Consider this:

    sub id (Any $x) returns Any { return($x) }
    sub length (Str $y) returns Int { ... }


Under standard static subtyping rules, this call will perform three
different typechecks:

 1) "abc".does(Any)     # ("abc" as Str)  ===> (Any $x) in &id
 2) $x.does(Any)        # ($x as Any)     ===> (returns Any) in &return
 3) Any.does(Str)       # (returns Any)   ===> (Str $y) in &length

The final (returns Int) is unimportant here.

Obviously, typecheck #3 fails, as Any cannot do Str.  Indeed, there is
no type literal in the return position that can satisfy this static
typecheck for &id, other than the bottom type which would be a subtype
for every type.  Let's call it All:

    sub id (Any $x) returns All { return($x) }

However, had we used that, #2 will fail, as it would now be checking for
$x.does(All), which is guaranteed to fail regardless of whether the
check occurs at runtime (Str.does(All)) or compile time (Any.does(All)).

Hence, it seems to me that there are only four ways out:

  A) Omit the #3 check from compile time; at runtime, use the actual
     type of $x.  The "returns" type annotation will not propagate
     outward to the caller.
        At compile time, check for #2: Any.does(Any)
        At runtime, check for #2: "abc".does(Any)
                    check for #3: "abc".does(Str)

  B) Omit the #2 check from both compile time and runtime; this allows
     us to write the "returns All" version.
        At compile time, check for #3: All.does(Str)
        At runtime, check for #3: "abc".does(Str)

  C) Make the return type observe both #2 and #3 at compile time,
     using junctive types to pass both checks:

        sub id ( Any $x ) returns Any|All { return($x) }

  D) Make the return type observe both #2 and #3 at compile time,
     using type variables:

        sub id ( (::T) $x ) returns ::T { return($x) }

At this moment, I don't have a strong preference to either; I'm more
curious on whether this topic has been covered before by p6l and @Larry.


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