Excerpts from Simon Riggs's message of mar mar 06 17:28:12 -0300 2012: > On Tue, Mar 6, 2012 at 7:39 PM, Alvaro Herrera > <alvhe...@commandprompt.com> wrote: > > > We provide four levels of tuple locking strength: SELECT FOR KEY UPDATE is > > super-exclusive locking (used to delete tuples and more generally to update > > tuples modifying the values of the columns that make up the key of the > > tuple); > > SELECT FOR UPDATE is a standards-compliant exclusive lock; SELECT FOR SHARE > > implements shared locks; and finally SELECT FOR KEY SHARE is a super-weak > > mode > > that does not conflict with exclusive mode, but conflicts with SELECT FOR > > KEY > > UPDATE. This last mode implements a mode just strong enough to implement RI > > checks, i.e. it ensures that tuples do not go away from under a check, > > without > > blocking when some other transaction that want to update the tuple without > > changing its key. > > So there are 4 lock types, but we only have room for 3 on the tuple > header, so we store the least common/deprecated of the 4 types as a > multixactid. Some rewording would help there.
Hmm, I rewrote that paragraph two times. I'll try to adjust it a bit more. > My understanding is that all of theses workloads will change > > * Users of explicit SHARE lockers will be slightly worse in the case > of the 1st locker, but then after that they'll be the same as before. Right. (We're assuming that there *are* users of SHARE locks, which I'm not sure to be a given.) > * Updates against an RI locked table will be dramatically faster > because of reduced lock waits Correct. > ...and that these previous workloads are effectively unchanged: > > * Stream of RI checks causes mxacts Yes. > * Multi row deadlocks still possible Yes. > * Queues of writers still wait in the same way Yes. > * Deletes don't cause mxacts unless by same transaction Yeah .. there's no way for anyone to not conflict with a FOR KEY UPDATE lock (the strength grabbed by a delete) unless you're the same transaction. > > The possibility of having an update within a MultiXact means that they must > > persist across crashes and restarts: a future reader of the tuple needs to > > figure out whether the update committed or aborted. So we have a > > requirement > > that pg_multixact needs to retain pages of its data until we're certain that > > the MultiXacts in them are no longer of interest. > > I think the "no longer of interest" aspect needs to be tracked more > closely because it will necessarily lead to more I/O. Not sure what you mean here. > If we store the LSN on each mxact page, as I think we need to, we can > get rid of pages more quickly if we know they don't have an LSN set. > So its possible we can optimise that more. Hmm, I had originally thought that this was rather pointless because it was unlikely that a segment would *never* have *all* multis not containing updates. But then, maybe Robert is right and there are users out there that run a lot of RI checks and never update the masters ... Hm. I'm not sure that LSN tracking is the right tool to do that optimization, however -- I mean, a single multi containing an update in a whole segment will prevent that segment from being considered useless. > > VACUUM is in charge of removing old MultiXacts at the time of tuple > > freezing. > > You mean mxact segments? Well, both. When a tuple is frozen, we both remove its Xmin/Xmax and any possible multi that it might have in Xmax. That's what I really meant above. But also, vacuum will remove pg_multixact segments just as it will remove pg_clog segments. (It is possible, and probably desirable, to remove a Multi much earlier than freezing the tuple. The patch does not (yet) do that, however.) > Surely we set hint bits on tuples same as now? Hope so. We set hint bits, but if a multi contains an update, we don't set HEAP_XMAX_COMMITTED even when the update is known committed. I think we could do this in some cases. -- Álvaro Herrera <alvhe...@commandprompt.com> The PostgreSQL Company - Command Prompt, Inc. PostgreSQL Replication, Consulting, Custom Development, 24x7 support -- Sent via pgsql-hackers mailing list (email@example.com) To make changes to your subscription: http://www.postgresql.org/mailpref/pgsql-hackers