[CTRL] Gutenberg (was: Re: [[CTRL] Fwd: The Web and the Pentagon])

1999-06-11 Thread Robert Tatman

 -Caveat Lector-

Kris Millegan [EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote:

Many people know what the first book Gutenberg published was: the Holy
Bible. Few ask what the second book was.  The answer?  Good question.  It
appears the sole purpose of the printing press was to print the Bible and the
Bible alone, and everything else was of little (if any) importance to him.
Before the printing press, the Bible was a document in the hands of a select
few, a corrupt priesthood centered in Rome.  The printing of the Bible (and
it's distribution to the masses) was a questioning of authority, an attack on
the powers that be, a declaration of war.

Well, maybe...this is from http://www.slip.net/~graphion/guten.html

Many years of Gutenberg's life are lost to history, but by 1450 he was back
in Mainz at work on a printing press. Between 1450 and 1455, while preparing
to produce a large folio Latin Bible, Gutenberg is thought to have printed a
number of smaller books, a calendar, and a papal Letter of Indulgence. The
Bible of 42 lines, the oldest surviving printed book in the western world, was
completed by August 15, 1456, and while it is now credited to Gutenberg, he
appears to have been relieved of his supervisory position, and his press,
before the time of its publication. In fact, no printed material was ever
credited to Gutenberg during his lifetime.

Gutenberg is also believed to have worked on the Catholicon of Johannes de
Janua, an enormous encyclopedia: 748 pages in two columns of 66 lines each. In
later years, he received a position as a courtier to the archbishop of Mainz,
and was buried in the town's Franciscan church.

And this is from the Catholic Encyclopedia,

Johann Gutenberg
(Henne Gänsfleisch zur Laden, commonly called Gutenberg).

Inventor of printing; born about 1400; died 1467 or 1468 at Mainz. Gutenberg
was the son of Friele (Friedrich) Gänsfleisch and Else Wyrich. His cognomen
was derived from the house inhabited by his father and his paternal ancestors
"zu Laden, zu Gutenberg". The house of Gänsfleisch was one of the patrician
families of the town, tracing its lineage back to the thirteenth century. From
the middle of the fourteenth century there were two branches, the line to
which the inventor belongs and the line of Sorgenloch. In the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries it scions claimed an hereditary position as so-called
Hausgenossen, or retainers of the household, of the master of the
archiepiscopal mint. In this capacity they doubtless acquired considerable
knowledge and technical skill in metal working. They supplied the mint with
the metal to be coined, changed the various species of coins, and had a seat
at the assizes in forgery cases. Of Johann Gutenberg's father, Friele
Gänsfleisch, we know only that he was married in 1386 to Else Wyrich, daughter
of a burgher of Mainz, Werner Wyrich zum steinern Krame (at the sign of the
pottery shop), and that he died in 1419, his wife dying in 1433. Of their
three children — Friele (d. 1447), Else, and Johann — the last-named (the
inventory of typography) was born some time in the last decade of the
fourteenth century, presumably between 1394 and 1399, at Mainz in the Hof zum
Gutenberg, known today as Christophstrasse, 2.

All that is known of his youth is that he was not in Mainz in 1430. It is
presumed that he migrated for political reasons to Strasburg, where the family
probably had connections. The first record of Gutenberg's sojourn in Strasburg
dates from 14 March, 1434. He took a place befitting his rank in the patrician
class of the city, but he also at the same time joined the goldsmiths' guild —
quite an exceptional proceeding, yet characteristic of his untiring technical
activity. The trades which Gutenberg taught his pupils and associates, Andreas
Dritzehn, Hans Riffe, and Andreas Heilmann, included gem-polishing, the
manufacture of looking-glasses and the art of printing, as we learn from the
records of a lawsuit between Gutenberg and the brothers Georg and Klaus
Dritzehn. In these records, Gutenberg appears distinctly as technical
originator and manager of the business. Concerning the "new art", one witness
states that, in his capacity of goldsmith, he had supplied in 1436 "printing
requisites" to the value of 100 gulden; mention is also made of a press
constructed by Konrad Saspach, a turner, with peculiar appliances (screws).
The suit was therefore obviously concerned with experiments in typography, but
no printed matter that can be traced to these experiments has so far come to

The appearance at Avignon of the silversmith Waldvogel, who taught "artificial
writing" there in 1444, and possessed steel alphabets, a press with iron
screws and other contrivances, seems to have had some connection with the
experiments of Gutenberg. As of Gutenberg's, so of Waldvogel's early
experiments, no sample has been preserved. In the year 1437 Gutenberg was sued
for "breach of promise of marriage" by a young 

[CTRL] Fwd: The Web and the Pentagon

1999-06-10 Thread Kris Millegan


Thanks for the patience.  I know it's late, but I think it was worth the 
wait.  Since the book is about cyberculture, this makes a great leadoff piece 
for the collection.  I believe this is a Rickey Henderson for a leadoff.


The Web and the Pentagon
Robert Sterling

During the summer of 1969, the idea of a coming Aquarius Age was floating 
through the air in full bloom.  Man had landed on the moon, Jimi Hendrix 
blasted Woodstock with "The Star-Spangled Banner," and Charles Manson led a 
bloody slaughter which, at least symbolically, appeased the angry 
moon-goddess as she demanded sacrifice to sanctify the new era.

Perhaps it is fitting that when Labor Day weekend came that year, bringing 
the season to its traditional close (true, the season actually ends in late 
September, but most consider the Labor Day weekend the final gasp before 
Autumn hits), a little observed event occurred which would rock the planet in 
a way that - for all their impact on the collective unconsciousness - neither 
Neil, Jimi nor Chuck could ever hope to match.

It happened at UCLA, not too far from the sites of Helter Skelter.  Arriving 
there was the first network switch for a little campus-to-campus information 
network called ARPANet. The next day, it was hooked up, and soon after the 
very first message was sent from the node at UCLA to a second one located at 
Stanford Research Institute.  With this tiny step, ignored by nearly everyone 
who wasn't involved with the project, the Internet was born.

ARPANet was short for ARPA Network, and ARPA stood for the Advanced Research 
Projects Agency.  ARPA funded scientific research and was formed in 1958, 
during the panic following the launching of the Russian space satellite 
Sputnik.  Frightened by the prospect of the Evil Soviet Empire showing 
socialism was a superior economic system, the American establishment came up 
with the only logical response to the menacing threat: prove the claim to be 
false by having the government fund a huge, centralized project which was 
managed and controlled by the state.

ARPA was controlled by the Department of Defense, and the purpose of ARPA was 
to focus on leading edge goodies that had military applications.  The results 
were quite stunning, though cynics would point out that nearly every major 
American scientific advancement since 1958 wasn't funded until researchers 
could first find a way the technology could exterminate people more 

ARPA certainly did not create the massive military-industrial komplex 
(Mikkies for short): this was done through World War II, Korea, and the Cold 
War paranoia which followed.  Further, there were already many huge projects 
that were dubiously linked to military purposes, most notably the Federal 
Highway System, which was created thanks to a defense spending bill.  (The 
supposed purpose of the highway system, people stuck in traffic jams should 
ironically remind themselves of, was to enable military equipment and 
personnel to be transported on the ground quickly.)  Still, the founding of 
ARPA is an important event in the history of the American Mikkie, as it 
formed an agency to centralize and legitimize the concept of the Pentagon 
funding the US economic engine.  In 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower 
warned the public of the threat that was being created.  Having quietly 
played golf while he saw the death machine develop under his tenure, he 
boldly stated in his Farewell Address:

Our military organization today bears little relation to that known by any of 
my predecessors in peacetime, or indeed by the fighting men of World War II 
or Korea.

Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United States had no armaments 
industry.  American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, 
make swords as well.  But now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation 
of national defense;  we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments 
industry of vast proportions.  Added to this, three and a half million men 
and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment.  We annually 
spend on military security more than the net income of all United States 

This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms 
industry is new in the American experience.  The total influence -- economic, 
political, even spiritual -- is felt in every city, every State house, every 
office of the Federal government.  We recognize the imperative need for this 
development.  Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications.  Our 
toil, resources and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of 
our society.

In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of 
unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial 
complex.  The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and 
will persist.

Since Ike bid goodbye with these words, only three