Python 3.11 is finally released. In the CPython release team, we have put a
lot of effort into making 3.11 the best version of Python possible. Better
tracebacks, faster Python, exception groups and except*, typing
improvements and much more. Get it here:

## This is the stable release of Python 3.11.0

Python 3.11.0 is the newest major release of the Python programming
language, and it contains many new features and optimizations.

# Major new features of the 3.11 series, compared to 3.10

Some of the new major new features and changes in Python 3.11 are:

## General changes

* [PEP 657]( -- Include
Fine-Grained Error Locations in Tracebacks
* [PEP 654]( -- Exception Groups
and `except*`
* [PEP 680]( -- tomllib: Support
for Parsing TOML in the Standard Library
* [gh-90908]( -- Introduce
task groups to asyncio
* [gh-34627]( -- Atomic
grouping (`(?>...)`) and possessive quantifiers (`*+, ++, ?+, {m,n}+`) are
now supported in regular expressions.
* The [Faster CPython Project]( is
already yielding some exciting results. Python 3.11 is up to 10-60% faster
than Python 3.10. On average, we measured a 1.22x speedup on the standard
benchmark suite. See [Faster CPython]( for details.

## Typing and typing language changes

* [PEP 673]( --  Self Type
* [PEP 646]( -- Variadic Generics
* [PEP 675]( -- Arbitrary Literal
String Type
* [PEP 655]( -- Marking
individual TypedDict items as required or potentially-missing
* [PEP 681]( -- Data Class

# More resources

* [Online Documentation](
* [PEP 664](, 3.11 Release
* Report bugs at [](
* [Help fund Python and its community](/psf/donations/).

# And now for something completely different

When a spherical non-rotating body of a critical radius collapses under its
own gravitation under general relativity, theory suggests it will collapse
to a single point. This is not the case with a rotating black hole (a Kerr
black hole). With a fluid rotating body, its distribution of mass is not
spherical (it shows an equatorial bulge), and it has angular momentum.
Since a point cannot support rotation or angular momentum in classical
physics (general relativity being a classical theory), the minimal shape of
the singularity that can support these properties is instead a ring with
zero thickness but non-zero radius, and this is referred to as a
ringularity or Kerr singularity.

This kind of singularity has the following peculiar property. The spacetime
allows a geodesic curve (describing the movement of observers and photons
in spacetime) to pass through the center of this ring singularity. The
region beyond permits closed time-like curves. Since the trajectory of
observers and particles in general relativity are described by time-like
curves, it is possible for observers in this region to return to their
past. This interior solution is not likely to be physical and is considered
a purely mathematical artefact.

There are some other interesting free-fall trajectories. For example, there
is a point in the axis of symmetry that has the property that if an
observer is below this point, the pull from the singularity will force the
observer to pass through the middle of the ring singularity to the region
with closed time-like curves and it will experience repulsive gravity that
will push it back to the original region, but then it will experience the
pull from the singularity again and will repeat this process forever. This
is, of course, only if the extreme gravity doesn’t destroy the observer

# We hope you enjoy the new releases!

Thanks to all of the many volunteers who help make Python Development and
these releases possible! Please consider supporting our efforts by
volunteering yourself or through organization contributions to the Python
Software Foundation.

If you have any questions, please reach out to me or another member of the
release team :)

Your friendly release team,

Ned Deily @nad
Steve Dower @steve.dower
Pablo Galindo Salgado @pablogsal
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