On 25/09/2018 20:11, Alexis King wrote:
> (Sorry, Paulo, for the duplicate message; I forgot to Reply All the
> first time.)
> This is sort of subtle. When we consider a macro-enabled language, we
> often imagine that `expand` takes a program with some phase ≥1 code,
> expands all the macros in the program by running the phase ≥1 code, and
> produces a fully-expanded program with only phase 0 code left. There is
> some truth to this, but it doesn’t paint the whole picture.
> [snip] [snip]

Alexis, thanks for the thorough reply. I understood everything, at least
up until this point.

> The above explains why Racket retains some phase ≥1 code. However, it
> may be unsatisfying: while it’s true that the phase ≥1 code might be
> necessary for compilation of other modules, once you have compiled your
> whole program, it shouldn’t be necessary to keep that information
> around, right? 

Right! That's exactly what I was thinking...

> No other modules will ever need to be compiled against
> the macro-providing module. However, this is not necessarily true!
> Racket provides a set of reflective operations for compiling modules at
> runtime, and it makes no assumptions that all modules will be loaded
> from compiled code. In this sense, Racket includes an “open-world
> assumption” when compiling modules, and it retains any phase ≥1 code
> necessary for compiling new modules at any time.

OK, so I understand now that what I want is an unimplemented feature,
but in most compilers these days and certainly those based in LLVM and
GCC there's a feature called whole-program optimization or link time
optimization. Basically the compiler will get the whole program in
memory after compiling each module/file and run the optimizations on the
whole thing again therefore being able to optimize things it wasn't able
to optimize before when it only had a module/file view.

Now, in Racket when I compile an executable, although it's true there
might be dynamic-requires, if you look at the example I posted there's
not even one. Surely it's possible to remove all the phase>=1 code,
correct? Is it just the case that this kind of global optimization is
not yet implemented?

Even with dynamic-requires, if the dynamic-require depends on a compile
time variable that contains the path, after compilation the
dynamic-require won't change and will always require the same file,
therefore we can do the same kind of phase >= 1 code cleanup.

Am I missing any subtlety here or are these feasible but we are just
missing these optimizations?

> This sort of thing is necessary to implement tools like DrRacket, which
> frequently compile new modules at runtime, but admittedly, most programs
> don’t do any such thing. Personally, I would appreciate a way to ask
> Racket to strip all phase ≥1 code and phase ≥1 dependencies from a
> specified program so that I can distribute the phase 0 code and
> dependencies exclusively. However, to my knowledge, Racket does not
> currently include any such feature.

Again, here I assume that in some cases, like the ones I mentioned above
you wouldn't even have to ask. It could be done automatically.

> For more information on declaring, instantiating, and visiting modules,
> and how that relates to compilation, see this very helpful section in
> The Racket Guide:
>    http://docs.racket-lang.org/guide/macro-module.html

Thank you for the reference.

Paulo Matos
>> On Sep 25, 2018, at 07:32, 'Paulo Matos' via Racket Users 
>> <racket-users@googlegroups.com> wrote:
>> Hi,
>> I reached a point at which I don't think I am exactly understanding how
>> the racket compilation pipeline works.
>> My software has several compile time options that use environment
>> variables to be read (since I can't think of another way to do it) so I
>> define a compile time variable as:
>> (define-for-syntax enable-contracts?
>> (and (getenv "S10_ENABLE_CONTRACTS") #true))
>> And then I create a macro to move this compile-time variable to runtime:
>> (define-syntax (compiled-with-contracts? stx)
>> (datum->syntax stx enable-contracts?))
>> I have a few of these so when I create a distribution, I first create an
>> executable with (I use create-embedding-executable but for simplicity,
>> lets say I am using raco):
>> S10_ENABLE_CONTRACTS=1 raco exe ...
>> I have a bunch of other options that don't matter for the moment.
>> One of the things I noticed is that in some cases when I run my
>> executable, compile time code living inside begin-for-syntax to check if
>> a variable has been defined during compilation or not is triggered. At a
>> point, which I didn't expect any more syntax expansion to occur.
>> I can't really reproduce the issue with a small example yet but I
>> noticed something:
>> main.rkt:
>> #lang racket
>> (require (file "arch-choice.rkt"))
>> (module+ main
>> (printf "arch: ~a~n" (get-path)))
>> arch-choice.rkt:
>> #lang racket
>> (provide get-path)
>> (begin-for-syntax
>> (define arch-path (getenv "ARCH"))
>> (unless arch-path
>>   (raise-user-error 'driver "Please define ARCH with a suitable path")))
>> (define-syntax (get-path stx)
>> (datum->syntax stx arch-path))
>> Then just to make sure nothing is compiled I remove my zos:
>> $ find . -type f -name '*.zo' -exec \{\} \;
>> Then compile it:
>> $ ARCH=foo raco exe main.rkt
>> In this case if you run ./main you'll get 'arch: foo' back which is fine
>> so I can't reproduce what I see in my software which is with some
>> combinations of compile time options, I see:
>> 'driver: Please define ARCH environment variable'
>> which should even be part of the executable because it's a compile time
>> string (or so I thought).
>> So I did on the above example:
>> $ strings main | grep ARCH
>> ARCH"
>> ''Please define ARCH with a suitable path
>> OK, so, this agrees with what I see in my program: compile-time error
>> strings still exist in the code. Why is that? I thought that only fully
>> expanded code (compiled-code) would make it to the executable file.
>> Another thing that might help me understand what's going on, is there a
>> way to extract the bytecode from the executable and decompile it?
>> Thanks,
>> -- 
>> Paulo Matos

Paulo Matos

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