Genial e denso mesmo é isso aqui, escrito mais de 150 anos antes de qualquer
debate sobre trabalho imaterial, sobre conhecimento como mercadoria, sobre
ciência como força produtiva (Habermas). sobre capitalismo informacional (e
suas contradições insolúveis!)...
The exchange of living labour for objectified labour i.e. the positing of
social labour in the form of the contradiction of capital and wage labour is
the ultimate development of the value-relation and of production resting on
value. Its presupposition is and remains the mass of direct labour time,
the quantity of labour employed, as the determinant factor in the production of
wealth. But to the degree that large industry develops, the creation of real
wealth comes to depend less on labour time and on the amount of labour employed
than on the power of the agencies set in motion during labour time, whose
powerful effectiveness is itself in turn out of all proportion to the
direct labour time spent on their production, but depends rather on the general
state of science and on the progress of technology, or the application of this
science to production. (The development of this science, especially natural
science, and all others with the latter, is itself in turn related to the
development of material production.) Agriculture, e.g., becomes merely the
application of the science of material metabolism, its regulation for the
greatest advantage of the entire body of society. Real wealth manifests itself,
rather and large industry reveals this in the monstrous disproportion
between the labour time applied, and its product, as well as in the qualitative
imbalance between labour, reduced to a pure abstraction, and the power of the
production process it superintends. Labour no longer appears so much to be
included within the production process; rather, the human being comes to relate
more as watchman and regulator to the production process itself. (What holds
for machinery holds likewise for the combination of human activities and the
development of human intercourse.) No longer does the worker insert a modified
natural thing [Naturgegenstand] as middle link between the object [Objekt] and
himself; rather, he inserts the process of nature, transformed into an
industrial process, as a means between himself and inorganic nature, mastering
it. He steps to the side of the production process instead of being its chief
actor. In this transformation, it is neither the direct human labour he himself
performs, nor the time during which he works, but rather the appropriation of
his own general productive power, his understanding of nature and his mastery
over it by virtue of his presence as a social body it is, in a word, the
development of the social individual which appears as the great
foundation-stone of production and of wealth. The theft of alien labour time,
on which the present wealth is based, appears a miserable foundation in face of
this new one, created by large-scale industry itself. As soon as labour in the
direct form has ceased to be the great well-spring of wealth, labour time
ceases and must cease to be its measure, and hence exchange value [must cease
to be the measure] of use value. The surplus labour of the mass has ceased to
be the condition for the development of general wealth, just as the non-labour
of the few, for the development of the general powers of the human head. With
that, production based on exchange value breaks down, and the direct, material
production process is stripped of the form of penury and antithesis. The free
development of individualities, and hence not the reduction of necessary labour
time so as to posit surplus labour, but rather the general reduction of the
necessary labour of society to a minimum, which then corresponds to the
artistic, scientific etc. development of the individuals in the time set free,
and with the means created, for all of them. Capital itself is the moving
contradiction, [in] that it presses to reduce labour time to a minimum, while
it posits labour time, on the other side, as sole measure and source of wealth.
Hence it diminishes labour time in the necessary form so as to increase it in
the superfluous form; hence posits the superfluous in growing measure as a
condition question of life or death for the necessary. On the one side,
then, it calls to life all the powers of science and of nature, as of social
combination and of social intercourse, in order to make the creation of wealth
independent (relatively) of the labour time employed on it. On the other side,
it wants to use labour time as the measuring rod for the giant social forces
thereby created, and to confine them within the limits required to maintain the
already created value as value. Forces of production and social relations two
different sides of the development of the social individual appear to capital
as mere means, and are merely means for it to produce on its limited
foundation. In fact, however, they are the material conditions to blow this
foundation sky-high. Truly wealthy a nation, when the working day is 6 rather
than 12 hours. Wealth is not command over surplus labour time (real wealth),
but rather, disposable time outside that needed in direct production, for
every individual and the whole society. (The Source and Remedy etc. 1821, p.
Nature builds no machines, no locomotives, railways, electric telegraphs,
self-acting mules etc. These are products of human industry; natural material
transformed into organs of the human will over nature, or of human
participation in nature. They are organs of the human brain, created by the
human hand; the power of knowledge, objectified. The development of fixed
capital indicates to what degree general social knowledge has become a direct
force of production, and to what degree, hence, the conditions of the process
of social life itself have come under the control of the general intellect and
been transformed in accordance with it. To what degree the powers of social
production have been produced, not only in the form of knowledge, but also as
immediate organs of social practice, of the real life process.
(Karl Marx, Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie, 1857-1861)
> Velho, desculpe mas denso é Heidegger, Nietzsche,
> Merlau-Ponty, Michel Foucalt. Hélio Oiticia (Artista
> Plástico), Drummond, Fernando Pessoa (todos os
> heterônimos que conheço), Sartre (em posição
> estratégica), Machado de Assis (por último para ficar
> ecoando: DE ASSIS, DE ASSIs, DE ASSis, DE ASsis)... Li
> a introdução e parte do cap. V e acho ótimas as
> conexões, mas não denso.
> Isso é denso:
> O mundo é grande
> O mundo é grande e cabe
> nesta janela sobre o mar.
> O mar é grande e cabe
> na cama e no colchão de amar.
> O amor é grande e cabe
> no breve espaço de beijar.
> (Carlos Drummond de Andrade in Amar se Aprende
> Do Jornal de Poesia
> Humano cadê você humano...
> Sérgio Amadeu é um cara legal.
> P.S.: ...
> --- Aurélio A. Heckert <[EMAIL PROTECTED]> escreveu:
> > Rapaz...
> > Isso é ****Denso****!!!
> > Sergio Amadeu é gênio.
> > Em 07/12/05, Vicente Aguiar<[EMAIL PROTECTED]>
> > escreveu:
> > > Rapaz...
> > >
> > > Para quem está pesquisando sobre Software Livre ou
> > tem interesse no
> > > debate, esta tese de Doutotado da USP (de um cara
> > que "ninguém"
> > > conhece) acobou de sair do forno, vejam:
> > >
> > >
> > >
> > > Boa Leitura!!!
> > >
> > >
> > > --
> > > Vicente Aguiar :-)
> > >
> > > BanSol - Associação de Fomento À Economia
> > Solidária.
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> > --
> > . . Aurélio A. Heckert [ GNU/Linux ]
> > / \ http://www.aurium.cjb.net
> > ((__-^^-,-^^-__))
> > `-_---" "---_-´ Web Colaborativa:
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> > \ ' / Projeto Software Livre - Bahia:
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