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Today's Topics:

   1.  Learning Sanskrit by a Fresh Approach - Lesson 7
      (S. L. Abhyankar)
   2. Re: Learning Sanskrit by a Fresh Approach - Lesson 6
      (S. L. Abhyankar)


----------------------------------------------------------------------

Message: 1
Date: Fri, 28 May 2010 15:35:54 -0400
From: "S. L. Abhyankar" <sl.abhyan...@gmail.com>
Subject: [Sanskrit]  Learning Sanskrit by a Fresh Approach - Lesson 7
To: sanskrit@cs.utah.edu
Message-ID:
        <aanlktiltkaropw5-3c5mmspxeolvy7uyttzgfqpak...@mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

>
> A small correction, please for second case plural in the table of
> declensions for masculine noun ???



> ???????? ,
> ?????????????????? ???????? |
> ???????? ?????? ????????? ?
>



> ---------- Forwarded message ----------
> From: "S. L. Abhyankar" <sl.abhyan...@gmail.com>
> To: sanskrit@cs.utah.edu
> Date: Fri, 28 May 2010 13:01:25 -0400
> Subject: [Sanskrit] Learning Sanskrit by a Fresh Approach - Lesson 7
> *Learning Sanskrit by a Fresh Approach - Lesson 7*
> *
> *
> This time, I would like to take a longish verse.
>
>
> ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?
> ??????????? ????????? ????? ????? ??? ?
> ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?
> ???? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ?
>
> Before proceeding with exploring the meaning of this verse, some
> interesting features of this verse -
> 1. Of course this verse is an ode to Lord RAma. This verse is from a long
> enough ????????? known as ?????????????????????
> 2. Looking at the poetry of it,
>
> Every line has 19 syllables - exactly 19
>
> Weightages of the 19 syllables in every line are 2-2-2, 1-1-2, 1-2-1,
> 1-1-2, 2-2-1, 2-2-1, 2
>
> This pattern of weightages makes the verse of a meter called as
> ??????????????????
>
> This meter is very popular with poets, especially those composing verses to
> express best wishes to a couple, when the marriage ceremony is being
> performed, typically when they would have put garlands on each other.
>
>
> 3. In this verse there are two distinct sentences in each line. So, to
> explore the meaning of this verse, we have to understand just 8 simple
> sentences. That's it.
>
> Let us start off by the set methodology of exploring phrase by phrase, word
> by word.
>
> ???? ??????? = ???: ???????
>
> ???: = (Lord) RAma
> ??????? = ???????? ????
> ???????? = of kings
> ???? = jewel
> ???????? ???? = jewel among kings
>
>
> ??? = always
> ?????? = is victorious
>
> ???? ??????? ??? ?????? = RAma, the jewel among kings is always victorious
>
> ???? = ????? = to RAma
> ????? = ??????
>
> ?????? = ????: --> ???  --> ??????
> ????: = ?????? ??? (?????-????????- ?????)
> ?????? = of RamA ??? is the name of wife of ViShNu
> ??? = Lord
> ?????? ??? = Lord of RamA, hence ViShNu
>
> ??? = I am devoted to, or I do devotion to.
>
> ???? ????? ??? = I do devotion to RAma, (hence) to Ramesha (i.e. to ViShNu)
>
> One may ask, how doing devotion to RAma becomes devotion also to ViShNu.
> The logic lies in the mythology of incarnations of ViShNu. Among ten
> incarnations (?????????) of ViShNu, RAma is regarded as the seventh. So,
> mythologically, ViShNu is the supreme deity, which undertook ten
> incarnations in the order - ??????, ?????, ????, ??????, ????, ???????, ???,
> ?????, ?????, ?????
>
> When I deliberate on this mythology of ????????? to me it appeals to be the
> theory of evolution of life. When the globe was cooling down, and migratory
> life form had to emerge, it could have emerged only in the more congenial
> environment of water and not on the terrains. So first incarnation is
> ??????, the fish. Next is ?????, the turtle, which could move both in water
> and on ground; yet more in water than on ground. Third ???? the rhino, who
> loves watery surroundings, but moves on ground of shallow waters. Fourth is
> ??????, half lion (????), half human (??). Fifth ????, human, rather
> dimunitive. Sixth ???????, human, but rather savage, uncultured. Seventh
> ???, the ideal human. Eighth ?????, adept at the ways of the world. Ninth
> ?????, the exalted, self-realised soul. Tenth ????? where good and evil
> coexist.
>
> Associated with this mythology of ????????? is also the concept of passage
> of time, the four Yuga's - ??? ?????? ??????? ???. Incarnation of RAma is
> said to belong to ???-??? Not much detail seems to have been mentioned about
> ????????? The incarnation of ????? is said to belong to ??????????. Present
> times are of ??????, where good and evil coexist, rather times, when good is
> always challenged by the evil.
>
> Learning Sanskrit is not just for learning a language. It is also a
> learning of what can be or what should be the cultured way of life. The
> language is a refined language and its literature speaks of refined life, of
> cultured life. Knowledge of Sanskrit is hence essential, certainly in
> ??????. It will be the real beacon to meet the challenges of the evil
> without compromising the refined thoughts and conduct.
>
> ??? is also an interesting word. From ??? we have the noun ?????, which
> has two meanings - (1) a song of devotion (2) to sing a song of devotion.
>
> By this connotation, ??? means not just "I do devotion", but "I do
> devotion by singing a song of devotion".
>
> This word ??? is a declension of the root verb ??? meaning "to do
> devotion". From this verb ??? there is another noun, ?????? which means
> "devotion". One can do devotion in any of nine ways. ?????? ?????? Doing
> devotion by singing a song of devotion i.e. by ????? is one of nine ways
> ?????? ?????? There is a verse summing up all the nine ways of ?????? ??????
> Maybe, we can discuss that verse sometime later.
>
> Presently on to the next phrase.
>
> ??????????? = ????? + ??????
> ????? = by RAma
> ?????? = consummately killed, destroyed
>
> A little study on both these words -
> ????? = by RAma
>
> It may be noticed that in the first sentence ???: was the subject. So the
> root word ??? was in subjective or nominative case, which is called as first
> case ?????? ????????.
>
> In the second sentence, the word was "????? = to RAma" in object case or
> accusative case, which is called the second case, ???????? ????????
>
> Here we have it as "????? = by RAma" in instrumental case, which is called
> as the third case, ?????? ????????
>
> I guess, you got a good hint of why this verse is chosen for this lesson!
> Two sentences in each line, each sentence presenting cases first, second,
> third  etc. of the root word ???, all in perfect order and every line
> perfectly in ?????????????????? meter !
>
> ?????? = consummately killed, destroyed. The meaning "consummately" comes
> from the prefix ???. There is a large number of prefixes, which can be
> prefixed to different words to get a range of shades of meaning of that
> word. The prefixes ???????? or ??????? not only help to get a range of
> shades of meaning, but do it so crisply, just by a prefix. We have that in
> most languages also, e.g. eject, reject, inject, project, adject(ive),
> abject
>
> ????????? ????? = ?????????: ?????
>
> ?????????: = ???? + ?? + ???:
> ?????? =  Here we have a suffix ?? attached to the word ????.
> The suffix ?? is derived from the verb ?? meaning "to move, to move about,
> to roam". The suffix such as ?? lends the meaning of capability to do the
> action of the meaning of the verb. So suffix ?? means capable of roaming.
> ???? = night
> ?????? = ???????? ???? ??? capable of roaming in the night, ghost,
> nocturnal being. All ???????: of army of ???? had such capability. They
> were ???????:.
> ???: = army
> ?????????: = ??????????? ???: A compound of ????? ???????? type. Army of
> beings capable of roaming in the night.
>
> ??????????? ?????????: = Army of nocturnal beings was destroyed by RAma.
>
> This sentence is in passive voice. The passive voice is rendered by ??????
> which is a past passive participle from the verb ??? + ???
>
> This is another speciality of Sanskrit, that participles derived from verbs
> can do the function of verbs, such that a formal verb need not be visible.
>
> ????? ????? ???
>
> ????? = unto RAma. This is declension of ??? in the dative case, the fourth
> case ??????? ????????
>
> ????? = unto that This is declension of a pronoun ??? the indicative
> pronoun meaning "that", again in the fourth case. Because this pronoun
> qualifies the noun ???, both the noun and the qualifying pronoun (or
> adjective) have to be in the same case, here the fourth case.
>
> ??? = bowing.
>
> ????? ????? ??? = bowing  (I bow) unto that RAma. Here, "that" hints also
> to that RAma who destroyed army of nocturnal beings.
>
> ???????????? = ?????? ? ?????
>
> ?????? = from RAma, than RAma. This is declension of ??? in the ablative
> case, the fifth case ?????? ????????
>
> ? = not. An indeclinable used to render negative.
>
> ????? = is
>
> ??????  = ???????  = ???? ????? A compound of type ???????? . In the
> compounded word ? of ????? becomes ?. Hence ??????? from ???? ?????. There
> are rules for all such minute variations. We shall not go into all that at
> this stage. It is mentioned here just for information. Our focus shall be in
> understanding the meaning, than understanding all the grammar.
>
> ???? = the other
>
> ????? = the action of going, destination, recourse
>
> ????? = ?????? Adjective of comparative degree from the root adjective
> ??. ?? is the suffix which renders the comparative degree of an adjective.
> The superlative degree is rendered by  suffix ??
>
> ???????????? ??????? ?????? = There is no better recourse than RAma.
>
> ?????? ???? ? ???????? = ?????? ???? ????? ????
>
> ?????? = of RAma ?????? is declension of ??? in the sixth i.e. genetive
> case ????? ???????:
>
> ???? = servent
>
> ????? = (I) am
>
> ???? = I
>
> ?????? ???? ????? ???? = I am servent of RAma
>
> ???? ???????: ??? ???? ??
>
> ???? = at RAma. ???? is declension of ??? in the seventh i.e. locative cas
> e ?????? ???????:
>
> ???????: = ???????? ??: A compound of ????? ???????? type
>
> ???????? = of mind
>
> ??: = resting
>
> ??? = always
>
> ???? = may be, may stay
>
> ?? = for me or of me
>
> ???? ???????: ??? ???? ?? = Resting of my mind may always be at RAma or
> For me, resting of mind may always be at RAma.
>
> ?? ??? ???????? = ??? ??? ???? ?????
>
> ??? = an interjection to back a call "Oh" or "Eh"
>
> ??? = address to RAma to mean "Eh RAma" ??? as ?? ??? is declension of
> ??? in  address case ??????-???????:
>
> ???? = to me
>
> ????? =  (please) uplift
>
> ?? ??? ???????? = ??? ??? ???? ????? = Oh RAma, please uplift me !
>
> RAma, the jewel among kings is always victoriousI do devotion to RAma,
> (hence) to Ramesha (i.e. to ViShNu)
> by singing a song of devotion Army of nocturnal beings was destroyed by
> RAmaI bow unto that RAma There is no better recourse than RAmaI am servent
> of RAma Resting of my mind may always be at RAmaOh RAma, please uplift me
> !
>
> Isn't that a good prayer ? It brings out all the ardent feelings a devotee
> would have towards one's object or idol of devotion.
>
> The prayer does so by employing declensions of he word ??? in all eight
> cases - first to seventh and also the address case !
>
> Actually a noun such as ??? will have declensions not only by cases but
> also by number. In Sanskrit, numbers are three - singular, dual, plural
> called as ??????? ????????? ????????
>
> Since ??? is a masculine noun having a ? vowel ending it would be good to
> have a look at the declensions of  ?-??????? ????????? ??? such as ???
> meaning "boy"
>
>  ???????:??????? ????????????????? ?????????: ????????: ????????????? ????
> ????*??* ????????????????????? ????:???????????? ?????????? ???????:??????
> ?????? ?????????? ???????:????? ???????????: ???????? ?????????? ?????:
> ???????????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????:
>
> You will notice that all the declensions of ??? conform to the patterns of
> declension of ???. We have five other words all ? vowel ending, masculine
> nouns ?-??????? ????????? ??? in this lesson itself.
> Can you find them and list them here ? ______ , ________ , ________ ,
> _______ , _______
>
> Pattern of declensions of ?-??????? neuter ??????????? nouns are quite
> similar to those of ?-??????? masculine nouns, except in first, second and
> address cases.
> Let us see declensions of ?-??????? neuter ??????????? noun ???? meaning
> "a child"
>
> ???????:??????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????????
> ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????: ????????????? ???????????
> ????????:????????????? ??????????? ????????:????? ?????????????: ?????????
> ??????????? ??????:??????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???????
>
> We also have some ?-??????? neuter ??????????? nouns here in this lesson.
> Let me give out one - ??? meaning "mention, talk, oath".
> Can you find three more and list them here ? ________ , _________ ,
> _________
>
> Corollary to the masculine ??? and neuter ???? there would be the feminine
> noun ????, meaning "a girl". This is of course having vowel ending ? So,
> it is ??????? ??????????? ???. Let us see declensions of this also !
>
> ???????:??????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????: ?????????????? ????
> ????: ??????????? ?????????? ??????: ????????????? ?????????? ???????:
> ????????????? ?????????? ???????:????? ????????????: ???????? ????????????
> ?? ?????: ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ????:
>
> We also have some ??????? feminine ??????????? nouns in this lesson.
> Can you find three more and list them here ? ________ , _________ ,
> _________
>
> We can have an interesting exercise of composing some simple sentences :-
>
> 1. We already have a simple sentence. "I am a servant." Can you write that
> again ? _____  ______ ______ |
>
> 2. In the same manner you can write "I am a boy." ______  ______  ______ |
> "I am a girl." ______ ________ _______ |
>
> 3. Let us use a simple verb ???? (singular) ???? (dual) ?????? (plural)
> and compose sentences -
>
> 1A boy speaks______ ______ | 2Two boys speak______ ______ |3Boys speak______
> ______ | 4A child speaks______ ______ |5Two children speak______ ______ 
> |6Children
> speak ______ ______ |7A girl speaks______ ______ |8Two girls speak______
> ______ | 9Girls speak______ ______ |
>
> Doesn't it feel great to be able to compose sentences in Sanskrit ?
>
> Before closing,
>
> (a) ?-??????? masculine ????????? nouns in the lesson were - ????, ??, ??????,
> ?????, ????, ??????, ????, ???????, ???, ?????, ?????, ????? (adjective),
> ??????, ??????, ???, ???? (adjective) ????????, ?????, ???? and ??
>
> (b) ?-??????? neuter ??????????? nouns in the lesson were - ???, ?????
> (adjective), ?????, ???, ???? (adjective), ?????, ???
>
> (c) ??????? feminine ??????????? nouns in this lesson were - ???, ??????
> (adjective), ????,
>
> Declensions of all the above nouns and adjectives shall follow the given
> patterns.
>
> Note, adjectives and pronouns will always have gender, case and number
> matching with gender, case and number of the noun, which they qualify. Hence
> they will have declensions accordingly. This rule is also given by a verse !
>
> ????????? ???????? ?? ? ???????? ????????
> ????????? ???????? ?? ? ???????? ????????????
>
> ???????? |
>
> *-o-O-o-*
> *
> *
>
>
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------------------------------

Message: 2
Date: Fri, 28 May 2010 15:55:08 -0400
From: "S. L. Abhyankar" <sl.abhyan...@gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Learning Sanskrit by a Fresh Approach - Lesson
        6
To: sanskrit@cs.utah.edu
Message-ID:
        <aanlktimdvvzx5gckwst9nup41cfpntznafqjkvirl...@mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

>
> Thanks for pointing out that ???? was wrong. I too realised it rather late.
> I agree that it should be just ??? without the visarga.
>
Correction shown by *Bold Red* below.
 ???????? ,
?????????????????? ???????? |
???????? ?????? ????????? ?

---------- Forwarded message ----------
> From: Naresh Cuntoor <nares...@gmail.com>
> To: Sanskrit Mailing List <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
> Date: Thu, 27 May 2010 22:59:21 -0400
> Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Learning Sanskrit by a Fresh Approach - Lesson 6
> Abhyankarji's explanation was fine (except for minor mistakes). He
> explained laghuchetasaam by giving the vigraha of the samastapada.
>
> chetaH is a napuMsakali~nga word (chetas). So laghuchetasaam would be
> laghu chetaH yasya saH | teShAm |
> (and not laghuH chetaH ...etc.)
>
> Similarly udAracharitAnAm.
>
> And na does not become mUrdhanya (Na) in this case. The intervening
> 't' means that na stays na. This is encapsulated by the sutra
> aTkupvA~gnumvyavAyepi. Note that 'ta' is not present in aT (= svaras,
> h,y,v,r), ku (ka varga), pu (pa varga) or A~g (the avyaya).
>
>
> Naresh
> vaak.wordpress.com
>
>
>
> On Thu, May 27, 2010 at 1:24 AM, Vimala Sarma <vsa...@bigpond.com> wrote:
> > I would like to comment on:
> >
> > ??????????
> >
> > The ending is not from teSAm
> >
> > It is the declension for cetas (mind) ? genitive, plu, masc/fem/neuter
> >
> > The bahuvrIhi compound means -  of those with or possessing small minds.
> >
> > The same with udAracaritANAm ? this is plural, genitive, masc ending, and
> > the na is retroflexed because of the r. And udAra is high or lofty or
> noble.
> >
> > Also eva here is ?only? or used in emphasis.
> >
> > Sorry for these minor corrections ? I like your lessons.
> >
> > Vimala
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > From: sanskrit-boun...@cs.utah.edu [mailto:sanskrit-boun...@cs.utah.edu]
> On
> > Behalf Of S. L. Abhyankar
> > Sent: Wednesday, 26 May 2010 11:57 PM
> > To: sanskrit@cs.utah.edu
> > Subject: [Sanskrit] Learning Sanskrit by a Fresh Approach - Lesson 6
> >
> >
> >
> > Learning Sanskrit by a Fresh Approach - Lesson 6
> >
> > In previous lessons, the style was to put words from a given glossary
> into
> > an order. The order in which to put the words was also planned by me. The
> > idea was to get the verse to emerge almost naturally or automatically.
> >
> >
> >
> > We can now try a different approach of developing the capability of
> > exploring meaning of any new verse.
> >
> >
> >
> > Let us see how this approach will work. Let us try with this verse -
> >
> >
> >
> > ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?
> >
> >
> >
> > This method also will have a logical system. It will be step by step.
> > Typically,
> >
> > 1.        We shall examine every phrase and every word.
> >
> > 2.       If there are any conjugations, we shall break them, so that we
> can
> > see every word in its proper understandable form.
> >
> > 3.       If there are any compound words, we shall decipher them.
> >
> > 4.       Finally we shall put them all into a syntax, so that we can
> write
> > down the full meaning properly.
> >
> > ???  = this one
> >
> > ???? = related to oneself, mine
> >
> > ??? ????  = ??? ?? ???
> >
> > ??? = the other, not mine
> > ?? = or
> > ??? = like this
> >
> > ???? = counting, consideration
> >
> > ?????????? =  *???* ???: ???? ?? --> ?? --> ????? -->
> >
> > *???* = small
> > ???: = mind, heart, thinking
> > ???? = whose
> > ?? = he--> ?? (= they)--> ????? (= their) --> ??????????
> >
> > ?????????? = of those who have small mind (or heart or thinking)
> >
> > ???????????? = ?????? ?????? ???? ?? --> ?? --> ????? -->
> >
> > ?????? = broad-minded
> > ?????? = heart, thinking, conduct of life
> > ???? = whose
> > ?? = he--> ?? (= they)--> ????? (= their) --> ?????????????
> >
> > ????????????? = of those who have broad mind
> >
> > ?? = however
> >
> > ?????? = ????? ??
> >
> > ????? = earth
> > ?? = itself
> >
> > Actually there is a concept why earth is called as ?????. It is explained
> by
> > an aphorism "?????: ??????? ??? ?????"
> >
> > ?????: = by Vasu's
> > ??????? = is taken care of, is protected
> > ??? = hence
> >
> > ?????: ??????? ??? ????? = (the entity that) Is taken care of, protected
> by
> > Vasu's, hence, ?????
> >
> > This will raise a curiosity, "Who are Vasu's ?"
> > ???: = a God of lower cadre, who follows orders of Indra.
> > They are eight. Their primary job is to be the sentinels at eight
> directions
> > (???? ???:) around the earth to protect the earth -
> >
> > Four major directions (in clockwise order)
> >
> > East (??????), South (???????), West(???????), North(??????)
> >
> > Four minor directions (in clockwise order)
> >
> > South-east(??????), South-west(?????), North-west(???????),
> > North-east(???????)
> >
> > In ShrImad-bhagavad-gItA, bhagavAn krRuShNa proclaims, "among Vasu's, I
> am
> > pAvaka ?????? ????????????"
> >
> > ?????? ???????????? = ?????? ????: ? ?????
> >
> > ?????? = Vasus', or among 'Vasu's
> > ????: = fire also called as ?????: Hence direction to be protected by
> this
> > Vasu is South-east(??????). I guess, that the reason for bhagavAn
> krRuShNa
> > proclaiming, "among Vasu's, I am pAvaka ?????? ????????????" may be
> because
> > among all 'Vasu's ?????: is one, who has ??? one of the five great
> > fundamental elements (????????????) inherent to it.
> > ???????????? = They are
> >
> > mother earth (??????), which supports all life
> >
> > water (??),
> >
> > light (???),
> >
> > air (?????),
> >
> > sky or space (????) which provides the space for the whole universe.
> >
> > ? = and
> > ????? = (I) am
> >
> > ?????????? ? = family
> >
> > Overall meaning now becomes -
> >
> > "This one mine or not mine" (is) thinking of petty-minded. For the
> > broad-minded, however, (whole) world (is one) family."
> >
> > This subhAShitam is really the basic approach of Indian polity, since
> ages.
> > India has never been the aggressor. It has yet been the melting pot for
> > cultures from around the world. Would not the World be a really happier
> > place to live, if all countries adopted such polity ?
> >
> > Equanimity is of course a challenging thought to make it as one's nature.
> It
> > seems that we are all more petty-minded ???????: than
> > broad-minded ????????:.
> >
> > Here is the verse for learning by heart
> >
> > ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????????? ?
> >
> > ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?
> >
> > Before closing, how about some exercises ?
> >
> > (1) Among so many words, which we came across in these six lessons, there
> > have been many which are unchanging, called as "indeclinables" in
> grammar.
> > There would be the adverbs, conjunctions, interjections in this list. It
> > would be a good idea to list them at one place, along with their
> meanings.
> > That would make some unique dictionary of the indeclinables !
> >
> > (2) We have also come across many nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs. All
> > these words have declensions, as has been explained earlier. Let us make
> > separate lists of nouns, pronouns, adjectives and the verbs.
> >
> >
> >
> > -o-O-o-
> >
> >
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