Hi all,

Declarative partitioning is supported in PostgreSQL 10 and work is already
progress to support partition-wise joins. Here is a proposal for
aggregation/grouping.  Our initial performance measurement has shown 7 times
performance when partitions are on foreign servers and approximately 15%
partitions are local.

Partition-wise aggregation/grouping computes aggregates for each partition
separately.  If the group clause contains the partition key, all the rows
belonging to a given group come from one partition, thus allowing aggregates
to be computed completely for each partition.  Otherwise, partial aggregates
computed for each partition are combined across the partitions to produce
final aggregates. This technique improves performance because:
i. When partitions are located on foreign server, we can push down the
aggregate to the foreign server.
ii. If hash table for each partition fits in memory, but that for the whole
relation does not, each partition-wise aggregate can use an in-memory hash
iii. Aggregation at the level of partitions can exploit properties of
partitions like indexes, their storage etc.

Attached an experimental patch for the same based on the partition-wise join
patches posted in [1].

This patch currently implements partition-wise aggregation when group clause
contains the partitioning key.  A query below, involving a partitioned table
with 3 partitions containing 1M rows each, producing total 30 groups showed
15% improvement over non-partition-wise aggregation. Same query showed 7
improvement when the partitions were located on the foreign servers.

Here is the sample plan:

postgres=# set enable_partition_wise_agg to true;
postgres=# EXPLAIN ANALYZE SELECT a, count(*) FROM plt1 GROUP BY a;
 Append  (cost=5100.00..61518.90 rows=30 width=12) (actual
time=324.837..944.804 rows=30 loops=1)
   ->  Foreign Scan  (cost=5100.00..20506.30 rows=10 width=12) (actual
time=324.837..324.838 rows=10 loops=1)
         Relations: Aggregate on (public.fplt1_p1 plt1)
   ->  Foreign Scan  (cost=5100.00..20506.30 rows=10 width=12) (actual
time=309.954..309.956 rows=10 loops=1)
         Relations: Aggregate on (public.fplt1_p2 plt1)
   ->  Foreign Scan  (cost=5100.00..20506.30 rows=10 width=12) (actual
time=310.002..310.004 rows=10 loops=1)
         Relations: Aggregate on (public.fplt1_p3 plt1)
 Planning time: 0.370 ms
 Execution time: 945.384 ms
(9 rows)

postgres=# set enable_partition_wise_agg to false;
postgres=# EXPLAIN ANALYZE SELECT a, count(*) FROM plt1 GROUP BY a;
 HashAggregate  (cost=121518.01..121518.31 rows=30 width=12) (actual
time=6498.452..6498.459 rows=30 loops=1)
   Group Key: plt1.a
   ->  Append  (cost=0.00..106518.00 rows=3000001 width=4) (actual
time=0.595..5769.592 rows=3000000 loops=1)
         ->  Seq Scan on plt1  (cost=0.00..0.00 rows=1 width=4) (actual
time=0.007..0.007 rows=0 loops=1)
         ->  Foreign Scan on fplt1_p1  (cost=100.00..35506.00 rows=1000000
width=4) (actual time=0.587..1844.506 rows=1000000 loops=1)
         ->  Foreign Scan on fplt1_p2  (cost=100.00..35506.00 rows=1000000
width=4) (actual time=0.384..1839.633 rows=1000000 loops=1)
         ->  Foreign Scan on fplt1_p3  (cost=100.00..35506.00 rows=1000000
width=4) (actual time=0.402..1876.505 rows=1000000 loops=1)
 Planning time: 0.251 ms
 Execution time: 6499.018 ms
(9 rows)

Patch needs a lot of improvement including:
1. Support for partial partition-wise aggregation
2. Estimating number of groups for every partition
3. Estimating cost of partition-wise aggregation based on sample partitions
similar to partition-wise join
and much more.

In order to support partial aggregation on foreign partitions, we need
to fetch partially aggregated results from the foreign server. That can be
handled as a separate follow-on patch.

Though is lot of work to be done, I would like to get suggestions/opinions

I would like to thank Ashutosh Bapat for providing a draft patch and helping
me off-list on this feature while he is busy working on partition-wise join



Jeevan Chalke
Principal Software Engineer, Product Development
EnterpriseDB Corporation
The Enterprise PostgreSQL Company

Attachment: pg_partwise_agg_WIP.patch
Description: application/download

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