Hi all,

I propose a new feature for high availability. 

This configuration is effective for following configuration: 
1. Primary and synchronous standby are in the same center; called main center. 
2. Asynchronous standby is in the another center; called backup center. 
   (The backup center is located far away from the main center. If replication 
   mode is synchronous, performance will be deteriorated. So, this replication 
   must be Asynchronous. )
3. Asynchronous replication is performed in the backup center too. 
4. When primary in main center abnormally stops, standby in main center is 
   promoted, and the standby in backup center connects to the new primary.

This configuration is also shown in the figure below. 

                [Main center]
| |----------|  synchronous     |----------| |
| |          |    replication   |          | |
| | primary  | <--------------> | standby1 | |
| |----------|                  |----------| |
     || asynchronous
     ||   replication
     ||        [Backup center]
| |----------|  asynchronous    |----------| |
| |          |    replication   |          | |
| | standby2 | <--------------> | standby3 | |
| |----------|                  |----------| |

When the load in the main center becomes high, although WAL reaches standby in 
backup center, WAL may not reach synchronous standby in main center for various 
reasons. In other words, standby in the backup center may advance beyond 
synchronous standby in main center.

When the primary abnormally stops and standby in main center promotes, two 
standbys in backup center must be recovered by pg_rewind. However, it is 
necessary to stop new primary for pg_rewind. If pg_basebackup is used, 
recovery of backup center takes some times. This is not high availability. 

[Proposal Concept]
In this feature, just switch the connection destination and restart it. 
So, it is not necessary to stop new primary.There is no need for recovering 
by pg_rewind or pg_basebackup because standby in the backup center will not 
advance beyond the standby in the main center.

In my idea, this feature is enabled when the new GDU parameter is set. 
In the case that synchronous standby and asynchronous standby are connected 
to primary, walsender check if WAL is sent to synchronous standby before 
sending WAL to the asynchronous standby. After walsender confirm WAL has been 
sent to synchronous standby, it also sends the WAL to the asynchronous standby.

I would appreciate it if you give any comments for this feature. 

Daisuke Higuchi 

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