I've written a brief Howto document about the JDBC test suite
that's in the source tree. Liam Stewart contributed a section on
the standard JDBC 2 test suite from Sun.

Hopefully, this will make it easier for developers working on
the JDBC driver to use and extend the test suite(s) to improve
the quality of the driver.

I suggest to add this document to the source tree as
src/interfaces/jdbc/org/postgresql/test/README. I don't think it
should be in the binary distribution.

I hope my english in this document is OK. Please feel free to
improve it. That's probably easiest to do as a patch once its in

René Pijlman <[EMAIL PROTECTED]> (new address)

René Pijlman
PostgreSQL/JDBC Test Suite Howto
1 Introduction
2 Installation
3 Configuration
4 Running the test suite
5 Extending the test suite with new tests
6 Guidelines for developing new tests
7 Example
8 Running the JDBC 2 test suite from Sun against PostgreSQL
9 Credits, feedback

1 Introduction
The PostgreSQL source tree contains an automated test suite for
the JDBC driver. This document explains how to install,
configure and run this test suite. Furthermore, it offers
guidelines and an example for developers to add new test cases.

Sun provides two standard JDBC test suites that you may also 
find useful.
http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/download2.html (JDBC 1)
http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/jdbctestsuite-1_2_1.html (JDBC
2, including J2EE requirements)
The JDBC 2 test suite is covered in section 8 below. The JDBC 1 
test suite is not currently covered in this document.

2 Installation
Of course, you need to have a Java 2 JDK or JRE installed. The
standard JDK from Sun is OK. You can download it from

You need to install the Ant build utility. You can download it
from http://jakarta.apache.org/ant/.

You also need to install the JUnit testing framework. You can
download it from http://www.junit.org/. Add junit.jar to your
CLASSPATH before you perform the following steps. Ant will
dynamically detect that JUnit is present and then build the JDBC
test suite.

You need to install and build the PostgreSQL source tree. You
can download it from http://www.postgresql.org/devel-corner/.
See README and INSTALL in the top of the tree for more

You should run ./configure with the command line option
--with-java. You may also want to use --with-pgport to compile a
non-standard default port number (e.g. 5433) into all 
components. This will cause the server to listen on this
non-standard port and it will cause the JDBC driver to connect
to this port by default. In this way your testing environment is
easily separated from other PostgreSQL applications on the same

In this Howto we'll use $JDBC_SRC to refer to the directory 
src/interfaces/jdbc of the PostgreSQL source tree in your 
environment. The test suite is located in the subdirectory 

3 Configuration
The test suite requires a PostgreSQL database to run the tests 
against and a user to login as. For a full regression test of 
the entire PostgreSQL system, you should run the test against a 
server built from the same source tree as the driver you're 
testing. The tests will create and drop many objects in this 
database, so it should not contain production tables to avoid 
loss of data. We recommend you assign the following names:

  database: test
  username: test
  password: password

These names correspond with the default names set for the test
suite in $JDBC_SRC/build.xml. If you have chosen other names you
need to edit this file and change the properties "database",
"username" and "password" accordingly.

4 Running the test suite
%make check

This will run the command line version of JUnit. If you'd like
to see an animated coloured progress bar as the tests are
executed, you may want to use one of the GUI versions of the
test runner. See the JUnit documentation for more information.

If the test suite reports errors or failures that you cannot
explain, please post the relevant parts of the output to the
mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED]

5 Extending the test suite with new tests
If you're not familiar with JUnit, we recommend that you 
first read the introductory article "JUnit Test Infected:
Programmers Love Writing Tests" on
Before continuing, you should ensure you understand the
following concepts: test suite, test case, test, fixture,
assertion, failure.

The test suite consists of test cases, which consist of tests. 
A test case is a collection of tests that test a particular
feature. The test suite is a collection of test cases that
together test the driver - and to an extent the PostgreSQL
backend - as a whole.

If you decide to add a test to an existing test case, all you
need to do is add a method with a name that begins with "test"
and which takes no arguments. JUnit will dynamically find this
method using reflection and run it when it runs the test case.
In your test method you can use the fixture that is setup for it
by the test case.

If you decide to add a new test case, you should do two things:
1) Add a class that extends junit.framework.TestCase. It should
contain setUp() and tearDown() methods that create and destroy
the fixture respectively.
2) Edit $JDBC_SRC/org/postgresql/test/JDBC2Tests.java and add a
suite.addTestSuite() call for your class. This will make the
test case part of the test suite.

6 Guidelines for developing new tests
Every test should create and drop its own tables. We suggest to
consider database objects (e.g. tables) part of the fixture for
the tests in the test case. The test should also succeed when a
table by the same name already exists in the test database, e.g.
by dropping the table before running the test (ignoring errors).
The recommended pattern for creating and dropping tables can be
found in the example in section 7 below.

Please note that JUnit provides several convenience methods to
check for conditions. See the TestCase class in the Javadoc
documentation of JUnit, which is installed on your system. For
example, you can compare two integers using
TestCase.assertEquals(int expected, int actual). This method
will print both values in case of a failure.

To simply report a failure use TestCase.fail().

The JUnit FAQ explains how to test for a thrown exception.

Avoid the use of the deprecated TestCase.assert(), since it will
collide with the new assert keyword in the Java 2 platform
version 1.4.

As a rule, the test suite should succeed. Any errors or failures
- which may be caused by bugs in the JDBC driver, the backend or
the test suite - should be fixed ASAP. Don't let a test fail
just to make it clear that something needs to be fixed somewhere.
That's what the TODO lists are for.

Add some comments to your tests to explain to others what it is 
you're testing. A long sequence of JDBC method calls and JUnit
assertions can be hard to comprehend.

For example, in the comments you can explain where a certain test 
condition originates from. Is it a JDBC requirement, PostgreSQL 
behaviour or the intended implementation of a feature?

7 Example (incomplete)
package org.postgresql.test.jdbc2;

import org.postgresql.test.JDBC2Tests;
import junit.framework.TestCase;
import java.sql.*;

 * Test case for ...
public class FooTest extends TestCase {

    private Connection con;
    private Statement stmt;

    public FooTest(String name) {

    protected void setUp() throws Exception {
        con = JDBC2Tests.openDB();
        stmt = con.createStatement();

        // Drop the test table if it already exists for some
        // reason. It is not an error if it doesn't exist.
        try {
            stmt.executeUpdate("DROP TABLE testfoo");
        } catch (SQLException e) {
             // Intentionally ignore. We cannot distinguish
             // "table does not exist" from other errors, since
             // PostgreSQL doesn't support error codes yet.

           "CREATE TABLE testfoo(pk INTEGER, col1 INTEGER)");
        stmt.executeUpdate("INSERT INTO testfoo VALUES(1, 0)");
        // You may want to call con.setAutoCommit(false) at 
        // this point, if most tests in this test case require
        // the use of transactions.
    protected void tearDown() throws Exception {
        if (stmt != null) {
            stmt.executeUpdate("DROP TABLE testfoo");
        if (con != null) {
    public void testFoo() {
        // Use the assert methods in junit.framework.TestCase
        // for the actual tests
        // Just some silly examples
        if (stmt == null) {
                fail("Where is my statement?");
    public void testBar() {
        // Another test.

8. Running the JDBC 2 test suite from Sun against PostgreSQL
Download the test suite from 
This is the JDBC 2 test suite that includes J2EE requirements.

1. Configure PostgreSQL so that it accepts TCP/IP connections and
   start the server. Prepare PostgreSQL by creating two users (cts1
   and cts2) and two databases (DB1 and DB2) in the cluster that is
   going to be used for JDBC testing.

2. Download the latest release versions of the J2EE, J2SE, and JDBC
   test suite from Sun's Java site (http://java.sun.com), and install
   according to Sun's documentation.

3. The following environment variables should be set:

      CTS_HOME=<path where JDBC test suite installed (eg: /usr/local/jdbccts)>
      J2EE_HOME=<path where J2EE installed (eg: /usr/local/j2sdkee1.2.1)>
      JAVA_HOME=<path where J2SE installed (eg: /usr/local/jdk1.3.1)>
      LOCAL_CLASSES=<path to PostgreSQL JDBC driver jar>

4. In $J2EE_HOME/config/default.properties:


   Of course, if PostgreSQL is running on a computer different from
   the one running the application server, localhost should be changed
   to the proper host. Also, 5432 should be changed to whatever port
   PostgreSQL is listening on (5432 is the default).

   In $J2EE_HOME/bin/userconfig.sh:

      Add $CTS_HOME/lib/harness.jar, $CTS_HOME/lib/moo.jar,
      $CTS_HOME/lib/util.jar to J2EE_CLASSPATH. Also add the path to
      the PostgreSQL JDBC jar to J2EE_CLASSPATH. Set the JAVA_HOME
      variable to where you installed the J2SE. You should end up with
      something like this:

      export J2EE_CLASSPATH

      export JAVA_HOME

   In $CTS_HOME/bin/cts.jte:


5. Start the application server (j2ee):

      $ cd $J2EE_HOME
      $ bin/j2ee -verbose

   The server can be stopped after the tests have finished:

     $ cd $J2EE_HOME
     $ bin/j2ee -stop

6. Run the JDBC tests:

     $ cd $CTS_HOME/tests/jdbc/ee
     $ make jdbc-tests
At the time of writing of this document, a great number of tests 
in this test suite fail.

9 Credits, feedback
The parts of this document describing the PostgreSQL test suite 
were originally written by Rene Pijlman. Liam Stewart contributed 
the section on the Sun JDBC 2 test suite.

Please send your questions about the JDBC test suites or suggestions
for improvement to the [EMAIL PROTECTED] mailing list.

The source of this document is maintained in 
src/interfaces/jdbc/org/postgresql/test/README in CVS. Patches for
improvement can be send to the mailing list 

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