At 04:11 PM 8/19/2005, Jeremiah Jahn wrote:
On Fri, 2005-08-19 at 14:23 -0500, John A Meinel wrote:
> Ron wrote:
> > At 01:18 PM 8/19/2005, John A Meinel wrote:
> >
> >> Jeremiah Jahn wrote:
> >> > Sorry about the formatting.
> >> >
> >> > On Thu, 2005-08-18 at 12:55 -0500, John Arbash Meinel wrote:
> >> >
> >> >>Jeremiah Jahn wrote:
> >> >>
> >> >>
> >>
> >> ...
> >>
> >> >>The expensive parts are the 4915 lookups into the litigant_details
> >> (each
> >> >>one takes approx 4ms for a total of ~20s).
> >> >>And then you do it again on case_data (average 3ms each * 4906 loops =
> >> >>~15s).
> >> >
> >> > Is there some way to avoid this?
> >> >
> >>
> >> Well, in general, 3ms for a single lookup seems really long. Maybe your
> >> index is bloated by not vacuuming often enough. Do you tend to get a lot
> >> of updates to litigant_details?
> >
> >
> > Given that the average access time for a 15Krpm HD is in the 5.5-6ms
> > range (7.5-8ms for a 10Krpm HD), having an average of 3ms for a single
> > lookup implies that ~1/2 (the 15Krpm case) or ~1/3 (the 10Krpm case)
> > table accesses is requiring a seek.
> >
I think LVM may be a problem, since it also seems to break things up on
the file system. My access time on the seek should be around 1/7th the
15Krpm I believe since it's a 14 disk raid 10 array. And no other
traffic at the moment.

Oops. There's a misconception here. RAID arrays increase _throughput_ AKA _bandwidth_ through parallel access to HDs. OTOH, access time is _latency_, and that is not changed. Access time for a RAID set is equal to that of the slowest access time, AKA highest latency, HD in the RAID set.

> Well, from what he has said, the total indexes are < 1GB and he has 6GB
> of ram. So everything should fit. Not to mention he is only accessing
> 5000/several million rows.
I table spaced some of the indexes and they are around 211066880 bytes
for the name_speed index and 149825330 for the lit_actor_speed index
tables seem to be about a gig.

Hmm. And you think you are only using 250MB out of your 6GB of RAM? Something doesn't seem to add up here. From what's been posted, I'd expect much more RAM to be in use.

> > This implies a poor match between physical layout and access pattern.
> This seems to be the case. But since this is not the only query, it may
> be that other access patterns are more important to optimize for.
> >
> > If I understand correctly, the table should not be very fragmented given
> > that this is a reasonably freshly loaded DB?  That implies that the
> > fields being looked up are not well sorted in the table compared to the
> > query pattern.
> >
> > If the entire table could fit in RAM, this would be far less of a
> > consideration.  Failing that, the physical HD layout has to be improved
> > or the query pattern has to be changed to reduce seeks.
> >
> >
> ...
> >> After CLUSTER, the current data will stay clustered, but new data will
> >> not, so you have to continually CLUSTER, the same way that you might
> >> VACUUM. *However*, IIRC CLUSTER grabs an Exclusive lock, so it is as
> >> expensive as a VACUUM FULL. Be aware of this, but it might vastly
> >> improve your performance, so it would be worth it.
> >
> >
> > CLUSTER can be a very large maintenance overhead/problem if the table(s)
> > in question actually need to be "continually" re CLUSTER ed.
> >
> > If there is no better solution available, then you do what you have to,
> > but it feels like there should be a better answer here.
> >
> > Perhaps the DB schema needs examining to see if it matches up well with
> > its real usage?
> >
> > Ron Peacetree
> >
> I certainly agree that CLUSTER is expensive, and is an on-going
> maintenance issue. If it is the normal access pattern, though, it may be
> worth it.

The query I've sent you is one of the most common I get just change the
name. I handle about 180K of them a day mostly between 8 and 5. The
clustering has never really been a problem. Like I said before I do it
about once a week. I handle about 3000 update an hour consisting of
about 1000-3000 statement per update. ie about 2.5 million updates per
hour. In the last few months or so I've filtered these down to about
400K update/delete/insert statements per hour.

2.5M updates per hour = ~695 updates per second. 400K per hour = ~112 updates per sec. These should be well within the capabilities of a RAID 10 subsystem based on 14 15Krpm HDs assuming a decent RAID card. What is the exact HW of the RAID subsystem involved and how is it configured? You shouldn't be having a performance problem AFAICT...

> I also wonder, though, if his table is properly normalized. Which, as you mentioned, might lead to improved access patterns. The system is about as normalized as I can get it. In general the layout is the following: courts have cases, cases have litigant_details. Actors have identities and litigant_details.

Hmmm.  Can you tell us more about the actual schema, I may have an idea...

> John
> =:->
Speak softly and carry a +6 two-handed sword.

Nah.  A wand of 25th level automatic Magic Missile Fire ;-)

Ron Peacetree

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