Someone asked about physics first some time ago...


------ Forwarded Message
From: Richard Hake <[EMAIL PROTECTED]>
Date: Tue, 25 Sep 2001 11:01:29 -0700
Subject: [PHYSLRNR] Physics for Ninth Graders?

In her 9/18/01 OpenPhys <>
post "Hello" Michelle Jeanmard asked:

"What is the best way to present the idea of learning physics, and
all it entails, to a ninth grader?"

Michelle has raised an excellent question, but since I've not been
near a precollege class in 90 years, I can't answer it. However, in
my opinion:

1. "Physics" should not start abruptly in the ninth grade. Instead it
and its way of thinking should be an integral part of P-8 education
(P = preschool).

2. Michelle's question might be better directed to more appropriate
discussion lists such as e.g.:

a. Phys-L with archives at
<>, and homepage at
<>; or

b. PhysLrnR with archives at
<>; or

c. Physhare with archives at <>.

Some references relevant to Michelle's question are listed below.

Richard Hake, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Indiana University
24245 Hatteras Street, Woodland Hills, CA 91367

Epstein, J. 1997/98.  "Cognitive Development in an Integrated
Mathematics and Science Program," J. of College Science Teaching,
12/97 & 1/98, pp. 194 - 201.

Ford, K. W. 1989. "Guest Comment: Is physics difficult?" Am J. Phys.
57(10), 871-872.  For an excerpt see Hake (2000a, page 15).

Hake, R.R. 2000a. "Is it Finally Time to Implement Curriculum S?"
AAPT Announcer 30(4), 103 (2000); on the web as ref. 13 at
<> [CurriculumS.pdf., 3/15/01,
1200K] (400 references & footnotes, 390 hot-linked URL's).  This
paper concerns improving the education of undergraduate physics
majors by instituting a "Curriculum S" for "Synthesis." But because
that's a small part of a much larger educational problem in the U.S.
there's a lot of material on the reform of P-16 education generally
(P = preschool).

Hammer, D. 1999. "Physics for first-graders?" Science Education
83(6),797-799; online at <>.

Lederman, L.M. 1999. "A science way of thinking." Education Week, 16
June; online at <>.

Lederman, L. 2001. "Revolution in Science Education: Put Physics
First." Physics Today 54(9): 11-12; online at

Livanis, O. 2001. "Physics First"; online at

Lopez, R.E. & T. Schultz, "Two Revolutions in K-8 Science Education."
Physics Today 54(9): 44-49; online at

Lochhead, J. (2000). "Thinkback: A User's Guide to Minding the Mind."
Erlbaum. See also at

Mahajan, S. & R.R. Hake. 2000. Is it finally time for a physics
counterpart of the Benezet/Berman math experiment of the 1930's?
Physics Education Research Conference 2000: Teacher Education; online
at <> and

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