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Today's Topics:

   1. Tools for transliteration (Hans Nilsson)
   2. "??????????"-??????? ??????????????? (S. L. Abhyankar)
   3. Re: Why not "siddhyanti"??? (Piergiorgio Muzi)


----------------------------------------------------------------------

Message: 1
Date: Thu, 27 May 2010 09:37:49 +0200
From: "Hans Nilsson" <h...@hansnilsson.se>
Subject: [Sanskrit] Tools for transliteration
To: "'Sanskrit Mailing List'" <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
Message-ID: <090301cafd6f$839d1ef0$8ad75c...@se>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

??????

 

I am using the Microsoft Indic Language Tool (free to download), which is great 
for entering devanagari directly in any application:

 

http://specials.msn.co.in/ilit/

 

I have also tried Lipikaar, but it is not so user friendly since you have to 
type more to get the same result (you have to type x after each letter to get a 
virama for conjoint consonants). Lipikaar is here: http://www.lipikaar.com/

 

Hans Nilsson
Sweden

 

Fr?n: sanskrit-boun...@cs.utah.edu [mailto:sanskrit-boun...@cs.utah.edu] F?r S. 
L. Abhyankar
Skickat: den 26 maj 2010 02:35
Till: sanskrit@cs.utah.edu
Kopia: tnah...@yahoo.co.uk
?mne: Re: [Sanskrit] Tools for transliteration

 

I get following results

(1) by ITRANS of ibiblio ???????? from typing amRutam

(2) By devanagari tool in Google ????? from typing same amRutam

(3) By BARAHA Pad ?????? from typing amRutam and 

(4) By BARAHA PAD ????? from typing amRutaM

 

I think this explains why I am happy with BARAHA Pad.

 

BARAHA Pad transliterates character by character. You do not wait anxiously, as 
in Google, waiting to see how the word will become. 

 

It is not limited by the diction, as Google seems to be.

 

Furthermore, I can use BARAHA Pad off-line, as good as a simple Note Pad type 
Word processor. 
I also suggest that this word amRutam provides a good test of the comparative 
efficacy of all tools. 

One can find BARAHA Pad by simple Google search.

???????? 

????????

???????? ?????? ????????? ?

 


---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: kamalesh pathak <kamleshsomn...@gmail.com>
To: Sanskrit Mailing List <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
Date: Tue, 25 May 2010 17:37:03 +0530
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Font for displaying in Sanskrit

sri Abhyankar mahodayah

krupayaa pratyuttaram maam prayachhchha ;

kah web address Barah pad download karaNAy?

( i want to download barah pad from net please send me web address )

namaskAra pUrvaka 

jayatu somanaath mahAdevAy namah

truly with regards,

kamalesh pathak from Somnath

 

On 24 May 2010 00:20, S. L. Abhyankar <sl.abhyan...@gmail.com> wrote:

Dear Mr. T. N. Ahuja,

 

I have found BARAHA pad very user-friendly. There is a Language button on the 
main menu. You can activate Sanskrit or any of the other Indian languages. You 
can switch between languages also.

 

You type the English spelling and the "pad" converts into activated script 
automatically. For special characters, you can get guidance from the "Help" 
button.

 

BARAHA pad can be downloaded free. Being a UNICODE font, it can be 
"copy-pasted"d into emails. 

 

But there is no Mac version. You will need a windows VMWare on Mac.

 

Hope, this helps.

 

???????? ,
?????????????????? ???????? |
???????? ?????? ????????? ?

 

 

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: T N Ahuja <tnah...@yahoo.co.uk>
To: sanskrit@cs.utah.edu
Date: Sat, 22 May 2010 16:20:12 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] sanskrit Digest, Vol 61, Issue 10

Could you please let me know the font used to display sanskrit quotes in your 
emails

Regards
 

Triloki N. AHUJA
e-mail: tnah...@yahoo.co.uk 

 

 




---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Krishnamachary <vedantham_kris...@yahoo.com>
To: Sanskrit Mailing List <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
Date: Tue, 25 May 2010 12:49:41 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Font for displaying in Sanskrit


Google transliterate tool is much more versatile and could be used for almost 
all Indian languages..You can place it as a tool in Yahoo mail page also.It can 
be easily picked up from google search engine

Mr.V.Krishnamachary
Retired Civil Engineer

Samskrutha Abhimaani
Email: vedantham_kris...@yahoo.com



--- On Tue, 5/25/10, kamalesh pathak <kamleshsomn...@gmail.com> wrote:


From: kamalesh pathak <kamleshsomn...@gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Font for displaying in Sanskrit
To: "Sanskrit Mailing List" <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
Date: Tuesday, May 25, 2010, 7:07 AM

sri Abhyankar mahodayah

krupayaa pratyuttaram maam prayachhchha ;

kah web address Barah pad download karaNAy?

( i want to download barah pad from net please send me web address )

namaskAra pUrvaka 

jayatu somanaath mahAdevAy namah

truly with regards,

kamalesh pathak from Somnath

 

On 24 May 2010 00:20, S. L. Abhyankar <sl.abhyan...@gmail.com 
<http://us.mc355.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=sl.abhyan...@gmail.com> > wrote:

Dear Mr. T. N. Ahuja,

 

I have found BARAHA pad very user-friendly. There is a Language button on the 
main menu. You can activate Sanskrit or any of the other Indian languages. You 
can switch between languages also. 

 

You type the English spelling and the "pad" converts into activated script 
automatically. For special characters, you can get guidance from the "Help" 
button.

 

BARAHA pad can be downloaded free. Being a UNICODE font, it can be 
"copy-pasted"d into emails. 

 

But there is no Mac version. You will need a windows VMWare on Mac.

 

Hope, this helps.

 

???????? ,
?????????????????? ???????? |
???????? ?????? ????????? ?

 

 

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: T N Ahuja <tnah...@yahoo.co.uk 
<http://us.mc355.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=tnah...@yahoo.co.uk> >
To: sanskrit@cs.utah.edu 
<http://us.mc355.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=sansk...@cs.utah.edu> 
Date: Sat, 22 May 2010 16:20:12 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] sanskrit Digest, Vol 61, Issue 10

Could you please let me know the font used to display sanskrit quotes in your 
emails

Regards
 

Triloki N. AHUJA
e-mail: tnah...@yahoo.co.uk 
<http://us.mc355.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=tnah...@yahoo.co.uk>  

 

 

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Ajit Krishnan <ajit.krish...@gmail.com>
To: Sanskrit Mailing List <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
Date: Tue, 25 May 2010 13:20:28 -0700
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Font for displaying in Sanskrit
namaste,

 

> Google transliterate tool is much more versatile

 

Are you referring to the Google IME? It is very nice, but there is one problem 
that prevents me from using it at all. It doesn't allow me to enter words that 
are not found in its dictionary. If you have found a way around this, can you 
please share the details?

 

As an example, try typing "patram" without an anusvAra. 

 

 

bhavadiiyaH,

 

       ajit

 

On Tue, May 25, 2010 at 12:49 PM, Krishnamachary <vedantham_kris...@yahoo.com> 
wrote:


Google transliterate tool is much more versatile and could be used for almost 
all Indian languages..You can place it as a tool in Yahoo mail page also.It can 
be easily picked up from google search engine

Mr.V.Krishnamachary
Retired Civil Engineer

Samskrutha Abhimaani
Email: vedantham_kris...@yahoo.com



--- On Tue, 5/25/10, kamalesh pathak <kamleshsomn...@gmail.com> wrote:


From: kamalesh pathak <kamleshsomn...@gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Font for displaying in Sanskrit
To: "Sanskrit Mailing List" <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
Date: Tuesday, May 25, 2010, 7:07 AM

 

sri Abhyankar mahodayah

krupayaa pratyuttaram maam prayachhchha ;

kah web address Barah pad download karaNAy?

( i want to download barah pad from net please send me web address )

namaskAra pUrvaka 

jayatu somanaath mahAdevAy namah

truly with regards,

kamalesh pathak from Somnath

 

On 24 May 2010 00:20, S. L. Abhyankar <sl.abhyan...@gmail.com 
<http://us.mc355.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=sl.abhyan...@gmail.com> > wrote:

Dear Mr. T. N. Ahuja,

 

I have found BARAHA pad very user-friendly. There is a Language button on the 
main menu. You can activate Sanskrit or any of the other Indian languages. You 
can switch between languages also. 

 

You type the English spelling and the "pad" converts into activated script 
automatically. For special characters, you can get guidance from the "Help" 
button.

 

BARAHA pad can be downloaded free. Being a UNICODE font, it can be 
"copy-pasted"d into emails. 

 

But there is no Mac version. You will need a windows VMWare on Mac.

 

Hope, this helps.

 

???????? ,
?????????????????? ???????? |
???????? ?????? ????????? ?

 

 


---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: T N Ahuja <tnah...@yahoo.co.uk 
<http://us.mc355.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=tnah...@yahoo.co.uk> >
To: sanskrit@cs.utah.edu 
<http://us.mc355.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=sansk...@cs.utah.edu> 
Date: Sat, 22 May 2010 16:20:12 +0000 (GMT)
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] sanskrit Digest, Vol 61, Issue 10

Could you please let me know the font used to display sanskrit quotes in your 
emails

Regards
 

Triloki N. AHUJA
e-mail: tnah...@yahoo.co.uk 
<http://us.mc355.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=tnah...@yahoo.co.uk>  

 

 

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Ramakrishna Upadrasta <uramakris...@gmail.com>
To: Sanskrit Mailing List <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
Date: Tue, 25 May 2010 22:46:35 +0200
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Font for displaying in Sanskrit
namaste,

 

I found the following transliterate tool quite useful.

 

http://www.ibiblio.org/sanskrit/tools/sanscript

 

namaste

Ramakrishna

 

 

2010/5/25 Ajit Krishnan <ajit.krish...@gmail.com>

namaste,

 

> Google transliterate tool is much more versatile

 

 

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Message: 2
Date: Thu, 27 May 2010 08:35:59 -0400
From: "S. L. Abhyankar" <sl.abhyan...@gmail.com>
Subject: [Sanskrit] "??????????"-??????? ???????????????
To: sanskrit@cs.utah.edu
Message-ID:
        <aanlktiky_m_pszzfilnf3i2lnzjyqkfaxuxhgjiah...@mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

>
> ??? ?
>
> ????????? ???? ?????? ?
>
>

> ???? ??????????? -
>
> ??????? = ???? ???? ???? ??
>
> ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????
>> ?????????? ?????? ???? ?
>
> ?????? ?? ????? "??????????" ???? ?
>
> ??? ??????? ???????-??????? ???????? ??????????
>
> "??????? = ???? ???? ???? ?? --> ??" ??? ??????? ?
>
> ????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????
>
> "??????? = ???? ???? ???? ?? --> ?? --> ??????" ???? ??????? ?
>
>

> ???????? ??? "=" ??? "-->" ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????
>> ????? ?
>
> ????? "=" ??????? ?? ????? "-->" ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??
>> ????????? ?
>
>

> ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?
>
> ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????
>> ?????????? ???? ??????? ? ???? ?
>
>

> ????????
>
> ???????????? ?????????????????? ?
>
> ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?"
>
>
> ---------- Forwarded message ----------
> From: "Vimala Sarma" <vsa...@bigpond.com>
> To: "'Sanskrit Mailing List'" <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
> Date: Thu, 27 May 2010 15:24:26 +1000
> Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Learning Sanskrit by a Fresh Approach - Lesson 6
>
> I would like to comment on:
>
> ??????????
>
> The ending is not from teSAm
>
> It is the declension for cetas (mind) ? genitive, plu, masc/fem/neuter
>
> The bahuvrIhi compound means -  of those with or possessing small minds.
>
> The same with udAracaritANAm ? this is plural, genitive, masc ending, and
> the na is retroflexed because of the r. And udAra is high or lofty or noble.
>
> Also eva here is ?only? or used in emphasis.
>
> Sorry for these minor corrections ? I like your lessons.
>
> Vimala
>
>
>
>
> _______________________________________________
> To UNSUBSCRIBE or customize your subscription and email delivery, visit
> http://mailman.cs.utah.edu/mailman/options/sanskrit
> and follow instructions.
>



-- 
???????? ,
?????????????????? ???????? |
???????? ?????? ????????? ?
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Message: 3
Date: Thu, 27 May 2010 15:45:34 +0200
From: "Piergiorgio Muzi" <glob...@comm2000.it>
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Why not "siddhyanti"???
To: "Sanskrit Mailing List" <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
Message-ID: <bbcabccd5ab54c5782acf3d61abfa...@yoursgz3xpngo4>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

Hi, dear Naresh!
I much appreciate your interest and involvement in this topic and I am sure 
that you can share my worries about the large implication it has. I used to 
have some Indian students when I was teaching Latin and Sanskrit in Singapore 
recently, from 2002 to 2009. One of them was from Pune and I went with him 
there for one month, last December. I had direct experience of the Sanskrit 
there... 
I want to write something longer that a short email, in order to get a 
reciprocal exchange of reflections and thoughts.This will be useful to me, 
since at present I'm teaching general, but serious and deep, notions about 
Sanskrit at Philosophy Department at University. 
As for now, just to joke, I prefer to follow the criteria of grammars and 
dictionaries of MacDonell, Monier-Williams, Whitney and V.S.Apte and V.A. Apte, 
Coulson, Max M?ller, Goldman...But I will change my option...
I hope you forgive my obstinacy on certain points. At the same time, what you 
wrote has made me understand that there is something to talk about with you. I 
will try also to write something in Sanskrit, but I warn you that in this case 
it is you who have to correct me, since my Sanskrit is a bit "artificial" and 
defective, in spite of my short "samskrtam vadatu" experience.  
???????? ??????
Piergiorgio Muzi
  ----- Original Message ----- 
  From: Naresh Cuntoor 
  To: Sanskrit Mailing List 
  Sent: Thursday, May 27, 2010 2:06 AM
  Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Why not "siddhyanti"???


  Dear Piergiorgio,

  I think you are ascribing a degree of perfection that is not claimed even by 
the grammarian triad themselves (Panini, Katyayana, Patanjali). If, for 
example, Panini's characterization was perfect - Katyayana would have no 
business giving his vartikas and Patanjali would have no business explaining / 
criticizing either of his predecessors' statements. 

  Is Samskrita is inherently perfect?  That is too tall a claim - to my 
knowledge, not made even by Patanjali. In his introduction to the bhashya, he 
mentions raksha, uha, aagama, laghu, asandeha as motivation to study grammar. 
He does not claim an inherent perfection in the language. Moreover, he 
explicitly states that usage trumps any grammarian's pronouncements. (see, 
analogy of going to a potter's). In other words, prayoga-sharaNaaH 
vaiyAkaraNaaH. 


  Perhaps it is some 19th century European's over-zealousness that ascribes the 
perfection you describe. 

  After all if perfection was the hallmark of Samskrita, people would have 
dismissed Kalidasa who is known for, well, Kalidasisms.  

  As far as writing is concerned - since when is script paramount? Write 
Samskrita in transliterated Roman, Brahmi, Sharada or whatever script - as long 
as sounds are uniquely reproducible.


   Coming to the specific question of siddhyati - sidhyati, krudhyati - 
kruddhyati etc. - as Dhananjay mentioned earlier, there is a Panini sutra which 
accounts for the duplication (anachi cha). (See LSK achsandhiprakaraNam - 
suddhyupAsya is relevant here).

  To a competent native speaker, usages are inherently correct. After all he 
does not seek sanction from a grammarian. Why should that be any different in 
the case of Samskrita ?! Certainly, usages of a non-native speaker (i.e., us) 
can be questioned. Questioning established usages, i.e., shiShTa prayogas, 
however, is meaningless.  

  In the case of siddhyati - at least two old usages were shown - so how can 
one claim its incorrectness? If anything needs revisiting, it would be the rule 
that one thought accounted for such constructions! If Whitney does not list the 
optional form, it is an omission in Whitney's book! 


  Naresh
  vaak.wordpress.com



  On Wed, May 26, 2010 at 4:51 PM, Piergiorgio Muzi <glob...@comm2000.it> wrote:

    Dear scholars . 
    This not a boring question relating only to the sidh present form. 
    I want to explain the importance of a correct spelling and writing words. 
This could be more important that the way one pronounces or writes it. Sanskrit 
is based on rational, general linguistic rules. 
    1) To form the present tense of a 4th class verb (and also for passive 
voice in -ya) , the rule says that we have only to ad  -yati to the root in the 
weak degree. There is no rule which request us to change dh into ddh before 
-ya.  This is always valid and we don't need to do any exception: so from vyadh 
(weak vidh for saMprasaraNa), we have vidhyati. Other verbs, analogously: 
budhyate, yudhyate, rudhyate, krudhyati, Shudhyati, kShudhyati, RRidyate, 
gRRidhyati... and many others. You can check in The roots, verb-forms and 
primary derivatives of the Sanskrit language, by the great Sanskritist 
W.D.Whitney (Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, last reprint 2006). You can get 
confirmation also from the most important dictionaries, as Apte's, MacDonell, 
Monier-Williams.
    2) To form past participle, infinitive in -tum periphrastic future and 
nouns in -ti to the roots ending in dh, we must follow the Bartholomae's law, 
which doesn't deal with any kind of duplication since it is a general rule 
which applies to (g)h, bh, dh. The rersult of sidh+ta si siddha, budh+ta gives 
buddha...Similarly from duh+ta you get dugdha, from rabh+ta you get rabdha... 
This law is common to Sanskrit and Old Persian, too.
    3) So, the only reason of writing ddh intead of dh in the present, 
imperfect, perfect, aorist, simple future.. is only a confusion with the forms 
described in 2, which want regularly ddh. 
    Sanskrit is fruit of a rational grammatical study, where we have to 
question about the rules and besides about the reasons of the rules.
    It is not only a problem of sidhyati. If we confuse the stem of the present 
with the base of of the past partciples, etc., the results are not so good. For 
instance we could confuse budha with buddha (only the second means awaked as 
past part.) or vidha with viddha... Besides the student couldn't immediately 
recognize a past participle, since he can't see in buddha the result of sandhi 
rule from budh-ta. If he reads boddhum, how could he understand that it is the 
infinitive, that is bodh-tum, of the  same root in guNa degree?
    Sanskrit grammar is like an algebra or chemistry system. Any mistake calls 
for other mistakes and misunderstanding.
    The Internet is full of terrible mistakes (but there are also mistakes in 
old dhAtupATha, because of wrong transcriptions or transliterations). 
    I suppose that we must co-operate in refining the language by means of 
rational study and by cleaning it like something precious. 
    ??? ????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ????
    ??????
    Piergiorgio Muzi




      ----- Original Message ----- 
      From: S. L. Abhyankar 
      To: sanskrit@cs.utah.edu 
      Sent: Wednesday, May 26, 2010 8:48 AM
      Subject: [Sanskrit] of "sidhyanti" and "siddhyanti"


      ??? 
      I have been mutely following all the discussion about "sidhyanti" 
?????????  and "siddhyanti" ??????????? . 


      What conclusion emerges in my mind is to start from the basics, i.e. to 
consider what happened first - whether the pronunciation happened first or 
writing happened first. The answer is obvious and known to everybody - the 
pronunciation happened first. 


      Since all the basis of ???????? script is to satisfy and represent the 
pronunciation as properly as possible, all my efforts at pronouncing ????????? 
convince me that I can pronounce it only as ??????????? Only then, the rhythm 
of the meter also gets pronounced properly. 


      It is also my hypothesis that no law of writing ???????? - whether 
Bartholomae's or even of ?????? can be beyond or offensive to proper 
representation of the sound. In fact what writing will represent the sound most 
truthfully becomes the acid test to say whether the writing is correct or not. 
And I am convinced that ??????????? represents the sound most properly.


      I also did little experimentation at pronouncing ????? ??????? ???????  
and ???????????. I notice that I can pronounce the first two fairly okay, the 
third one only with some compromise. But the last one demands the ??????? to be 
?? ? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? Hence I am convinced that writing it as ??????????? is 
correct. This way, i.e. by ??????? as ?? ? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?  there would be no 
compromise needed even for the third one viz. ???????. So better to write this 
one also as ?????????  I notice that it is the ??, which demands ?? also.


      May I appeal that let the discussion close here !


      ????????? for all the great inputs !


      ???????? ,
      ?????????????????? ???????? |
      ???????? ?????? ????????? ?

        ---------- Forwarded message ----------
        From: Naresh Cuntoor <nares...@gmail.com>
        To: Sanskrit Mailing List <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
        Date: Tue, 25 May 2010 08:24:25 -0400
        Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] siddhyanti is fine
        Looking at similar dhaatus - krudha, shudha and then ShiDhu -
        Brhihadhatu. gives the typical forms as:
        krudha  (kope)- krudhyati
        shudha (shauche) - shudhyati

        For ShiDhu, it gives both sidhyati and siddhyati.


        anachi cha (and jhalaam jash jashi ) would give siddhyati ,
        kruddhyati, shuddhyati, correct? (I am just retracing the
        suddhyupaasya example in yaN).

        I have seen both kruddhyati and krudhyati being used.

        Regarding Barthalomae's law - how does it map in terms of pratyaahaaras?

        Naresh
        vaak.wordpress.com



        On Sun, May 23, 2010 at 8:14 PM, Jay Vaidya <deejayvai...@yahoo.com> 
wrote:
        > But my position has nothing to do with weak-strong verb/substantive or
        > whatever.
        >
        > anachi cha 8.4.47
        > describes optional ("preferable") duplication.
        > sidhyanti/siddhyanti are optional forms.
        >
        > As far as we know, pANini had a wide knowledge of the optional forms 
of
        > pronunciation at his time. And options obviously negate the existence 
of
        > infallible laws regarding that particular word.
        >
        > But I add my curiosity regarding this "strong degree/weak degree
        > Bartholomae's Law" notion. Apparently Bartholomae's law is:
        > "It states that in a cluster of two or more obstruents (stops or the
        > sibilant s), any one of which is a voiced aspirate anywhere in the 
sequence,
        > the whole cluster becomes voiced and aspirated."
        > What does this have to do with duplication?
        >
        > Dhananjay
        >
        > Message: 2
        > From: Naresh Cuntoor <nares...@gmail.com>
        > Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach - Lesson
        >     4
        >
        > On Sat, May 22, 2010 at 5:32 PM, Piergiorgio Muzi
        > <glob...@comm2000.it>wrote:
        >
        >>  Sorry, sidhyanti (not siddhyanti), week degree of the root is sidh-.
        >> siddh- is only for past participle, siddha (< sidh-ta) and for 
substantive
        >> siddhi (< sidh-ti). The same as budhyate, but buddha, buddhi...(it 
is so
        >> called Bartholomae's law).
        >> Thanks, regards,
        >> Piergiorgio
        >>
        >>
        >>
        > Clearly, in the subhashita quoted, siddhyanti is used as a verb. (I 
don't
        > know what a "week (or weak) degree" of a verb is. Could you please
        > elaborate?)
        >
        > The dhaatu is Shidhu (????) ..
        >
        > Another example:,
        > yatne kRute yadi na siddhyati ko&tra doShaH



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    and follow instructions.



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