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Today's Topics:

   1. Re: No disaster, info about shAkalya (Pramod Kulkarni)
   2. Re: Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach - Lesson 8
      (Revised) (Krishnanand Mankikar)
   3. Re: Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach - Lesson 8
      (Revised) (G S S Murthy)


----------------------------------------------------------------------

Message: 1
Date: Thu, 3 Jun 2010 19:03:41 +0530
From: Pramod Kulkarni <audd...@gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] No disaster, info about shAkalya
To: Sanskrit Mailing List <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
Message-ID:
        <aanlktin3ndsvmm9zwqswc8l3mlyujr4lr4v7o9qsc...@mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

Also shAkalya is the FIRST muni(sage) refered to by pANinI in 1.1.16 .
auddhav

On Tue, Jun 1, 2010 at 3:17 AM, Jay Vaidya <deejayvai...@yahoo.com> wrote:

> Dear Piergiorgio,
>
> First information regarding shAkalya :
> The only information we know about the grammarian shAkalya is that pANini
> refers to him respectfully. There is also a shAkalya who performed the
> "shAkalya" rescension of the Rgveda, but it is not known whether this is the
> same person.
>
> Of shAkalya's grammatical opinions, we only know those in which he differs
> from other grammarians:
> (1)
> sambuddhau shAkalyasya itau anArShe 1.1.16
> In non-vedic usage, if a 'o'-sound-ending word is followed by "iti"
> shAkalya says that no sandhi happens. Others say that sandhi happens.
> bhAno+iti
> shAkalya says no sandhi, therefore "bhAno iti" it remains.
> All others say "bhAnaviti", because sandhi happens as usual
>
> (2)
> iko asavarNe shAkalyasya hrasvaH cha 6.1.127
> shAkalya says that whenever i, ii, u, uu, R^i, R^ii, l^i are followed by a
> non-homogeneous vowel, they become short, and after that sandhi is
> prohibited.
> example : kumArI + atra
> shAkalya says this results in: kumAri atra
> All others say that it results : kumAryatra
> (For your benefit, in this Monier-Williams and Max Mueller probably go with
> the others, not with shAkalya)
>
> (3)
> lopaH shAkalyasya 8.3.19
> too complicated to explain. The example is:
> kaH+Aste
> shAkalya says this results in : ka Aste
> shAkaTAyana says that this results in : kayAste, where 'y' is very slightly
> articulated.
> (We have from tradition that pANini was with shAkalya on this one.)
>
> (4)
> sarvatra shAkalyasya 8.4.51
> This is the denial of all duplications that Max Mueller mentions.
>
> This is all we know about shAkalya's grammatical opinions.
>
> - - -
> No disaster.
> - - -
> The availability of duplications has resulted in no disasters. Duplications
> have been used for two thousand years (at least). Is there some disaster
> that Indians should have had that they forgot? I do not know what Max
> Mueller meant by "no practical object". My guess is that his practical
> object was to teach European beginners sanskRta grammar (I can guess as much
> by the name of book), and he does not want to make the study difficult for
> them.
>
> Now regarding duplications :
> There is no semantic difference between the duplicated and non-duplicated
> options-none of the examples you give have different meanings. Do you know
> any words where the duplication results in a different meaning? Can you
> explain what morphological problems will result? Is there any problem with
> alternate allomorphy?
> I don't understand your fear regarding optional forms to students: why does
> the student need a clear reason to avoid simplification of doubled
> consonants? When are doubled consonants simplified (certainly not in the
> example of duplications)? Can you give me an example?
>
> The traditional teaching of sanskRta grammar is descriptive. It only
> describes the forms that are available in the speech of "standard" speakers.
> In any case, if there are three consonants in a row no more duplications
> happen, according to shAkaTAyana.
> triprabhRtiShu shAkaTAyanasya 8.4.50
> Just because a duplication is described to be "allowed", it does not mean
> one will keep duplicating instead of completing the sentence.
>
> It appears that the availability of optional forms is a problem for you.
> Just because one has options, one does not keep flipping between options.
> One chooses an option and goes ahead. Please check if Max Mueller gives any
> optional forms at all. I think he should for something or the other. For
> example, consider page 34, section 92 in Max Mueller's book, where he gives
> this example:
> vAk+shatam = vAkshatam OR vAkchhatam
> What semantic or morphological confusion (or disaster) do you think is
> caused by having these options? It is fine if a beginner chooses to remember
> only one, and use only that one. But could they insist that the other is
> wrong?
>
> Please read in Max Mueller's introduction (in the same book), that he
> maintains pANini's authority as ultimate.Although pANini's logical processes
> are complex and sometimes confusing for the beginner, he does not ever
> refute pANini. In fact, pANini's logical processes are not confusing for the
> trained student. Here is a quotation from Max Mueller's introduction:
> > Nothing remained in fact in order to arrive at any satisfactory result
> but to collate
> > the whole of my grammar with regard not only to the irregular but
> likewise to the
> > regular forms with Panini and other native grammarians and to supply for
> each
> > doubtful case and for rules that might seem to differ from those of any
> of my
> > predecessors a reference to Panini or to other native authorities ...
> Note: When he is in doubt regarding his European-Sanskritist predecessors,
> he consults pANini and native authorities. It would do us all great benefit
> to follow his example: when in doubt make reference to pANini and other
> native authorities.
>
> He goes on to say:
> > I only regret that I did not give these authoritative references
> throughout the whole
> > of my work because even where there cannot be any difference of opinion
> some of my
> > readers might thus have been saved the time and trouble of looking
> through Panini to
> > find the Sutras that bear on every form of the Sanskrit language
> Of course, he expects readers to go to the source - pANini's sUtra; so he
> apologizes for not giving full references. Also note: "EVERY FORM of the
> Sanskrit language". Obviously there are multiple forms, and they are given
> in pANini's sUtra.
>
> I hope you will also follow Max Mueller's expectation for advanced
> students: If you have progressed beyond the beginner stage, please consult
> pANini and the native authorities. Since there has been no semantic or
> morphological disaster so far, let us rest easy that there will not be a
> disaster just waiting to happen in the future.
>
> Regards,
> Dhananjay
>
> Message: 3
> From: "Piergiorgio Muzi" <glob...@comm2000.it>
> Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] siddhyanti - by Max Muller
>
> Dear Jay,
> thanks for your right observation. I can check M.M?ller's Sanskrit Grammar.
> You have reported correctly the par. 146 of the same book I have.
> If we accept this rule without conditions the effects would be disastrous.
> It would permit doubling the consonants of an enormous number of Sanskrit
> words with correspondent consequences. Not only wouldn't we get any
> "practical object in this practice", as M?ller says, but we would be free to
> substitute pakkta for pakta, annta for anta, appta for apta and cittra for
> citra, assya for asya, attra for atra and even ?ttma for ?tma! Needless to
> say that this attitude could create confusion in all the cases where there
> is a morphological and semantical difference between simple or double
> consonants. Indeed this freedom is not followed by anybody, if not
> exceptionally. Of course as far as you consent duplication , the student has
> no clear reason to avoid simplification of double consonants...Try to see
> the consequences, please. I can only agree about "discontinuing it
> throughout" in agreement with the criticism of Sh?kalya, accepted by M?ller.
> BTW do you know this grammarian?
> Regards,
> Piergiorgio
>
>
>
> _______________________________________________
> To UNSUBSCRIBE or customize your subscription or topics of interest, visit
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>
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Message: 2
Date: Thu, 3 Jun 2010 20:29:27 +0530
From: Krishnanand Mankikar <kdmanki...@gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach - Lesson
        8       (Revised)
To: Sanskrit Mailing List <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
Message-ID:
        <aanlktikjxzaxjtvkdysflraoizav1uuaurgc4xcsd...@mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

Dear Shri Abhyankar Ji,

Really a great explanation.
I may add that the  usage ????? ????????  falls in the pattern of ???
??????. Pl check


Mankikar



On 3 June 2010 19:15, S. L. Abhyankar <sl.abhyan...@gmail.com> wrote:

> Thanks to Mr. P. G. Kulkarni and Mr. Krishnanand Mankikar for their great
> inputs, their explanations of "????????" in particular and also other
> comments.
> Accordingly, I have now revised Lesson 8 adding also examples of
> declensions of third person singular for verb ?? in different tenses and
> moods.
> Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach - Lesson 8 (Revised)
>
> Here is an interesting ????????? very onomatopoetically  composed. Also it
> displays the flight of imagination of the poet. He leaves it to the reader
> to draw the moral.
>
> ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?
> ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ?
> ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?
> ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?
>
> Let us start with our study - phrase by phrase, word by word.
>
> ???????????????? = ??????: ????????
>
> ??????: = Night
> ???????? = will pass
>
>
> ???????? ??????????
>
> ???????? = will be or will become
> ?????????? = good morning
>
>
> ??????????????? = ???????? ????????
>
> ???????? = one who has splendour; sun ??? + ???
> ??? = splendour
> ???  A Suffix which helps to make a derived noun, meaning "having". Here
> ??? + ??? becomes a derived noun, with meaning "having splendour" One
> common place example is the word ??????
> ???????? = will rise
>
> ???????? ?????????
>
> ???????? = will smile
>
> ?????????
>
> ???? = ???? ????? ??? ??????
>
> ??? = mud
> ???? = in mud
>
> ? =  ????? = is born; grows
>
>  ? is a sufffix which is used to render a meaning "born of" or "born at"
> or "is born"
>
>  ?????? = that which grows in mud = lotus
> ????? = glory
>
> ????????? = ??????? ?????, ????? ???????? ???? glory of lotus
>
>
> ????? ???????? ?????? ????????
>
> ????? = thus
>
> ???????? = thinking; ???????? is masculine, seventh case singular of ??????
> ?? a present active participle, derived from the causative of the verb ??
> + ???
>
> ??????
>
> ?????: = ???? ??:, ?????? ???????? ????
> ???? = into the treasure, into the bosom
> ??: = gone This is masculine first case singular of the past passive
> participle of root verb ???
> ?????? = having gone into the treasure
>
> ????????
>
> ???????: = ???? ???? ???? ??, ????????? ???? One who has two wings
>
> ???? = two
> ???? = I struggled with the meaning of ??? One would not find it in a
> dictionary. It was very kind of Mr. P. G. Kulkarni and Mr. Krishnanad
> Mankikar to explain that ??????? means a black bee. Sanskrit word which
> can be found in a dictionary is ?????? As can be seen, this word has two '?'-s
> in it. ??? means this '?'-??? ! So, ??????? means "one, who has two '?'-???-s
> n its name ! Ooph ! Poetry even in coining a new word !
>
> This phrase ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? merits special attention. Three
> words ???????? ?????? ???????? are all in seventh case ??????. This style
> of composition makes the phrase, a sub-clause. The meaning of these words is
> not to be taken by the meaning in seventh case.
>
> As a phrase, the meaning becomes, "(as) the black bee had gone into the
> bosom and was thinking.." or "(as) the bee, which had gone into the bosom,
> was thinking.."
>
> ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???????
>
> ?? ???? ???? = interjection, mostly to express sadness, or meaning "alas !"
>
> ?????? = ??????? Second case singular of ????? meaning "lotus", rather "a
> full-grown lotus"
>
> ?? ??????? = ??: ???????
>
> ??: = elephant
>
>
> ??????? = uprooted, This is declension in past tense, third person,
> singular of root verb ??? +  ??  meaning "to uproot"
>
>
> The overall meaning becomes -
>
> As the bee, which had gone into the bosom (of a lotus), was thinking...
>
> "..night will pass and good morning will dawn,
> sun will rise and glory of (this) lotus will smile.."
>
> Oh God ! an elephant uprooted the lotus !!
>
> Moral ?
>
> Never think that things will work out the way you would like. The bee
> possibly thought that it will have all the time of passing of night until
> sunrise and opening of the petals of the lotus, all that time, to enjoy the
> nectar at the bosom of the lotus to its heart's content. But alas, an
> elephant came along and uprooted the lotus itself !!
>
> Man proposes, God disposes !!
>
> Never do over-indulgence; always take risk-factors also into account.
>
> Thanks again to Mr. Kulkarni for adding also an explanation, that "the bee
> could have bored its way out. But it was more thoughtful not to hurt the
> lotus. Behaviour of the elephant was rough, not so considerate as of the
> bee."
>
> However, I also read a comment, that the elephant uprooted the lotus to
> offer it to Goddess LakShmee !
>
> Uhmmm ...! The poet sets people to start thinking further, right ?
>
> I had another idea also in mind, in taking up this ?????????. In these
> four lines we have ????????, ????????, ????????, ????????, ????????, ???, 
> ???????
> all verb-forms - either declensions or participles. Even the suffix ? in ????
> has a derivation from a verb.
>
> Of these ????????, ????????, ????????, ???????? are all declensions in
> future tense, third person, singular of different root verbs ???, ??, ??? +
> ???, ???
>
> ???????? is masculine, seventh case singular of ???????? a present active
> participle, derived from the causative of the verb ?? + ???
>
> ??? is masculine, seventh case, singular of past passive participle ?? of
> root verb ???
>
> ??????? is declension in past tense, third person, singular of root verb ???
> +  ??
>
> Verbs in Sanskrit become a subject of interesting, but very comprehensive
> study. It is possibly no exaggeration to say that Sanskrit owes much of its
> charm for how one can play around with verbs ! Prominently,
>
> 1. A root verb is called as ????
> 2. Verbs in Sanskrit are of ten classes called as ??
> 3. Some verbs may belong to more than one ??-s
> 4. The patterns of declension are of two types, called as ?????????  and
> ?????????
> 5. When a ???? has declension of both patterns ????????? and  ????????? it
> is called as ??????
> 6. Declensions of verbs are influenced by tense or mood, person and number
> 7. There are ten tenses and moods -
>
> (For ease of understanding given below for each type is third person
> singular form of the verb ??)
> the tenses are seven
>
>  Present Tense ???????? ???
> Three types of Past Tense ????
>
>  ???? called as "Aorist" by grammarians. This is not in common use.
> Example is ?????
> ??? (???????? ???????) e.g. ?????
> ???? (?????????????) e.g. ????
>
>  Three types of Future Tense ????????
>
>  ???? e.g. ????????
> ???? e.g. ?????
> ???? e.g. ?????????
>
> and the moods are three
>
>  Imperative Mood ???? ???? Imperative mood is for giving an order, e.g.
> ????
> Mood typically indicated by "should" in English ???? ???? e.g. ?????
> Mood of benedictions, benevolent wishes and blessings as indicated by "May
> God bless you" in English ????? ???? e.g. ??????
>
> 8. There are three persons - first person (I, we) second person (you),
> third person (he-she-it, they)
> 9. Numbers are three - singular, dual, plural
>
> In the dictionary, one will usually find a verb identified as follows -
>
>
> ????: ??: ????  ????. ??. ??. ??. ?. ??. ??. ??. 1 ??? 1 ?. ?????? ?? 2 ??
> 1 ?. ???? ??? 3 ??? + ??? 1 ?. ??????-??  ?????? 4 ??? 1 ?. ???? ???? 5 ??
> + ??? (???????) 1 ?. ???????? ??????? 6 ??? +  ?? 1 ?. ???????-?? ??????
>
> In the above table
> ?. = ?????????
> ?. = ??????
> ????. ??. ??. ??. = ???????? ?????-????????? ???????
> ?. ??. ??. ??. = ??????-???????????? ??????????? ????????
>
> There are many adjectival and adverbial derivatives obtained from verbs.
> 1. Past passive participles such as ??
> 2. Present active participles such as ????????
> 3. Adjectives obtained from verbs ????????? ?????? by using suffixes ?
> ???? ????
> 4. Infinitive obtained by using suffix ????
> 5. Adverbial derivatives obtained by using suffix ???? e.g. ????? means
> "upon going"
>
> In Sanskrit, words are formed
> 1. by declension of nouns, pronouns and adjectives influenced by gender,
> case and number
> 2. by declension of verbal roots influenced by tense or mood. voice,
> causative, person and number
> 3. by declension of adjectival derivatives obtained from verbs
> And there are of course the
> 4. indeclinables - among them adverbs, conjunctions and interjections
> 5. adverbial derivatives obtained from verbs, which also are indeclinables.
>
> For doing word-by-word study we can use five structures to present a study
> of words of these five types.
>
> For example we can see a presentation of words in this ????????? in the
> following manner.
>
>   ????: ???????  ????: ???????: ?????? ???????: ????? ????????: ??????:
> ??????????  ?????? ??????. ?????? ??. night
>
>
>   ????: ???????  ????: ???????: ??: ???? ????????? ? ??????: ???: ?? ????:
> ?? ?????: ????? ????????: ???????? ?????????? ??? 1 ?. ? ?????? '????'-
> ?????????: ?????: ??. will go, will pass
>
>   ????: ???????  ????: ????????: ?????? ??????? In this manner, thus
>
>   ????: ???????  ????: ???????: ???????: ??: ???? ????????? ? ??????: ???:
> ?? ????: ?? ?????? ???????: ????? ????????:  ???????? ?. ?. ??. ??.
>  ???????? ?? + ??? 1 ?. ??? = Yes ?????? ??????? ??. ?????? ??. when
> thinking
>
> In the table for ???????? please note ?. ?. ??. ??. = ??????
> ????????????????  ??????????? ????????
>
> Wow! We already have structures for four of the five types of words in
> Sanskrit !
> And what a study !
> Do not these structures give a very satisfactory and confidant feeling that
> "well, the ????????? is really thoroughly understood !" ?
>
> As an exercise, you can compile a study of all the other words !
>
> ???????? |
>
> *-o-O-o-*
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> ???????? ,
> ?????????????????? ???????? |
> ???????? ?????? ????????? ?
>
> _______________________________________________
> To UNSUBSCRIBE or customize your subscription or topics of interest, visit
> http://mailman.cs.utah.edu/mailman/options/sanskrit
> and follow instructions.
>
>
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Message: 3
Date: Thu, 3 Jun 2010 21:11:50 +0530
From: G S S Murthy <murthy...@gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [Sanskrit] Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach - Lesson
        8       (Revised)
To: Sanskrit Mailing List <sanskrit@cs.utah.edu>
Message-ID:
        <aanlktimw44v0gflqnpjmwmz22pjoskfol0lpp2tqr...@mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

Dear Sir,
???????? is future tense of ??? +? ( It is a verb of second group
?????)->???+??????; ???(??? ?? ?) is ?????.
Sincerely Yours
GSSMurthy

On Thu, Jun 3, 2010 at 7:15 PM, S. L. Abhyankar <sl.abhyan...@gmail.com>wrote:

> Thanks to Mr. P. G. Kulkarni and Mr. Krishnanand Mankikar for their great
> inputs, their explanations of "????????" in particular and also other
> comments.
> Accordingly, I have now revised Lesson 8 adding also examples of
> declensions of third person singular for verb ?? in different tenses and
> moods.
> Learning Sanskrit by a fresh approach - Lesson 8 (Revised)
>
> Here is an interesting ????????? very onomatopoetically  composed. Also it
> displays the flight of imagination of the poet. He leaves it to the reader
> to draw the moral.
>
> ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?
> ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ?
> ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?
> ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?
>
> Let us start with our study - phrase by phrase, word by word.
>
> ???????????????? = ??????: ????????
>
> ??????: = Night
> ???????? = will pass
>
>
> ???????? ??????????
>
> ???????? = will be or will become
> ?????????? = good morning
>
>
> ??????????????? = ???????? ????????
>
> ???????? = one who has splendour; sun ??? + ???
> ??? = splendour
> ???  A Suffix which helps to make a derived noun, meaning "having". Here
> ??? + ??? becomes a derived noun, with meaning "having splendour" One
> common place example is the word ??????
> ???????? = will rise
>
> ???????? ?????????
>
>  ???????? = will smile
>
> ?????????
>
> ???? = ???? ????? ??? ??????
>
> ??? = mud
> ???? = in mud
>
> ? =  ????? = is born; grows
>
>   ? is a sufffix which is used to render a meaning "born of" or "born at"
> or "is born"
>
>  ?????? = that which grows in mud = lotus
> ????? = glory
>
> ????????? = ??????? ?????, ????? ???????? ???? glory of lotus
>
>
> ????? ???????? ?????? ????????
>
> ????? = thus
>
> ???????? = thinking; ???????? is masculine, seventh case singular of ??????
> ?? a present active participle, derived from the causative of the verb ??
> + ???
>
> ??????
>
> ?????: = ???? ??:, ?????? ???????? ????
> ???? = into the treasure, into the bosom
> ??: = gone This is masculine first case singular of the past passive
> participle of root verb ???
> ?????? = having gone into the treasure
>
> ????????
>
> ???????: = ???? ???? ???? ??, ????????? ???? One who has two wings
>
> ???? = two
> ???? = I struggled with the meaning of ??? One would not find it in a
> dictionary. It was very kind of Mr. P. G. Kulkarni and Mr. Krishnanad
> Mankikar to explain that ??????? means a black bee. Sanskrit word which
> can be found in a dictionary is ?????? As can be seen, this word has two '?'-s
> in it. ??? means this '?'-??? ! So, ??????? means "one, who has two '?'-???-s
> n its name ! Ooph ! Poetry even in coining a new word !
>
> This phrase ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? merits special attention. Three
> words ???????? ?????? ???????? are all in seventh case ??????. This style
> of composition makes the phrase, a sub-clause. The meaning of these words is
> not to be taken by the meaning in seventh case.
>
> As a phrase, the meaning becomes, "(as) the black bee had gone into the
> bosom and was thinking.." or "(as) the bee, which had gone into the bosom,
> was thinking.."
>
> ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???????
>
> ?? ???? ???? = interjection, mostly to express sadness, or meaning "alas !"
>
> ?????? = ??????? Second case singular of ????? meaning "lotus", rather "a
> full-grown lotus"
>
> ?? ??????? = ??: ???????
>
> ??: = elephant
>
>
> ??????? = uprooted, This is declension in past tense, third person,
> singular of root verb ??? +  ??  meaning "to uproot"
>
>
> The overall meaning becomes -
>
> As the bee, which had gone into the bosom (of a lotus), was thinking...
>
> "..night will pass and good morning will dawn,
> sun will rise and glory of (this) lotus will smile.."
>
> Oh God ! an elephant uprooted the lotus !!
>
> Moral ?
>
> Never think that things will work out the way you would like. The bee
> possibly thought that it will have all the time of passing of night until
> sunrise and opening of the petals of the lotus, all that time, to enjoy the
> nectar at the bosom of the lotus to its heart's content. But alas, an
> elephant came along and uprooted the lotus itself !!
>
> Man proposes, God disposes !!
>
> Never do over-indulgence; always take risk-factors also into account.
>
> Thanks again to Mr. Kulkarni for adding also an explanation, that "the bee
> could have bored its way out. But it was more thoughtful not to hurt the
> lotus. Behaviour of the elephant was rough, not so considerate as of the
> bee."
>
> However, I also read a comment, that the elephant uprooted the lotus to
> offer it to Goddess LakShmee !
>
> Uhmmm ...! The poet sets people to start thinking further, right ?
>
> I had another idea also in mind, in taking up this ?????????. In these
> four lines we have ????????, ????????, ????????, ????????, ????????, ???, 
> ???????
> all verb-forms - either declensions or participles. Even the suffix ? in ????
> has a derivation from a verb.
>
> Of these ????????, ????????, ????????, ???????? are all declensions in
> future tense, third person, singular of different root verbs ???, ??, ??? +
> ???, ???
>
> ???????? is masculine, seventh case singular of ???????? a present active
> participle, derived from the causative of the verb ?? + ???
>
> ??? is masculine, seventh case, singular of past passive participle ?? of
> root verb ???
>
> ??????? is declension in past tense, third person, singular of root verb ???
> +  ??
>
> Verbs in Sanskrit become a subject of interesting, but very comprehensive
> study. It is possibly no exaggeration to say that Sanskrit owes much of its
> charm for how one can play around with verbs ! Prominently,
>
> 1. A root verb is called as ????
> 2. Verbs in Sanskrit are of ten classes called as ??
> 3. Some verbs may belong to more than one ??-s
> 4. The patterns of declension are of two types, called as ?????????  and
> ?????????
> 5. When a ???? has declension of both patterns ????????? and  ????????? it
> is called as ??????
> 6. Declensions of verbs are influenced by tense or mood, person and number
> 7. There are ten tenses and moods -
>
> (For ease of understanding given below for each type is third person
> singular form of the verb ??)
> the tenses are seven
>
>  Present Tense ???????? ???
> Three types of Past Tense ????
>
>  ???? called as "Aorist" by grammarians. This is not in common use.
> Example is ?????
> ??? (???????? ???????) e.g. ?????
> ???? (?????????????) e.g. ????
>
>  Three types of Future Tense ????????
>
>  ???? e.g. ????????
> ???? e.g. ?????
> ???? e.g. ?????????
>
> and the moods are three
>
>  Imperative Mood ???? ???? Imperative mood is for giving an order, e.g.
> ????
> Mood typically indicated by "should" in English ???? ???? e.g. ?????
> Mood of benedictions, benevolent wishes and blessings as indicated by "May
> God bless you" in English ????? ???? e.g. ??????
>
> 8. There are three persons - first person (I, we) second person (you),
> third person (he-she-it, they)
> 9. Numbers are three - singular, dual, plural
>
> In the dictionary, one will usually find a verb identified as follows -
>
>
> ????:??: ???? ????. ??. ??. ??. ?. ??. ??. ??.1??? 1?.?????? ??2?? 1?.????
> ???3??? + ??? 1?.??????-??  ??????4??? 1?.???? ????5?? + ??? (???????) 1?.
> ???????? ???????6??? +  ?? 1?.???????-?? ??????
>
> In the above table
> ?. = ?????????
> ?. = ??????
> ????. ??. ??. ??. = ???????? ?????-????????? ???????
> ?. ??. ??. ??. = ??????-???????????? ??????????? ????????
>
> There are many adjectival and adverbial derivatives obtained from verbs.
> 1. Past passive participles such as ??
> 2. Present active participles such as ????????
> 3. Adjectives obtained from verbs ????????? ?????? by using suffixes ?
> ???? ????
> 4. Infinitive obtained by using suffix ????
> 5. Adverbial derivatives obtained by using suffix ???? e.g. ????? means
> "upon going"
>
> In Sanskrit, words are formed
> 1. by declension of nouns, pronouns and adjectives influenced by gender,
> case and number
> 2. by declension of verbal roots influenced by tense or mood. voice,
> causative, person and number
> 3. by declension of adjectival derivatives obtained from verbs
> And there are of course the
> 4. indeclinables - among them adverbs, conjunctions and interjections
> 5. adverbial derivatives obtained from verbs, which also are indeclinables.
>
> For doing word-by-word study we can use five structures to present a study
> of words of these five types.
>
> For example we can see a presentation of words in this ????????? in the
> following manner.
>
> ????:???????  ????: ???????:?????? ???????:????? ????????:??????:
> ?????????? ?????? ??????.?????? ??.night
>
>
> ????: ???????  ????:???????: ??:???? ????????? ? ??????:???: ?? ????: ??
> ?????:????? ????????:???????? ?????????? ???1?. ??????? '????'-?????????:
> ?????: ??.will go, will pass
>
> ????: ???????  ????:????????: ????????????? In this manner, thus
>
> ????:???????  ????: ???????:???????: ??:???? ????????? ? ??????:???: ?? ????:
> ?? ?????? ???????:????? ????????: ???????? ?. ?. ??. ??.  ?????????? + ???
> 1?.??? = Yes ????????????? ??.?????? ??.when thinking
>
> In the table for ???????? please note ?. ?. ??. ??. = ??????
> ????????????????  ??????????? ????????
>
> Wow! We already have structures for four of the five types of words in
> Sanskrit !
> And what a study !
> Do not these structures give a very satisfactory and confidant feeling that
> "well, the ????????? is really thoroughly understood !" ?
>
> As an exercise, you can compile a study of all the other words !
>
> ???????? |
>
> *-o-O-o-*
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> ???????? ,
> ?????????????????? ???????? |
> ???????? ?????? ????????? ?
>
> _______________________________________________
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>
>


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