On Monday, October 10, 2016, Barry Smith <bsm...@mcs.anl.gov> wrote: > > > On Oct 10, 2016, at 4:01 PM, Kong, Fande <fande.k...@inl.gov > <javascript:;>> wrote: > > > > Hi All, > > > > I know how to remove the null spaces from a singular system using > creating a MatNullSpace and attaching it to Mat. > > > > I was really wondering what is the philosophy behind this? The exact > algorithms we are using in PETSc right now? Where we are dealing with > this, preconditioner, linear solver, or nonlinear solver? > > It is in the Krylov solver. > > The idea is very simple. Say you have a singular A with null space N > (that all values Ny are in the null space of A. So N is tall and skinny) > and you want to solve A x = b where b is in the range of A. This problem > has an infinite number of solutions Ny + x* since A (Ny + x*) = ANy + > Ax* = Ax* = b where x* is the "minimum norm solution; that is Ax* = b and > x* has the smallest norm of all solutions. > > With left preconditioning B A x = B b GMRES, for example, normally > computes the solution in the as alpha_1 Bb + alpha_2 BABb + alpha_3 > BABABAb + .... but the B operator will likely introduce some component > into the direction of the null space so as GMRES continues the "solution" > computed will grow larger and larger with a large component in the null > space of A. Hence we simply modify GMRES a tiny bit by building the > solution from alpha_1 (I-N)Bb + alpha_2 (I-N)BABb + alpha_3 (I-N)BABABAb > + .... that is we remove from each new direction anything in the direction > of the null space. Hence the null space doesn't directly appear in the > preconditioner, just in the KSP method. If you attach a null space to the > matrix, the KSP just automatically uses it to do the removal above.

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Barry, if identity matrix I is of size M x M (which is also the size of A) then are you augmenting N (size M x R; R < M) by zero colums to make I - N possible? If so it means that only first R values of vector Bb are used for scaling zero Eigenvectors of A. Does this choice affect iteration count, meaning one can arbitrarily choose any R values of the vector Bb to scale zero eigenvectors of A? > > With right preconditioning the solution is built from alpha_1 b + > alpha_2 ABb + alpha_3 ABABb + .... and again we apply (I-N) to each term to > remove any part that is in the null space of A. > > Now consider the case A y = b where b is NOT in the range of A. So > the problem has no "true" solution, but one can find a least squares > solution by rewriting b = b_par + b_perp where b_par is in the range of A > and b_perp is orthogonal to the range of A and solve instead A x = > b_perp. If you provide a MatSetTransposeNullSpace() then KSP automatically > uses it to remove b_perp from the right hand side before starting the KSP > iterations. > > The manual pages for MatNullSpaceAttach() and > MatTranposeNullSpaceAttach() discuss this an explain how it relates to the > fundamental theorem of linear algebra. > > Note that for symmetric matrices the two null spaces are the same. > > Barry > > > A different note: This "trick" is not a "cure all" for a totally > inappropriate preconditioner. For example if one uses for a preconditioner > a direct (sparse or dense) solver or an ILU(k) one can end up with a very > bad solver because the direct solver will likely produce a very small pivot > at some point thus the triangular solver applied in the precondition can > produce HUGE changes in the solution (that are not physical) and so the > preconditioner basically produces garbage. On the other hand sometimes it > works out ok. > > > > > > > > Fande Kong, > > -- --Amneet