in a strict interpretation of the Quran. ... If it's not in the Quran, it's

"There are certain differences among Muslims, and those are important," Mr.
Al-Jubeir continues. For example, he says, some Shiites worship at the grave
of the Prophet Muhammad in Medina. "We don't believe that's right," he says.
"You pray to God, not the prophet. You can't bring in your cultural ideas."

The split between the Sunni and Shiite sects has its roots in the
seventh-century struggle between Muslims over who would succeed Muhammad.
The minority Shiites declared allegiance to members of Muhammad's family and
their descendents, whom they considered to be semidivine. Leaders of the
Sunni majority adopted a more flexible approach of following new leaders
drawn from the larger Muslim population. Bloody conflict ensued and has
erupted periodically ever since. In its most recent human-rights report, the
U.S. Department of State said, "There is institutionalized discrimination
against adherents of the Shia branch of Islam" in Saudi Arabia.

Sunni antagonism to Shiites has become a problem in U.S. prisons as well.
Some imams, the vast majority of whom are Sunni, encourage the persecution
of Shiite prisoners, according to current and former inmates and some Muslim
groups. Muhsin M.R. Alidina, an official with the Imam Al-Khoei Islamic
Center in Queens, N.Y., says the large Shiite mosque has received letters
from hundreds of Shiite inmates in a half-dozen states complaining of

Imam Salahuddin M. Muhammad, now the chaplain at Fishkill Correctional
Facility, the medium-security prison in Beacon, N.Y., met Imam Umar in the
late 1970s while serving 12 years for robbery. Like Imam Umar, Imam Muhammad
says he embraced Sunni Islam.

Shiite prisoners at Fishkill have accused Imam Muhammad of calling them
"infiltrators and snitches" during Friday sermons. They say Sunni inmates
have circulated a pamphlet, "The Difference Between the Shiites and the
Majority of Muslim Scholars," which recounts an ancient smear that Shiaism
grew out of a seventh-century conspiracy orchestrated by a Yemeni Jew, who
sought "to create discord among Muslims by agitating the trible [sic] and
racial differences and hostilities." The 32-page booklet was published by
the World Assembly of Muslim Youth, an organization based in Riyadh and
backed by the Saudi government.

Imam Muhammad says he promotes Islam as a "path of rectitude" and calls the
Shiite allegations lies. Asked about his views on Shiites, he says, "I don't
want to get into name calling, but they are the minority." He adds that he
is concerned about Shiite inmates who "have done a lot to try to influence
Sunni to become Shia." The chaplain stresses that he disagrees with Imam
Umar's views on the Quran and terrorism.

An Unspecified 'Mission'

Some Shiite prisoners have filed grievances and lawsuits seeking separate
religious services, their own chaplains, and other accommodations. In July
1999, Frankie Cancel, a Shiite then serving a 10-year prison term for
manslaughter, won a New York state court ruling that Shiites were entitled
to their own prayer services.

After the judge's ruling, Imam Umar visited the Fishkill prison, where Mr.
Cancel was held, and addressed Muslim inmates at a Friday afternoon prayer
service. Standing on a platform in the prison's basement mosque, the
chaplain began with prayers in Arabic. Then he turned his attention to the
recent court decision, according to Mr. Cancel.

The ruling favoring Shiites was a threat, he told his audience of about 100
inmates, most sitting cross-legged on the floor. The Imam said that Mr.
Cancel and other Shiites were part of a Jewish conspiracy to undermine
Islam, according to Mr. Cancel. He spoke of the need to protect the Muslim
community against enemies, and pointed out that the judge who had rendered
the decision was Jewish, Mr. Cancel says.

Imam Umar told his listeners to prepare themselves for an unspecified
"mission," Mr. Cancel recalls, adding that he and other inmates interpreted
this as a threat against Shiites. The chaplain said he himself had his "guns
ready," according to Mr. Cancel. The closest guard was in an adjacent
hallway, out of earshot.

In May 2001, after Imam Umar had officially retired as a New York state
employee, he gave a guest sermon to Muslim inmates at the Wyoming prison in
Attica, N.Y., where Mr. Cancel had been transferred. He told the inmates
that Mr. Cancel was being paid off by a Jewish conspiracy to undermine the
Muslim prison community, Mr. Cancel says.

Imam Umar says that he did give talks at the Fishkill and Wyoming facilities
at about the times Mr. Cancel says he did, but that he didn't comment about
a Jewish conspiracy, Sunnis getting ready for a "mission," or having his own
"guns ready."

"Even if I thought those thoughts, I wouldn't come out and say that in front
of a group that typically has not just Muslims but other prisoners too, and
a guard listening at the door," the imam says. He says that he preaches
unity among Muslims, not division.

In Mr. Cancel's case, an appeals court has ruled that Shiites must be
accommodated, but the ruling leaves much to the discretion of prison
officials. Those officials have granted Shiites separate religious classes
and formally warned chaplains not to "disparage" Shiite inmates or their

Mr. Cancel in 2001 filed a new suit in federal court in Manhattan against
various state officials, seeking monetary damages for violations of his
constitutional right to religious freedom. A federal judge has dismissed his
claims against most of the defendants, but not against Imam Umar, who is
represented by the state attorney general's office. Mr. Cancel, now 30, was
released from prison last year.

Shiite inmates say that hostile sermons and literature sometimes incite
threats of violence by Sunnis. Anthony Cook says that in 1999 in the Great
Meadow state prison, Imam Abdulkadir Elmi distributed religious literature
that condemned Shiites as "charlatans, reeking with the stench of
chicken-heartedness, insincerity, greed, cowardice and equivocation." A
senior prison official in New York later determined that the literature was
"inappropriate," prison records show. Mr. Cook was transferred to another
prison in 2001. He was placed in protective custody after officials received
warnings from other inmates that Mr. Cook's life was in jeopardy from other
Muslims, according to prison records.

Mr. Cook, now 43 and serving 15 years to life for manslaughter, is a
plaintiff in a separate suit involving the rights of Shiite inmates pending
in federal court in Syracuse, N.Y. Sitting on a blue metal folding chair in
the dingy visitors' area in the prison in Auburn, N.Y., he shrugs his
shoulders over the death threats. "If it happens, it happens," he says.

The religious literature at issue in Mr. Cook's case was removed and the
imam was "told not to do it again," says Mr. Flateau, the prison department
spokesman. "It does show the process works."

Antwon Dennis, a Shiite serving 50 years to life for second-degree murder
and assault, said in a declaration in another lawsuit that last year Imam
Elmi attended a Friday prayer gathering during which a Sunni inmate leader
said that anyone who disagreed with Sunni teachings should keep quiet or
risk getting "jumped." Imam Elmi, who is from Somalia, "did not say anything
after these statements," Mr. Dennis said. From November 2001 through
February 2002, "about four Shiites have been attacked by Sunni inmates"
following disagreements at religious classes or services at the Great Meadow
prison, he said in his statement. The suit, filed in federal court in
Manhattan, was dismissed and the plaintiffs have appealed. Imam Elmi
declined to comment. Mr. Flateau says the four attacks "cannot be

New York prison officials say that in most cases, Sunni and Shiite inmates
worshipping together does not lead to problems. As an example, they point to
Mount McGregor, north of Albany, where Imam Muhammad S. Ahmed, an immigrant
from Ghana, ministers to about 100 Muslims inmates.

The Mount McGregor mosque offers inmates a haven from the clamor and stench
encountered elsewhere in drab buildings of stone and concrete. On a frigid
winter day, an inmate in a green uniform, his shoes removed, intoned the
traditional plaintive call to midday prayer. A dozen inmates gathered under
the eaves in a clean attic room decorated with Arabic spiritual messages in
cobalt, gold and crimson. The men faced east toward Mecca, prostrated
themselves on a blue carpet and prayed. The closest guard sat out of sight,
two rooms away.

In an interview before the service began, Imam Ahmed addressed the Shiite
issue. Some Sunni inmates, although not in his prison, have suggested that
Shiites are not good Muslims, he said.

"You will find inmates who will attack, and you will find Imams who egg them
on," he said, adding that he does not do so. "You will find inmates with
hate literature. That you cannot help. Religious literature comes from the
outside. There is no proof that imams bring that material into the facility.
It is against department policy."

New York prison officials say they are looking into hiring their first
Shiite chaplain. But most Shiites who want to worship with others will have
to continue to attend Sunni services, the officials say.

Imam Umar says he considered trying to defuse the Shiite issue by hiring a
Shiite chaplain in 1993, but he dropped the idea because other Sunni
chaplains opposed it. Now, he sees far greater dangers eclipsing sectarian
hostility among inmates. "There is more happening in this country than most
people know about," he says: Muslim anger is quietly building behind bars
and on the outside. "Prisons are a powder keg," he says. "The question is
the ignition."


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