QEMU RISC-V Emulation Support (RV64GC, RV32GC)

This is hopefully the "fix remaining issues in-tree" release.

This version the RISC-V patch series contains cleanups and adds locking to
the interrupt handling code and enables MTTCG. Fedora have been performing
MTTCG-enabled SMP package builds using the RISC-V 'virt' machine. This series
also removes a broken ELF implementation used by the HTIF driver, instead
adding a symbol table callback function interface to load_elf_*. The HTIF
driver has had a lot of cleanups and removal of redundant code. Also, the
"riscv" cpu type prefix has been changed to a "riscv-cpu" suffix to conform
with the scheme used by other ports. The current CPUs have been renamed with
a generic prefix. Subsequent patches will implement vendor CPU models.

We have temporarily dropped the fmin/fmax fix that adds softfloat support for
IEEE 754-201x minimumNumber/maximumNumber. This has the result of riscv-qemu
now failing the riscv-tests sNaN fmin/fmax test case. This will be fixed later.

All of the core code has now been reviewed and we believe the port is in shape
for a pull request pending review of a few remaining files in hw/riscv.
We have tested RV32/RV64 on 64-bit (x86_64) and 32-bit (i386) hosts.
RV64 riscv-linux boots on a Ubuntu 14.04 i386 host, however MTTCG is disabled.

Special thanks to Richard Henderson for his very detailed review comments,
Stefan O'Rear for his help with enabling MTTCG, and Richard WM Jones for
testing SMP support while creating the Fedora stage 4 image. Thanks to
everyone else who has given feedback submitted patches and pull requests.

The git tree for this v6 patch series (squashed and rebased):

- https://github.com/riscv/riscv-qemu/tree/qemu-upstream-v6

The git tree for the v1-v5 patch series with review commit history:

- https://github.com/riscv/riscv-qemu/tree/qemu-upstream-v5
- https://github.com/riscv/riscv-qemu/tree/qemu-upstream-v4
- https://github.com/riscv/riscv-qemu/tree/qemu-upstream-v3
- https://github.com/riscv/riscv-qemu/tree/qemu-upstream-v2
- https://github.com/riscv/riscv-qemu/tree/qemu-upstream-v1

*** Known Issues ***

- Disassembler has some checkpatch warnings for the sake of code brevity
- scripts/qemu-binfmt-conf.sh has checkpatch warnings due to line length
- PMP (Physical Memory Protection) is as-of-yet unused and needs testing

*** Changelog ***

v6

- Drop IEEE 754-201x minimumNumber/maximumNumber for fmin/fmax
- Remove some unnecessary commented debug statements
- Change RISCV_CPU_TYPE_NAME to use riscv-cpu suffix
- Define all CPU variants for linux-user
- qemu_log calls require trailing \n
- Replace PLIC printfs with qemu_log
- Tear out unused HTIF code and eliminate shouting debug messages
- Fix illegal instruction when sfence.vma is passed (rs2) arguments
- Make updates to PTE accessed and dirty bits atomic
- Only require atomic PTE updates on MTTCG enabled guests
- Page fault if accessed or dirty bits can't be updated
- Fix get_physical_address PTE reads and writes on riscv32
- Remove erroneous comments from the PLIC
- Default enable MTTCG
- Make WFI less conservative
- Unify local interrupt handling
- Expunge HTIF interrupts
- Always access mstatus.mip under a lock
- Don't implement rdtime/rdtimeh in system mode (bbl emulates them)
- Implement insreth/cycleh for rv32 and always enable user-mode counters
- Add GDB stub support for reading and writing CSRs
- Rename ENABLE_CHARDEV #ifdef from HTIF code
- Replace bad HTIF ELF code with load_elf symbol callback
- Convert chained if else fault handlers to switch statements
- Use RISCV exception codes for linux-user page faults

v5

- Implement NaN-boxing for flw, set high order bits to 1
- Use float_muladd_negate_* flags to floatXX_muladd
- Use IEEE 754-201x minimumNumber/maximumNumber for fmin/fmax
- Fix TARGET_NR_syscalls
- Update linux-user/riscv/syscall_nr.h
- Fix FENCE.I, needs to terminate translation block
- Adjust unusual convention for interruptno >= 0

v4

- Add @riscv: since 2.12 to CpuInfoArch
- Remove misleading little-endian comment from load_kernel
- Rename cpu-model property to cpu-type
- Drop some unnecessary inline function attributes
- Don't allow GDB to set value of x0 register
- Remove unnecessary empty property lists
- Add Test Finisher device to implement poweroff in virt machine
- Implement priv ISA v1.10 trap and sret/mret xPIE/xIE behavior
- Store fflags data in fp_status
- Purge runtime users of helper_raise_exception
- Fix validate_csr
- Tidy gen_jalr
- Tidy immediate shifts
- Add gen_exception_inst_addr_mis
- Add gen_exception_debug
- Add gen_exception_illegal
- Tidy helper_fclass_*
- Split rounding mode setting to a new function
- Enforce MSTATUS_FS via TB flags
- Implement acquire/release barrier semantics
- Use atomic operations as required
- Fix FENCE and FENCE_I
- Remove commented code from spike machines
- PAGE_WRITE permissions can be set on loads if page is already dirty
- The result of format conversion on an NaN must be a quiet NaN
- Add missing process_queued_cpu_work to riscv linux-user
- Remove float(32|64)_classify from cpu.h
- Removed nonsensical unions aliasing the same type
- Use uintN_t instead of uintN_fast_t in fpu_helper.c
- Use macros for FPU exception values in softfloat_flags_to_riscv
- Move code to set round mode into set_fp_round_mode function
- Convert set_fp_exceptions from a macro to an inline function
- Convert round mode helper into an inline function
- Make fpu_helper ieee_rm array static const
- Include cpu_mmu_index in cpu_get_tb_cpu_state flags
- Eliminate MPRV influence on mmu_index
- Remove unrecoverable do_unassigned_access function
- Only update PTE accessed and dirty bits if necessary
- Remove unnecessary tlb_flush in set_mode as mode is in mmu_idx
- Remove buggy support for misa writes. misa writes are optional
  and are not implemented in any known hardware
- Always set PTE read or execute permissions during page walk
- Reorder helper function declarations to match order in helper.c
- Remove redundant variable declaration in get_physical_address
- Remove duplicated code from get_physical_address
- Use mmu_idx instead of mem_idx in riscv_cpu_get_phys_page_debug

v3

- Fix indentation in PMP and HTIF debug macros
- Fix disassembler checkpatch open brace '{' on next line errors
- Fix trailing statements on next line in decode_inst_decompress
- NOTE: the other checkpatch issues have been reviewed previously

v2

- Remove redundant NULL terminators from disassembler register arrays
- Change disassembler register name arrays to const
- Refine disassembler internal function names
- Update dates in disassembler copyright message
- Remove #ifdef CONFIG_USER_ONLY version of cpu_has_work
- Use ULL suffix on 64-bit constants
- Move riscv_cpu_mmu_index from cpu.h to helper.c
- Move riscv_cpu_hw_interrupts_pending from cpu.h to helper.c
- Remove redundant TARGET_HAS_ICE from cpu.h
- Use qemu_irq instead of void* for irq definition in cpu.h
- Remove duplicate typedef from struct CPURISCVState
- Remove redundant g_strdup from cpu_register
- Remove redundant tlb_flush from riscv_cpu_reset
- Remove redundant mode calculation from get_physical_address
- Remove redundant debug mode printf and dcsr comment
- Remove redundant clearing of MSB for bare physical addresses
- Use g_assert_not_reached for invalid mode in get_physical_address
- Use g_assert_not_reached for unreachable checks in get_physical_address
- Use g_assert_not_reached for unreachable type in raise_mmu_exception
- Return exception instead of aborting for misaligned fetches
- Move exception defines from cpu.h to cpu_bits.h
- Remove redundant breakpoint control definitions from cpu_bits.h
- Implement riscv_cpu_unassigned_access exception handling
- Log and raise exceptions for unimplemented CSRs
- Match Spike HTIF exit behavior - don’t print TEST-PASSED
- Make frm,fflags,fcsr writes trap when mstatus.FS is clear
- Use g_assert_not_reached for unreachable invalid mode
- Make hret,uret,dret generate illegal instructions
- Move riscv_cpu_dump_state and int/fpr regnames to cpu.c
- Lift interrupt flag and mask into constants in cpu_bits.h
- Change trap debugging to use qemu_log_mask LOG_TRACE 
- Change CSR debugging to use qemu_log_mask LOG_TRACE
- Change PMP debugging to use qemu_log_mask LOG_TRACE
- Remove commented code from pmp.c
- Change CpuInfoRISCV qapi schema docs to Since 2.12
- Change RV feature macro to use target_ulong cast
- Remove riscv_feature and instead use misa extension flags
- Make riscv_flush_icache_syscall a no-op
- Undo checkpatch whitespace fixes in unrelated linux-user code
- Remove redudant constants and tidy up cpu_bits.h
- Make helper_fence_i a no-op
- Move include "exec/cpu-all" to end of cpu.h
- Rename set_privilege to riscv_set_mode
- Move redundant forward declaration for cpu_riscv_translate_address
- Remove TCGV_UNUSED from riscv_translate_init
- Add comment to pmp.c stating the code is untested and currently unused
- Use ctz to simplify decoding of PMP NAPOT address ranges
- Change pmp_is_in_range to use than equal for end addresses
- Fix off by one error in pmp_update_rule
- Rearrange PMP_DEBUG so that formatting is compile-time checked
- Rearrange trap debugging so that formatting is compile-time checked
- Rearrange PLIC debugging so that formatting is compile-time checked
- Use qemu_log/qemu_log_mask for HTIF logging and debugging
- Move exception and interrupt names into cpu.c
- Add Palmer Dabbelt as a RISC-V Maintainer
- Rebase against current qemu master branch

v1

- initial version based on forward port from riscv-qemu repository

*** Background ***

"RISC-V is an open, free ISA enabling a new era of processor innovation
through open standard collaboration. Born in academia and research,
RISC-V ISA delivers a new level of free, extensible software and
hardware freedom on architecture, paving the way for the next 50 years
of computing design and innovation."

The QEMU RISC-V port has been developed and maintained out-of-tree for
several years by Sagar Karandikar and Bastian Koppelmann. The RISC-V
Privileged specification has evolved substantially over this period but
has recently been solidifying. The RISC-V Base ISA has been frozon for
some time and the Privileged ISA, GCC toolchain and Linux ABI are now
quite stable. I have recently joined Sagar and Bastian as a RISC-V QEMU
Maintainer and hope to support upstreaming the port. 

There are multiple vendors taping out, preparing to ship, or shipping
silicon that implements the RISC-V Privileged ISA Version 1.10. There
are also several RISC-V Soft-IP cores implementing Privileged ISA
Version 1.10 that run on FPGA such as SiFive's Freedom U500 Platform
and the U54‑MC RISC-V Core IP, among many more implementations from a
variety of vendors. See https://riscv.org/ for more details.

RISC-V support was upstreamed in binutils 2.28 and GCC 7.1 in the first
half of 2016. RISC-V support is now available in LLVM top-of-tree and
the RISC-V Linux port was accepted into Linux 4.15-rc1 late last year
and is available in the Linux 4.15 release. GLIBC 2.27 added support
for the RISC-V ISA running on Linux (requires at least binutils-2.30,
gcc-7.3.0, and linux-4.15). We believe it is timely to submit the
RISC-V QEMU port for upstream review with the goal of incorporating
RISC-V support into the upcoming QEMU 2.12 release.

The RISC-V QEMU port is still under active development, mostly with
respect to device emulation, the addition of Hypervisor support as
specified in the RISC-V Draft Privileged ISA Version 1.11, and Vector
support once the first draft is finalized later this year. We believe
now is the appropriate time for RISC-V QEMU development to be carried
out in the main QEMU repository as the code will benefit from more
rigorous review. The RISC-V QEMU port currently supports all the ISA
extensions that have been finalized and frozen in the Base ISA.

Blog post about recent additions to RISC-V QEMU: https://goo.gl/fJ4zgk

The RISC-V QEMU wiki: https://github.com/riscv/riscv-qemu/wiki

Instructions for building a busybox+dropbear root image, BBL (Berkeley
Boot Loader) and linux kernel image for use with the RISC-V QEMU
'virt' machine: https://github.com/michaeljclark/busybear-linux

*** Overview ***

The RISC-V QEMU port implements the following specifications:

- RISC-V Instruction Set Manual Volume I: User-Level ISA Version 2.2
- RISC-V Instruction Set Manual Volume II: Privileged ISA Version 1.9.1
- RISC-V Instruction Set Manual Volume II: Privileged ISA Version 1.10

The RISC-V QEMU port supports the following instruction set extensions:

- RV32GC with Supervisor-mode and User-mode (RV32IMAFDCSU)
- RV64GC with Supervisor-mode and User-mode (RV64IMAFDCSU)

The RISC-V QEMU port adds the following targets to QEMU:

- riscv32-softmmu
- riscv64-softmmu
- riscv32-linux-user
- riscv64-linux-user

The RISC-V QEMU port supports the following hardware:

- HTIF Console (Host Target Interface)
- SiFive CLINT (Core Local Interruptor) for Timer interrupts and IPIs
- SiFive PLIC (Platform Level Interrupt Controller)
- SiFive Test (Test Finisher) for exiting simulation
- SiFive UART, PRCI, AON, PWM, QSPI support is partially implemented
- VirtIO MMIO (GPEX PCI support will be added in a future patch)
- Generic 16550A UART emulation using 'hw/char/serial.c'
- MTTCG and SMP support (PLIC and CLINT) on the 'virt' machine

The RISC-V QEMU full system emulator supports 5 machines:

- 'spike_v1.9';  CLINT, PLIC, HTIF console, config-string, Priv v1.9.1
- 'spike_v1.10'; CLINT, PLIC, HTIF console, device-tree, Priv v1.10
- 'sifive_e300'; CLINT, PLIC, SiFive UART, HiFive1 compat, Priv v1.10
- 'sifive_u500'; CLINT, PLIC, SiFive UART, device-tree, Priv v1.10
- 'virt'; CLINT, PLIC, 16550A UART, VirtIO, device-tree, Priv v1.10

This is a list of RISC-V QEMU Port Contributors:

- Alex Suykov
- Andreas Schwab
- Antony Pavlov
- Bastian Koppelmann
- Bruce Hoult
- Chih-Min Chao
- Daire McNamara
- Darius Rad
- David Abdurachmanov
- Hesham Almatary
- Ivan Griffin
- Jim Wilson
- Kito Cheng
- Michael Clark
- Palmer Dabbelt
- Richard Henderson
- Sagar Karandikar
- Stefan O'Rear

Notes:

- contributor email addresses available off-list on request.
- checkpatch has been run on all 23 patches.
- checkpatch exceptions are noted in 2 patches that have errors.
- tested linux on 'spike_v1.9', 'spike_v1.10' and 'virt' machines
- passes "make check" on full build for all targets

This patch series includes the following patches:

Michael Clark (23):
  RISC-V Maintainers
  RISC-V ELF Machine Definition
  RISC-V CPU Core Definition
  RISC-V Disassembler
  RISC-V CPU Helpers
  RISC-V FPU Support
  RISC-V GDB Stub
  RISC-V TCG Code Generation
  RISC-V Physical Memory Protection
  RISC-V Linux User Emulation
  Add symbol table callback function interface to load_elf
  RISC-V HTIF Console
  RISC-V HART Array
  SiFive RISC-V CLINT Block
  SiFive RISC-V PLIC Block
  RISC-V Spike Machines
  RISC-V VirtIO Machine
  SiFive RISC-V UART Device
  SiFive RISC-V PRCI Block
  SiFive RISC-V Test Finisher
  SiFive Freedom E300 RISC-V Machine
  SiFive Freedom U500 RISC-V Machine
  RISC-V Build Infrastructure

 MAINTAINERS                            |   11 +
 Makefile.objs                          |    1 +
 arch_init.c                            |    2 +
 configure                              |   13 +
 cpus.c                                 |    6 +
 default-configs/riscv32-linux-user.mak |    1 +
 default-configs/riscv32-softmmu.mak    |    4 +
 default-configs/riscv64-linux-user.mak |    1 +
 default-configs/riscv64-softmmu.mak    |    4 +
 disas.c                                |    2 +
 disas/Makefile.objs                    |    1 +
 disas/riscv.c                          | 3054 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 fpu/softfloat-specialize.h             |    7 +-
 hw/core/loader.c                       |   18 +-
 hw/riscv/Makefile.objs                 |   12 +
 hw/riscv/riscv_hart.c                  |   95 +
 hw/riscv/riscv_htif.c                  |  263 +++
 hw/riscv/sifive_clint.c                |  260 +++
 hw/riscv/sifive_e300.c                 |  233 +++
 hw/riscv/sifive_plic.c                 |  511 ++++++
 hw/riscv/sifive_prci.c                 |   95 +
 hw/riscv/sifive_test.c                 |   99 ++
 hw/riscv/sifive_u500.c                 |  339 ++++
 hw/riscv/sifive_uart.c                 |  182 ++
 hw/riscv/spike_v1_09.c                 |  203 +++
 hw/riscv/spike_v1_10.c                 |  277 +++
 hw/riscv/virt.c                        |  376 ++++
 include/disas/bfd.h                    |    2 +
 include/elf.h                          |    2 +
 include/hw/elf_ops.h                   |   34 +-
 include/hw/loader.h                    |   17 +-
 include/hw/riscv/riscv_hart.h          |   45 +
 include/hw/riscv/riscv_htif.h          |   64 +
 include/hw/riscv/sifive_clint.h        |   56 +
 include/hw/riscv/sifive_e300.h         |   79 +
 include/hw/riscv/sifive_plic.h         |   91 +
 include/hw/riscv/sifive_prci.h         |   43 +
 include/hw/riscv/sifive_test.h         |   48 +
 include/hw/riscv/sifive_u500.h         |   69 +
 include/hw/riscv/sifive_uart.h         |   76 +
 include/hw/riscv/spike.h               |   51 +
 include/hw/riscv/virt.h                |   74 +
 include/sysemu/arch_init.h             |    1 +
 linux-user/elfload.c                   |   22 +
 linux-user/main.c                      |   99 ++
 linux-user/riscv/syscall_nr.h          |  287 +++
 linux-user/riscv/target_cpu.h          |   18 +
 linux-user/riscv/target_signal.h       |   23 +
 linux-user/riscv/target_structs.h      |   46 +
 linux-user/riscv/target_syscall.h      |   56 +
 linux-user/riscv/termbits.h            |  220 +++
 linux-user/signal.c                    |  203 ++-
 linux-user/syscall.c                   |    2 +
 linux-user/syscall_defs.h              |   13 +-
 qapi-schema.json                       |   16 +-
 scripts/qemu-binfmt-conf.sh            |   13 +-
 target/riscv/Makefile.objs             |    1 +
 target/riscv/cpu.c                     |  391 ++++
 target/riscv/cpu.h                     |  256 +++
 target/riscv/cpu_bits.h                |  416 +++++
 target/riscv/cpu_user.h                |   13 +
 target/riscv/fpu_helper.c              |  375 ++++
 target/riscv/gdbstub.c                 |   64 +
 target/riscv/helper.c                  |  504 ++++++
 target/riscv/helper.h                  |   78 +
 target/riscv/instmap.h                 |  366 ++++
 target/riscv/op_helper.c               |  656 +++++++
 target/riscv/pmp.c                     |  386 ++++
 target/riscv/pmp.h                     |   70 +
 target/riscv/trace-events              |    1 +
 target/riscv/translate.c               | 1976 +++++++++++++++++++++
 71 files changed, 13366 insertions(+), 27 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 default-configs/riscv32-linux-user.mak
 create mode 100644 default-configs/riscv32-softmmu.mak
 create mode 100644 default-configs/riscv64-linux-user.mak
 create mode 100644 default-configs/riscv64-softmmu.mak
 create mode 100644 disas/riscv.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/Makefile.objs
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/riscv_hart.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/riscv_htif.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/sifive_clint.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/sifive_e300.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/sifive_plic.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/sifive_prci.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/sifive_test.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/sifive_u500.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/sifive_uart.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/spike_v1_09.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/spike_v1_10.c
 create mode 100644 hw/riscv/virt.c
 create mode 100644 include/hw/riscv/riscv_hart.h
 create mode 100644 include/hw/riscv/riscv_htif.h
 create mode 100644 include/hw/riscv/sifive_clint.h
 create mode 100644 include/hw/riscv/sifive_e300.h
 create mode 100644 include/hw/riscv/sifive_plic.h
 create mode 100644 include/hw/riscv/sifive_prci.h
 create mode 100644 include/hw/riscv/sifive_test.h
 create mode 100644 include/hw/riscv/sifive_u500.h
 create mode 100644 include/hw/riscv/sifive_uart.h
 create mode 100644 include/hw/riscv/spike.h
 create mode 100644 include/hw/riscv/virt.h
 create mode 100644 linux-user/riscv/syscall_nr.h
 create mode 100644 linux-user/riscv/target_cpu.h
 create mode 100644 linux-user/riscv/target_signal.h
 create mode 100644 linux-user/riscv/target_structs.h
 create mode 100644 linux-user/riscv/target_syscall.h
 create mode 100644 linux-user/riscv/termbits.h
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/Makefile.objs
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/cpu.c
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/cpu.h
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/cpu_bits.h
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/cpu_user.h
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/fpu_helper.c
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/gdbstub.c
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/helper.c
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/helper.h
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/instmap.h
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/op_helper.c
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/pmp.c
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/pmp.h
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/trace-events
 create mode 100644 target/riscv/translate.c

-- 
2.7.0


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