I want to propose improvement of GiST page layout.
GiST is optimized to reduce disk operations on search queries, for
example, windows search queries in case of R-tree.
I expect that more complicated page layout will help to tradeoff some
of CPU efficiency for disk efficiency.
GiST tree is a balanced tree structure with two kinds of pages:
internal pages and leaf pages. Each tree page contains bunch of tuples
with the same structure. Tuples of an internal page reference other
pages of the same tree, while a leaf page tuples holds heap TIDs.
During execution of search query GiST for each tuple on page invokes
key comparison algorithm with two possible outcomes: 'no' and 'may
be'. 'May be' answer recursively descends search algorithms to
referenced page (in case of internal page) or yields tuple (in case of
Expected tuples count on page is around of tenth to hundreds. This
count is big enough to try to save some cache lines from loading into
CPU during enumeration.
For B-trees during inspection of a page we effectively apply binary
search algorithm, which is not possible in GiST tree.
Let's consider R-tree with arbitrary fan-out f. If a given query will
find exactly one data tuple, it is easily to show that keys comparison
count is minimal if f->e /*round_to_optimal(2.78) == 3*/ (tree have to
review f*h keys, h=logf(N), f*logf(N) is minimal when f->e). Smaller
keys comparison count means less cache lines are touched. So fan-out
reduction means cache pressure reduction (except avg fan-out 2, which
seems to be too small) and less time waiting for RAM. I suppose, all
that reasoning holds true in a cases when not just one tuple will be
How do we reduce tree fan-out? Obviously, we can’t fill page with just
3 tuples. But we can install small tree-like structure inside one
page. General GiST index has root page. But a page tree should have
“root” layer of tuples. Private (or internal, intermediate, auxiliary,
I can’t pick precise word) tuples have only keys and fixed-size(F)
array of underlying records offsets. Each layer is linked-list. After
page have just been allocated there is only “ground” level of regular
tuples. Eventually record count reaches F-1 and we create new root
layer with two tuples. Each new tuple references half of preexisting
records. Placement of new “ground” tuples on page eventually will
cause internal tuple to split. If there is not enough space to spilt
internal tuple we mark page for whole page-split during next iteration
of insertion algorithms of owning tree. That is why tuple-spilt
happens on F-1 tuples, not on F: if we have no space for splitting, we
just adding reference to last slot. In this algorithm, page split will
cause major page defragmentation: we take root layer, halve it and
place halves on different pages. When half of a data is gone to other
page, restructuration should tend to place records in such a fashion
that accessed together tuples lie together. I think, placing whole
level together is a good strategy.
Let’s look how page grows with fan-out factor F=5. RLS – root layer
start, G – ground tuple, Ix – internal tuple of level x.
When we added 3 ground tuples it’s just a ground layer
RLS=0|G G G
Then we place one more tuple and layer splits:
RLS=4|G G G G I0 I0
Each I0 tuple now references two G tuples. We keep placing G tuples.
RLS=4|G G G G I0 I0 G G
And then one of I0 tuples is spitted
RLS=4|G G G G I0 I0 G G G I0
And right after one more I0 split causes new layer
RLS=12|G G G G I0 I0 G G G I0 G I0 I1 I1
And so on, until we have space on a page. In a regular GiST we ran out
of space on page before we insert tuple on page. Now we can run out of
space during insertion. But this will not be fatal, we still will be
able to place ground level tuple. Inner index structure will use
one-extra slot for reference allocation, but next insertion on a page
will deal with it. On a pages marked for split we have to find which
exactly index tuple has run out of extra-slot during split and fix it.
Several years ago I had unsuccessful attempt to implement akin
algorithm in a database engine of a proprietary system. I stuck in the
debug of deletion algorithm and tree condensation, it is in use in
that system. I suppose it was a mistake to defrag page with creeping
heuristic, eventually I dropped the idea and just moved on to actually
important tasks, there is always deadline rush in business. I’m newbie
in Postgres internals. But as I see there is no deletion on GiST page.
So I feel itch to try this feature one more time.
I expect that implementation of this proposal could speed up
insertions into index by 20% and performance of queries by 30% when
all index accommodates in shared buffer. In case of buffer starvation,
when index is accessed through disk this feature will cause 15%
performance degrade since effective page capacity will be smaller.
Should this feature be configurable? May be this should be other
I need help to assess amount for work TDB. WAL redo, vacuum, bulk
index construction: what else parts are touched and have to be
Please, tell me what do you think about this proposal.
Best regards, Andrey Borodin, Octonica & Ural Federal University.
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