While I in the general sense agree with you, there are however a couple major flaws to this applied logic. The biggest flaw, is not calculating the amount of raw power a quantum computer can output. While true, it has to follow the laws of physics, but remember quantum computing is more strictly following the laws of quantum mechanics, which is a lower below physics, closer to base reality. The computational power quantum computers can do, is astronomical huge. Without calculating just how huge, you cannot compare other huge numbers, such calculation needed to crack encryption schemes. And here is the cake, most people dramatically underestimate the power of exponential growth, because the human brain is not build for it, it's build to think in linear lines. And quantum computers are anything but linear power outputs. The human brain cannot grasp how powerful they can become, and that's why, without calculating the calculation power, you cannot make claims that it cannot easily crack encryption in the time-frames mentioned. Your brain is human, and so is mine, we both, like all other humans, have a flaw, we cannot perceive the sheer power of this thing. We need numbers, otherwise you cannot compare. And given how the human brain naturally underestimates, the odds are that you are underestimating just how powerful quantum computers can be. Among some of the recent quantum computer developments, they're getting closer to make actual computer chips with quantum mechanics computing that can scale like current day binary chips. Here many are getting, current advances in binary computational chips, may easily be applied to quantum computational chips. The recent development of a quantum computer chip, may simply require to perfect the single quantum transistor unit, and then you can apply large scale quantum chips, in similar scale as today's modern chips. This is not all, as mentioned earlier quantum computing grows exponentially, and the human brain tends to dramatically underestimate the power of exponential. The small quantum computers today, will rapidly develop computational power, even with a poor chip scale factor compared to today. If the above example comes true, within a few years, you'll have extremely powerful quantum computer very, very quickly by applying large chips, but instead of binary transistors, you'll have them with quantum transistors. Now build a small super computer complex, doesn't have to be big, just a small one, and you will probably already have enough computing power to dismantle any current day encryption that is not immune to quantum computations. And this is not even a large scale supercomputer with quantum computer chips. Imagine what you could do with a massive server complex... the implications... What's more, this can even be better explained, I did a poor job. The potential of quantum computing is massive, and many people are dramatically underestimating it, and also forgetting that existing technology today, means once we have working quantum transistors, it will not be a matter of having to "start over" again, it'll be a simple matter of using existing technology. Most chat messages and e-mails take almost no storage, and it's easy to collect it all in todays massive cloud systems, due to one single fact, 'economics of scale' works absolutely truly amazingly when it comes to Cloud economy. It just keeps getting cheaper, and cheaper, and cheaper to store huge massive amounts of data. What's more, once you have all this data, and you have low effort decryption means, then you can simply apply Artificial Intelligence to go through it all to profile everything for you. This is already happening today, in fact it started happened already 3 years ago when the first A.I. systems started to profile public social media, for example the case where one looked at a natural disaster, to figure out from the choice of language and words of the person, who was present at the disaster zone, and who was just commenting on it. These technologies are improving, and rapidly. I'm not saying next year or within 3 years, but they'll probably be something scary in less than 10 years. Quantum computing may arrive quicker than estimated too, if there is one thing that is typical in many predictions about existing technology, is the underestimation of how quickly it will advance. Don't say it will take 100 years to get quantum computing this powerful, it will be far sooner than that. Maybe 20 years is a better guess if you take all these things into account, maybe even sooner. -- You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "qubes-users" group. To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to qubes-users+unsubscr...@googlegroups.com. To post to this group, send email to firstname.lastname@example.org. To view this discussion on the web visit https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/qubes-users/3607e942-5e37-4561-a67a-39678b0d6210%40googlegroups.com. For more options, visit https://groups.google.com/d/optout.