[EVDL] Webinar - What Has Happened To The Electric Vehicle Market? July 15th

2014-07-07 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

http://electronics360.globalspec.com/calendar
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[EVDL] Design News - Battery-Electric Vehicles: It's a Question of Trickle-Down

2014-07-22 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

www.designnews.com/author.asp?section_id=1366doc_id=274132cid=nl.dn14dfpPParams=ind_184,industry_auto,bid_318,aid_274132dfpLayout=blog

Dhar, who was instrumental in the development of the battery for GM's 
groundbreaking EV1, believes that the price of a 30-kWh battery needs to hit 
$5,000. That means pack costs must drop to about $160/kWh, a figure that is 
still not in sight.
It will happen, Dhar told us. But it's not clear that it will happen any 
time in the next 10 years.


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[EVDL] ECN: Stanford team achieves 'holy grail' of battery design: A stable lithium anode

2014-07-28 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

www.ecnmag.com/news/2014/07/stanford-team-achieves-holy-grail-battery-design-stable-lithium-anode


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[EVDL] Batteries that can be recharged to 70 percent in just 2 minutes

2014-10-14 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

www.ecnmag.com/news/2014/10/batteries-can-be-recharged-70-percent-just-2-minutes

Len Moskowitz 


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[EVDL] Supercapacitors: A New Hero in the Spotlight

2014-11-25 Thread len moskowitz via EV

http://www.designnews.com/document.asp?doc_id=275732


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Re: [EVDL] Pound-foolish batteries for solar PV off-grid

2014-12-22 Thread len moskowitz via EV

Robert Bruninga wrote:


The beauty of GRID-TIE is the UNLIMITED storage capacity, the lack of
maintenance, and the ability to store up summer excesss for use in the
winter when you need it.


That's why Outback and couple of other manufacturers make PV system 
inverter/chargers that can operate both in grid tie and battery back-up 
modes.


You need some capacity for when the grid goes down, and you use the grid 
for storage during sunny stretches, and for long stretches when there's 
little sun.


Our last PV system had Marathon AGM (sealed) lead-acid batteries for 
back-up. Our new PV system probably will too.



Len Moskowitz
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Re: [EVDL] Cheap solar for EV charging

2015-01-18 Thread len moskowitz via EV

Have a look at the Outback line.


www.outbackpower.com/outback-products/inverters-chargers/item/radian-series-gs8048


Len Moskowitz

-

On Sun, Jan 18, 2015 at 06:38 PM, Zeke Yewdall via EV wrote:

I don't know of any currently available battery based inverters that 
can

accept a PV array input.  They all assume that you are using a charge
controller for the DC power coming into the batteries, and they only 
handle
the power going out for the DC-AC conversion, or charge the batteries 
from

an AC source.

Z

On Sun, Jan 18, 2015 at 3:29 PM, Robert Bruninga via EV wrote:




They also have a 6 kW grid-tie/off-grid inverter for a 48v battery 
sysem,

but best I can tell, no provision for high voltage DC solar input?



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[EVDL] Flow cell concept car has 1,000 km range

2015-03-12 Thread len moskowitz via EV

Flow cell concept car has 1,000 km range

www.ecnmag.com/news/2015/03/flow-cell-concept-car-has-1000-km-range

A concept car using the first low-voltage flow cell engine in the world 
was unveiled at the Geneva International Motor Show on March 3.


The Quantino, one of two new models introduced by nanoFlowcell at the 
show, is powered by a two-sided flow cell. It’s roughly the same 
technology behind the other new offering from nanoFlowcell, the sporty 
Quant F, except with a lower voltage.



Len Moskowitz
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Re: [EVDL] Tesla plugs into new market with home battery system

2015-05-01 Thread len moskowitz via EV

www.teslamotors.com/powerwall


The $3k pack is rated at 7 kWhr and the $3.5k pack is rated at 10k kWhr.


It doesn't include an inverter.



Len Moskowitz 


-

On Fri, May 01, 2015 at 10:35 AM, Peri Hartman via EV wrote:



http://www.seattletimes.com/business/tesla-expanding-battery-technology-to-homes-businesses/

The CEO of electric car maker Tesla Motors hopes to park hundreds of 
millions of large, solar panel-connected batteries in homes and 
businesses so the world can disconnect from power plants — and he can 
profit. On Thursday night, before an adoring crowd and a party-like 
atmosphere, Musk unveiled how he intends to do it.

...

The system will carry a suggested price of $3,000 to $3,500, depending 
on the desired capacity. Installation will be extra.

...

(I didn't see any mention of $/kwh)

Peri

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Re: [EVDL] virtual power plant

2015-05-04 Thread len moskowitz via EV

Cor wrote:


that is why - next week, someone will come to inspect my home  to 
establish whether he wants to make a bid on delivering me a system



and I have already received a bid from SolarCity.



I've had SolarCity and SunPower quote grid-tie PV systems for our home.


Provided you have the cash available, it didn't make sense to do 
anything but buy the systems outright.



They both came in at $4/watt installed, with SunPower offering a higher 
capacity system for our limited roof size. That was the main difference 
between them.



Since I really wanted a battery back-up system like the one we had in 
our previous home, I asked SunPower if they could provide just their 
high efficiency solar panels, and I'd have a local contractor provide 
the rest of the system based on the Outback Radian inverters, charge 
controllers and monitors.



The pricing they offered for panels-only was not at all competitive. It 
seems to me that they don't want to just sell panels. They want that 
$4/watt.



Maybe now with the Tesla battery units becoming available, I can get 
SolarCity to quote a battery backup system. I still don't expect them to 
be price competitive. My impression is that they don't think that they 
need to be competitive.



Len Moskowitz

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Re: [EVDL] virtual power plant (battery backup thinking)

2015-05-05 Thread len moskowitz via EV
Here in northern NJ, we lose power a few days a year. Some years we'll 
have a storm that knocks out power for two or three days. After 
Hurricane Sandy we lost power for ten or eleven days.


Obviously the cost of the lost power is negligible, even at PSEG's 17.5 
cents per kWhr. That doesn't enter into the battery backup calculation 
at all.



It's not money that drives the decision - it's convenience.


At the moment, we have a few deep-discharge marine batteries and 
standalone pure-sine inverters (300W to 1500W) to power a few lamps, the 
refrigerator, the cable modem up, and to charge the cell phones and 
laptops. But during Sandy I had to borrow batteries out of my Jetta EV 
conversion. 



All of that did the job, but I missed the battery backup system's 
seamless switchover, the freedom from concern about batteries going 
dead, the bother of manual charging, and the drudge of moving batteries 
and inverters from room to room.





Len Moskowitz

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Re: [EVDL] virtual power plant

2015-05-05 Thread len moskowitz via EV

In northern NJ we're paying more than 18 cents per kWhr.


Len Moskowitz
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Re: [EVDL] virtual power plant

2015-05-05 Thread len moskowitz via EV

Mark wrote:


Did they both offer similar warranties?



SunPower offers a better loss-of-efficiency-over-time warranty.


Len Moskowitz
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[EVDL] Design News: Why Aren't Electrical Cars Sales Better? It's the battery.

2015-05-19 Thread len moskowitz via EV

http://www.designnews.com/author.asp?section_id=3710doc_id=277584

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Re: [EVDL] Design News: Why Aren't Electrical Cars Sales Better?It's the battery.

2015-05-25 Thread len moskowitz via EV

Cor wrote:


Plenty EV'ers have found out that their EV is their main vehicle,
that it suits 90+% of their driving needs and they either rent, borrow 
or share a long-range vehicle for the rare occasion.


Perhaps so, but with a 1990 Jetta lead-acid conversion that does only 25 
or 30 miles on a charge, and a very rare week that doesn't require me to 
travel 70 to 100 miles a day at least once, I need an ICE vehicle. I'm 
not going to rent a car once or twice a week - too much expense and 
wasted time. The need is not rare for me.


Even an EV that could do 70 miles on a charge would be inadequate. Make 
it 150 or 200 miles or it's not enough.


And since I buy my vehicles used for under $10,000, that used EV should 
cost the same. Know where I can get one?



Len Moskowitz

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[EVDL] Design News: So, Just How Green Are Electric Vehicles Really?

2015-08-18 Thread len moskowitz via EV

http://www.designnews.com/author.asp?section_id=1386doc_id=278386cid=nl.dn14.20150818dfpPParams=industry_auto,industry_alt,aid_278386dfpLayout=blog




So, Just How Green Are Electric Vehicles Really?

Al Bredenberg, Contributing Writer 



These days you can practically generate electricity writing about 
electric vehicles. The topic has become a lightning rod for partisan 
rhetoric. For some, the EV personifies everything evil about government 
influence and free markets. From the other side, you might get the 
impression that the EV is the salvation of humankind and planet Earth.




Recent research into the environmental and energy impacts of EVs has 
revealed that the picture is (surprise) more nuanced than the extremists 
might like to admit.




Just considering “pure” battery electric vehicles (BEVs) — i.e., 
completely grid-dependent EVs — the International Energy Agency (IEA) 
estimates the global stock rose from about 180,000 vehicles in late 2012 
to 665,000 units at the end of 2014, with the US leading the way at 39% 
of the market. The movement of BEVs is increasing rapidly, shooting up 
from 45,000 sold worldwide in 2011 to more than 300,000 in 2014.




EVs now account for more than 1% of new car sales in the US, Norway, 
Sweden, and the Netherlands. The automobile isn't the only 
transportation mode that's going electric. IEA says that at the end of 
2014, the global stock of electric buses stood at 46,000; electric 
two-wheeled bikes were at an astonishing 235 million units.




Debates over the greenness of vehicle technologies tend to center around 
tailpipe emissions. To evaluate lifecycle emissions of a vehicle, you 
have to go beyond driving emissions (the air pollutants resulting from 
operating the vehicle).




EVs offer an important environmental benefit via their zero tailpipe 
emissions (kind of a paradoxical term, as an EV has no tailpipe.) Zero 
emissions are clearly valuable in an urban setting.




However, critics point out that the electricity an EV needs has to be 
generated somewhere, so the zero-emissions descriptor ignores the air 
pollutants emitted during power generation.




Both observations have merit. A MIT study found that air pollution 
causes 200,000 premature deaths per year in the US. Out of those deaths, 
53,000 can be attributed to road transportation and 52,000 to power 
generation. The study found that the danger tends to be localized, i.e., 
those living or working close to the emissions are more likely to be 
killed by them.




The National Academy of Sciences recently released a study by a team at 
the University of Minnesota that considerably updates our understanding 
of the air-quality impacts of light-duty vehicles in the US. The group, 
led by biosystems engineering researcher Christopher W. Tessum, compared 
10 alternatives to conventional gasoline vehicles, including gasoline 
hybrids, diesel vehicles, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and 
corn and cellulosic ethanol vehicles. The researchers also studied the 
environmental impacts of BEVs powered by electricity generated by 
various sources, including coal, natural gas, an average US 
power-generation mix, and a mix of renewable sources (wind, hydro, and 
solar).




Tessum calculated the lifecycle health impacts of emissions from the 11 
types of passenger cars (conventional gasoline plus the ten 
alternatives). Because this was a lifecycle analysis, the study took 
into account emissions during both production (manufacturing) and 
consumption (tailpipe), examining health effects of ground-level ozone 
(O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5).




The researchers confirmed that the air-quality impacts of EVs really do 
depend on how their power is generated. Their study showed that vehicles 
powered by coal-generated electricity, corn ethanol, or grid-average 
electricity increased health impacts by 80% or more relative to 
conventional gasoline. Employing natural gas or renewables decreased 
health impacts by 50% or more over conventional gasoline.




These results point to health and environmental benefits from the use of 
EVs in areas where low-emission power generation is employed. They also 
suggest the potential health benefits of a long-term shift away from 
coal-fired generation to natural gas generation and renewables.




However, the batteries used in electric vehicles have environmental 
effects that distinguish them in important ways from internal-combustion 
engine counterparts. In a future article we'll examine those impacts and 
how they will likely be affected by the rapid innovation taking place 
around battery technologies.

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[EVDL] Times of Israel: Samsung, others wooed by 5-minute electric car recharge dream

2015-08-20 Thread len moskowitz via EV
StoreDot lines up an additional $18 million from top investors to 
develop its charging technology



http://www.timesofisrael.com/samsung-others-wooed-by-5-minute-electric-car-recharge-dream


store-dot.com



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[EVDL] Aluminum-Air-Water Primary Battery Backup for LiIon Pack

2015-08-05 Thread len moskowitz via EV

60 pounds of battery for 1000 miles of range


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FwxX2A041w0http://www.phinergy.com/
https://youtu.be/k6kIJlgqezE




Len Moskowitz
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[EVDL] Aluminum-Air-Water Primary Battery Backup for LiIon Pack

2015-08-05 Thread len moskowitz via EV

60 pounds of battery for 1000 miles of range


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FwxX2A041w0


http://www.phinergy.com/


https://youtu.be/k6kIJlgqezE




Len Moskowitz
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Re: [EVDL] Aluminum-Air-Water Primary Battery Backup for LiIon Pack

2015-08-05 Thread len moskowitz via EV

Ben wrote:



 ...these batteries are not rechargeable.



I noted in the title that these are primary batteries.


Wouldn't you like to have one of these as a backup when your LiIons go 
dead? For 60 pounds of weight, you'd get 1000 miles of range, with a few 
hundred miles of range between each plain water fill-up.



If the price was right, this might be a smart way to go. 




 You'd have to re-refine the aluminum oxide into metallic aluminum...



Or exchange the anodes. 


If you used the pack only as a backup, you might never exhaust its 
capacity.




Len Moskowitz
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[EVDL] Design News - Electric Vehicle Batteries: Clean and Green, or Something Less?

2015-09-08 Thread len moskowitz via EV

http://www.designnews.com/author.asp?section_id=1386_id=278535=nl.dn14.20150908=ind_182,industry_auto,industry_alt,kw_36,aid_278535=blog


Electric Vehicle Batteries: Clean and Green, or Something Less?

Al Bredenberg, Contributing Writer

9/7/2015

As I wrote in my previous article, the operation of electric vehicles 
(EVs) is relatively “clean,” especially when powered by renewably 
generated electricity. However, the emissions from simply operating a 
vehicle are not the only environmental concern. For EVs, what makes them 
go is the battery, a piece of highly refined technology that comes with 
its own environmental impacts.




A recent study, led by biosystems engineering researcher Christopher W. 
Tessum and published by the National Academy of Sciences, examined the 
air-quality impacts of light-duty vehicles on human health in the US. 
Tessum and colleagues compared the emissions by traditional 
gasoline-powered vehicles with various alternatives, including battery 
electric vehicles (BEVs).




In the analysis, Tessum considered the lifecycle air-quality impacts of 
BEV battery production and found their impacts relatively small in terms 
of population mortalities and externality damages. For example, for an 
EV powered by an average US power-generation mix, battery production 
accounted for only about 10 percent of lifecycle emissions of fine 
particulate matter (PM2.5, or particles of 2.5 microns or less).




Tessum admitted that his team's results showed a smaller impact from 
battery production than previous research by Jeremy J. Michalek and 
colleagues did. Tessum pointed out that Michalek assumed that “processes 
upstream from EV battery manufacturing are colocated with automobile 
manufacturing facilities.” However, according to Tessum, “production of 
copper and other raw materials for batteries occurs far from people,” so 
the potential harm is reduced. For example, he said, “copper ore 
smelting, which causes the majority of battery production SO2 emissions, 
mainly occurs in the sparsely populated southwestern United States.”




However, US air-quality impacts are not the only environmental concerns 
raised about EV battery production. Not all materials and components 
used in lithium-ion batteries are produced in the US, and they can have 
environmental impacts other than air pollution.




Graphite, for example, is a key material used for negative electrodes in 
Li-ion batteries. Researchers estimate that a BEV battery requires about 
50 kilograms of graphite. By far, graphite is mined in China, according 
to the US Geological Service (USGS). The agency says batteries are the 
fastest-growing market for graphite, increasing at between 15 and 25% 
growth per year.




In 2011, the Chinese government began shutting down graphite mines for 
environmental and resource protection. Stricter controls were imposed to 
prevent a pollution problem called “graphite rain.” USGS explains that 
“dust emissions from the mining of crystalline flake graphite had become 
a major issue, and although graphite is inert and not harmful, the air 
pollution from dust had become a problem to local residents and 
farmers.”




Bloomberg New Energy Finance reports that the environmental problems in 
China have depressed graphite production and pushed up prices. Aside 
from illuminating the concerns about graphite rain, Bloomberg also 
points to problems arising from the hydrochloric acid used to process 
raw graphite. Poor disposal practices have resulted in the release of 
the corrosive chemical into wastewater.




As with any manufactured product, end-of-life disposal is a concern with 
EV batteries. Since the EV market is comparatively young, relatively few 
batteries have reached mortality. However, that will change over the 
next 15 to 20 years. The US Department of Energy says processes for 
battery recycling are under development, including smelting processes to 
recover basic elements or salts, and direct recovery, which involves 
separating materials for re-use, is being investigated.




Even though old batteries might lose their suitability for electric 
cars, some experts point out that they could still be useful for other 
purposes. A study by the Mineta National Transit Research Consortium 
explored the feasibility of remanufacturing Li-Ion batteries for re-use 
in vehicles, repurposing them for stationary uses, and disassembling 
them to recover materials. “Remanufacturing was shown to be profitable,” 
the organization determined, “primarily due to the avoided costs of 
producing new batteries when a remanufactured battery could be used 
instead.” While the economic feasibility of repurposing and recycling 
batteries was harder to pin down, the report stressed that “recycling 
can support closed-loop supply chains reusing materials in the 
production of new batteries as well as supporting the principles of 
environmentalism and sustainability.”




Obviously, the environmental impacts of 

[EVDL] Design News: Leaders at The Battery Show Call for a Lead-Acid Renaissance in EVs

2015-09-17 Thread len moskowitz via EV

http://www.designnews.com/author.asp?section_id=1366_id=278680=nl.dn14.20150917=ind_184,industry_auto,bid_318,aid_278680=blog

Leaders at The Battery Show Call for a Lead-Acid Renaissance in EVs

 Charles Murray, Senior Technical Editor, Electronics & Test

Battery industry leaders made a case yesterday for automakers to 
consider lead-acid chemistries as the car industry moves toward 
increased electrification.


Two keynote speakers at The Battery Show outside Detroit said that new 
versions of the nearly 150-year-old lead-acid battery technology might 
be better suited than lithium-ion for near-term applications in hybrid 
cars, mild hybrids, and micro-hybrid vehicles. The speakers said they 
see lead-acid as an alternative to lithium-ion in certain applications 
and not as a replacement for it in fully battery-powered vehicles.


”There is no silver bullet when it comes to battery technology,” noted 
Subhash Dhar, CEO of Energy Power Systems, at The Battery Show’s 
"Leaders Debate" forum. “Whether we talk about lead-acid, 
nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, or lithium-ion, every chemistry 
has a value proposition for its given application.”


In particular, Dhar cited start-stop vehicles, which need long cycle 
life and low cost in their batteries, as candidates for lead-acid 
chemistries. He also said that lead-acid makes more sense than 
lithium-ion in mild hybrids and full hybrids, which typically use 
relatively small battery capacities of just 1 kWh or 1.5 kWh. “While 
lithium-ion is a high-performance battery, it does have high costs 
associated with it,” he said. “We need to come up with a low-cost 
solution that’s acceptable to the user community.”


Dhar was one of two speakers at the Leaders Debate who supported 
lead-acid. Robert Flicker, chief operating officer of East Penn 
Manufacturing, also argued that automakers need to consider lead-acid 
beyond the traditional SLI (starting, lighting, and ignition) 
applications. East Penn is conducting its own field tests on hybridized, 
lead-acid versions of the Honda Insight, Honda Civic, Volkswagen Passat, 
and Ford Focus, he said. It is also working on lead-acid-based vehicles 
with 42 V electrical architectures.


Also at the show, the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium displayed a 
Dodge Ram truck that combines lead-carbon batteries with a 
natural-gas-powered engine. The truck uses the lead-acid batteries as 
part of a start-stop system that helps reduce emissions and fuel costs.

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[EVDL] Safer Flow Batteries for Grid Storage

2015-09-24 Thread len moskowitz via EV

http://www.ecnmag.com/news/2015/09/rechargeable-battery-power-home-rooftop-solar-panels


A Rechargeable Battery To Power A Home From Rooftop Solar Panels

Thu, 09/24/2015 - 2:19pm


A team of Harvard scientists and engineers has demonstrated a 
rechargeable battery that could make storage of electricity from 
intermittent energy sources like solar and wind safe and cost-effective 
for both residential and commercial use. The new research builds on 
earlier work by members of the same team that could enable cheaper and 
more reliable electricity storage at the grid level.




The mismatch between the availability of intermittent wind or sunshine 
and the variability of demand is a great obstacle to getting a large 
fraction of our electricity from renewable sources. This problem could 
be solved by a cost-effective means of storing large amounts of 
electrical energy for delivery over the long periods when the wind isn't 
blowing and the sun isn't shining.




In the operation of the battery, electrons are picked up and released by 
compounds composed of inexpensive, earth-abundant elements (carbon, 
oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, iron and potassium) dissolved in water. The 
compounds are non-toxic, non-flammable, and widely available, making 
them safer and cheaper than other battery systems.




"This is chemistry I'd be happy to put in my basement," says Michael J. 
Aziz, Gene and Tracy Sykes Professor of Materials and Energy 
Technologies at Harvard Paulson School of Engineering and Applied 
Sciences (SEAS), and project Principal Investigator. "The non-toxicity 
and cheap, abundant materials placed in water solution mean that it's 
safe—it can't catch on fire—and that's huge when you're storing large 
amounts of electrical energy anywhere near people."




The research appears in a paper published today in the journal Science.



This new battery chemistry was discovered by post-doctoral fellow 
Michael Marshak and graduate student Kaixiang Lin working together with 
co-lead author Roy Gordon, Thomas Dudley Cabot Professor of Chemistry 
and Professor of Materials Science at Harvard.




"We combined a common organic dye with an inexpensive food additive to 
increase our battery voltage by about 50 percent over our previous 
materials," says Gordon. The findings "deliver the first 
high-performance, non-flammable, non-toxic, non-corrosive, and low-cost 
chemicals for flow batteries."




Unlike solid-electrode batteries, flow batteries store energy in liquids 
contained in external tanks, similar to fuel cells. The tanks (which set 
the energy capacity), as well as the electrochemical conversion hardware 
through which the fluids are pumped (which sets peak power capacity), 
can be sized independently. Since the amount of energy that can be 
stored can be arbitrarily increased by scaling up only the size of the 
tanks, larger amounts of energy can be stored at lower cost than 
traditional battery systems.




The active components of electrolytes in most flow battery designs have 
been metal ions such as vanadium dissolved in acid. The metals can be 
expensive, corrosive, tricky to handle, and kinetically sluggish, 
leading to inefficiencies. Last year, Aziz and his Harvard colleagues 
demonstrated a flow battery that replaced metals with organic 
(carbon-based) molecules called quinones, which are abundant, naturally 
occurring chemicals that are integral to biological processes like 
photosynthesis and cellular respiration. While quinones in aqueous 
solution formed the negative electrolyte side of the battery, the 
positive side relied on a conventional bromine-bearing electrolyte that 
is used in several other batteries. The high performance and low cost of 
the technology, which Harvard has licensed to a company in Europe, hold 
the potential to provide scalable grid-level storage solutions to 
utilities.




But bromine's toxicity and volatility make it most suitable for settings 
where trained professionals can deal with it safely behind secure 
fences.




So the team began searching for a new recipe that would provide 
comparable storage advantages—inexpensive, long lasting, efficient—using 
chemicals that could be safely deployed in homes and businesses. Their 
new battery, described in a paper published today in the journal 
Science, replaces bromine with a non-toxic and non-corrosive ion called 
ferrocyanide.




"It sounds bad because it has the word 'cyanide' in it," explains 
co-lead author Marshak, who is now assistant professor of chemistry at 
the University of Colorado Boulder. "Cyanide kills you because it binds 
very tightly to iron in your body. In ferrocyanide, it's already bound 
to iron, so it's safe. In fact, ferrocyanide is commonly used as a food 
additive, and also as a fertilizer."




Because ferrocyanide is highly soluble and stable in alkaline rather 
than acidic solutions, the Harvard team paired it with a quinone 
compound that is soluble and stable under alkaline 

[EVDL] EDN: An Electric Car Too Soon

2016-06-15 Thread len moskowitz via EV

www.designnews.com/author.asp?section_id=1386_id=280710
-
An Electric Car Too Soon


Paul Rako, Contributing Writer





Back
 in 1995 I built an electric car based on a 1974 Honda Civic (Figure 
1).
 It showed me some of the serious limitations of electric propulsion, 
as

 well as my own limitations as a one-man design team. It used an 8-inch
Advanced D.C. motor and a 144V, 500A Curtis controller. The GVW (gross
vehicle weight) of a 1974 Honda Civic is 2,400 lb. The finished car
weighed 2,200 lb. This would allow one driver, no passenger, and a
little luggage. The car would not be able to drive to Santa Cruz and
back to Silicon Valley, as there is an 1,800-foot hill in between. I
could be gentle with throttle and get 30 miles of range. If I stomped
the pedal at every light the batteries were dead after 11 miles.






Figure 1 



Figure 1







My own limitations were just as severe. While I had a college class
on motors, I really did not understand the implications of using a DC
motor versus an induction motor versus a BLDC (brushless DC) motor in a
car. DC motors have maximum torque at stall, and are great for drag race
 applications. The motor and controller I used were intended for fork
trucks and golf carts. This is why my DC Honda would scoot along the
freeway at 80 mph, but it sure could not do that for very long. I was
equally naive about my battery choice. Back then, you could use
golf-cart lead-acid batteries for longevity or pick RV/marine batteries
for cost and weight. I replaced the original golf-cart batteries (Figure
 2) and went the cheap route with RV/marine batteries.






Figure 2 



Figure 2







In retrospect, I jumped the technology curve. Large lithium-ion
batteries were not around. The other realistic alternative would be
aircraft nickel-cadmium batteries. They priced out around $20,000 for
the same capacity as my 10 66-lb SCS-225 Trojan batteries. Those set me
back $974.90 in 1995; today they would cost $1,600.


Now I am not saying I completely botched the job; I am a GMI-
(General Motors Institute) trained engineer. I worked for GMC Truck and
Ford Motor in Detroit. That is why the weight of the car and driver did
not exceed the GVW of the car. I picked a small light car to start. I
took out the aircraft generator the previous owner tried to use and
bought that shiny new Advanced D.C. unit. I knew that weight
distribution was important. By putting the batteries in the passenger
compartment, it both shared the weight between axles and reduced the
polar moment of inertia of the vehicle. Indeed, Figure 2 was a previous
owner’s attempt. The car was still too heavy in the rear, so I took out
the passenger seat and put four batteries on the floor-pan up front. I
installed an E-Meter 
 to monitor my voltage and current in real time. The thing I am 
proudest

 of is that I actually finished the project and got the car registered
to drive.






Figure 3 



Figure 3







The devil is, indeed, in the details (Figure 3). I soon learned that
despite having 10 batteries, I still needed the regular car battery to
run the lights and wipers and radio. So now I needed to buy another
power supply to draw from the 120V stack and charge the 12V car battery.
 The car was heavy, right at GVW, so I wanted to keep the car’s 
original

 vacuum assist power brakes. So that meant the addition of a vacuum
pump, a reservoir, and a controller. All those batteries needed big
thick cables, so that also meant sourcing them and the terminals and a
big crimper you set with a hammer. The controller needed a big heat sink
 and a fan -- another $148. I modified the machined aluminum adapter
plate to mount the motor to the transmission. That cost $290. A throttle
 potentiometer was $65. A Heinemann dc circuit breaker was $175. The
cable lugs and crimper were $50.










And time, lots of time, to assemble all this stuff and get it
working. I ended up scrapping the car in 2001. The batteries were ruined
 but I still have the motor and controller. I hope to use it to make a
Harley generator test stand. When I wrote an article in 2007 that
maintained that electric cars did not yet make sense, people thought I
was an anti-EV Luddite. That is not at all true, I just thought the
technology was not yet ready. Now that thousands of engineers have spent
 billions of dollars, the proof is in the pudding.


Electric cars are viable. I have a bad case of range anxiety, so I
would buy a Volt. A few experiences limping down Lawrence Expressway in
Santa Clara, Calif. at 10 mph, before the batteries die completely will
give anyone a 

[EVDL] Design News: See How Electric Vehicle Sales Stalled in 2015

2016-01-30 Thread len moskowitz via EV

http://www.designnews.com/author.asp?section_id=1366_id=279679=nl.x.dn14.edt.aud.dn.20160130=ind_184,industry_auto,industry_alt,kw_31,bid_318,aid_279679=blog


See How Electric Vehicle Sales Stalled in 2015


Charles Murray, Senior Technical Editor, Electronics & Test

1/27/2016   25 comments


Sales of plug-in electric vehicles in the US fell by about 5% in 2015, 
despite a record-setting year for the rest of industry. 



Electric automakers sold just 116,597 plug-ins last year, down from 
123,049 in 2014, according to numbers recently released by the InsideEVs 
website. In contrast, the industry at large posted US light vehicle 
sales of 17.47 million in 2015, up by almost a million over 2014 sales 
of 16.52 million, according to Automotive News.




[Photo]
Tesla’s much-publicized Model S was the big winner among electric cars 
last year. According to the website InsideEVs, sales jumped to an 
estimated 25,700 vehicles, up from about 17,300 the previous year.


(Source: Tesla Motors) 

It wasn’t supposed to be this way, of course. When Nissan rolled out its 
Leaf electric car and Chevy unveiled the plug-in Volt in 2010, the 
industry was optimistic. Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn even predicted that 
sales of the Leaf EV would hit 500,000 a year by 2013, according to The 
New York Times. But last year, sales of plug-in hybrids and pure EVs 
across the entire industry accounted for only about six-tenths of 1% of 
the US market.




Still, there were some high points for the EV market. Sales of Tesla’s 
Model S jumped by almost 50% and BMW’s i3 nearly doubled in 2015.




Here, we post sales figures for 15 selected plug-in cars. From the Model 
S and Model X to the Spark and the Volt, following are the market’s most 
notable EVs.



[slide show]
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Re: [EVDL] Solder strength (was: Re: J1772. Solder or crimp?)

2016-04-25 Thread len moskowitz via EV
When we need higher mechanical strength from a solder, we use 2% silver 
solder. It's a lot stronger and not terribly more expensive. Melting 
temperature is about the same.






Len Moskowitz


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Re: [EVDL] Best deal on Lead Acid for conversion?

2016-07-24 Thread len moskowitz via EV

Lee Hart wrote:

As others have said, 12v marine batteries are only a quick-n-dirty 
solution. They barely work as EV batteries. They are cheap initially, 
but performance is poor, and life is short.


So I've learned.

With any type of battery, the range is simply a function of how many 
you carry -- the size of your "fuel tank".


Is your Jetta limited by physical space, or by weight-carrying 
capacity? Note that lithiums are lighter per cubic foot, but do not 
necessarily provide any more KWH per cubic foot.


The ten series-29 marine batteries are split, with 4 under-the-hood and 
6 in the trunk. The rear springs/shocks were upgraded. The front 
suspension is probably stock. It feels heavy when driven.


There's no more space under the hood. I might be able to fit another 
two, three, or four series-29s in the trunk.

 
Based on how it drives now. I don't think that I'd want to add more 
weight


If I use the golf cart batteries, I'll end up with the same barely 
useable range. It'll also cost roughly 50% or 60% more than the marine 
batteries. But they'll last 6 to 8 years.


I'd hoped to double the range, keep the weight roughly the same, and not 
having to pay more than around $2,000 to get there. That means doubling 
the power density (W/ft3), doubling the W/#, and keeping the $/W roughly 
the same.


Sounds like my Jetta is going to stay in the driveway battery-less for a 
while longer.


Thanks much for the informed advice!


Len M.
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Re: [EVDL] Best deal on Lead Acid for conversion?

2016-07-24 Thread len moskowitz via EV
I have  an old '90 VW Jetta EV conversion. Last time I changed the 
lead-acid batteries I put in ten 29-series marine batteries (that's 
around 12 kWh) that I bought from the local Costco for around $900. They 
lasted less than three years and gave me 25 - 35 miles per charge - not 
really enough for my needs - until two batteries failed.


I want to eventually install Lithium Ion, but only when their price 
comes down. I don't want to spend $5000 on batteries plus a BMS for only 
50 - 70 miles of range (25 kWh).


Anyone have battery recommendations for now? Do I just have to wait for 
Li-ion to come down in price?



Len M.
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[EVDL] Design News: Excitement Is Growing, But EVs Still Have a Long Way to Go

2017-01-20 Thread len moskowitz via EV

https://www.designnews.com/automotive-0/excitement-growing-evs-still-have-long-way-go
-

Excitement Is Growing, But EVs Still Have a Long Way to Go

Pure electric, battery-powered cars accounted for only about 0.4% of 
U.S. vehicle sales in 2016.


By: Charles Murray, Automotive, January 18, 2017


U.S. sales of plug-in electric vehicles jumped 37% in 2016, but the 
numbers were still a small fraction of overall new car sales, suggesting 
that the much-publicized pure electric car still isn’t trickling down to 
the average consumer.


Despite  sales of 159,139 vehicles , plug-ins made up only 0.8% of the 
18.38 million vehicles sold in the U.S. last year. Pure electric, 
battery-powered cars accounted for even less, coming in at about 0.4% of 
overall sales.


“For most families, it’s not a consideration yet," Chris Robinson, an 
analyst for  Lux Research, Inc. , told  Design News . “The pure electric 
is still a second or third car for those who do buy it. It’s not a 
primary car yet.”


Still, the numbers are improving steadily, and with the introduction of 
the Chevy Bolt and Tesla Model 3, EV sales figures are expected to jump 
again in 2017 and 2018. “Lower battery prices will influence sales in 
the next couple of years,” Robinson said. “The new models aren’t as 
expensive to make, and the OEMs are getting excited about them.”


Indeed, automakers are investing billions of dollars in electric 
powertrains, and excitement for the cars is rising. The all-electric 
Chevy Bolt was named North American Car of the Year at the recent 
Detroit Auto Show, and was also honored as the Motor Trend Car of the 
Year in November and the Green Car of the Year at the Los Angeles Auto 
Show. Chevrolet sold 579 Bolts in December, the first month of its 
availability, according to the  InsideEVs website.


This isn’t the first time for EVs to generate such excitement, of 
course. In 2010, Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn notably predicted the company 
would sell 500,000 Nissan Leafs per year by 2013. Nissan sold only about 
22,000 in the U.S. in 2013.


Analysts say the key to producing bigger numbers lies in better 
price-performance, and many believe the Bolt and Telsa Model 3 will 
offer that. Both cars are expected to feature all-electric ranges of 
more than 200 miles, for prices around $30,000.


In contrast, the two biggest-selling pure EVs – the Tesla Model S and 
Tesla Model X – typically cost more than $60,000. To date, pure electric 
cars have appealed mostly to enthusiasts with high family incomes.
Robinson sees the Bolt as a stepping stone to steady success at the 
lower end of the market, but not as a game changer in itself. “As 
innovative and impressive as the Bolt is, it’s still a $37,000
hatchback with a Chevy badge on it,” he said. “You’re still paying a 
premium for the electric powertrain.”


Lux Researchers don’t expect to see EVs account for the majority of new 
car sales for many years. By the 2030s, they say, entry-level vehicles 
will offer electric powertrains as a standard package, with 
gasoline-burning internal combustion engines as an add-on to enhance 
range. Only then, they say, will EVs reach a dominant proportion of 
overall sales. “We don’t anticipate seeing a 50% market share for 
electric vehicles for another 25 years,” Robinson told us.


“The growth of EVs will continue to be incremental,” he added. “The 
automotive industry doesn’t move quickly.”


-
Senior technical editor Chuck Murray has been writing about technology 
for 33 years. He joined Design News in 1987, and has covered 
electronics, automation, fluid power, and autos.

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[EVDL] Design News: Electric Powertrains Light Up Paris Motor Show

2016-10-04 Thread len moskowitz via EV

http://www.designnews.com/author.asp?section_id=1366_id=281733
-
Electric Powertrains Light Up Paris Motor Show
Charles Murray, Senior Technical Editor, Electronics & Test, Design News
10/3/2016

Electric powertrains are stealing the show in Paris, as automakers 
showcase their best and brightest battery-powered vehicles.


Daimler, Volkswagen, Renault, BMW, and others are providing a glimpse of 
the auto industry’s future, unveiling cars with greater efficiency and 
longer all-electric driving ranges, during the Paris Motor Show, Oct. 
1-16.


We’ve collected photos of a few of the best. From fuel-efficient 
compacts to racy hybrids to smart gasoline-powered SUVs, the following 
are some of the brightest concepts from the Paris Motor Show.


[Slideshow follows]
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[EVDL] Design News: Tesla Sticks to Its Vision as Gigafactory Grows

2016-08-18 Thread len moskowitz via EV

www.designnews.com/author.asp?section_id=1366_id=281268

-

Tesla Sticks to Its Vision as Gigafactory Grows
Charles Murray

Tesla Motors says the construction of its giant Gigafactory is ahead of 
schedule, despite the electric automaker’s growing financial trouble.


The Gigafactory, the key to the company’s vision of producing an 
affordable electric car with a 200-mile range, could start delivering 
battery cells as early as the end of this year. It currently has a 
800,000 square-foot footprint -- approximately 14% of its ultimate 
total.


Industry analysts say the Gigafactory’s progress is a sign that Tesla 
plans to deliver on its plan of building 500,000 cars a year by 2018. 
“If Tesla wanted to be just a profitable company building EVs, they 
wouldn’t be spending so intensely on this factory,” Chris Robinson, 
research analyst at Lux Research, told Design News. “They could have 
easily checked out with the Model S, settled in on having a small- to 
medium-sized car company, and been profitable. But they have a bigger 
vision.”


Indeed, Tesla’s vision is big. The company claims the finished 
Gigafactory will have the biggest footprint of any building in the 
world. It will employ about 6,500 people and will produce more lithium 
batteries annually than were produced worldwide in 2013. And by the end 
of the first year, the company says, its economies of scale will have 
driven down the cost of battery packs by more than 30%.


"We will meet our capacity targets two years early and are forecasting 
the ability to triple the output of the factory,” Tesla said. “We will 
be able to achieve this through aggressive factory design, density, and 
manufacturing efficiencies.”


As the company pours money into the factory, however, its losses are 
mounting. Various news organizations recently reported that Tesla had a 
second-quarter loss of $293.2 million -- about 60% more than a year ago. 
Reuters described it as the company’s 13th straight quarterly loss.


Given the automaker’s track record of delays and quality issues, 
particularly with its Model X, analysts are concerned about the 
aggressive scale-up. “The challenge is in scaling up in such a short 
timeframe and not having the same quality assurance issues they’ve had 
in the past,” Robinson told us.


The Gigafactory, along with the company’s forthcoming Model 3 electric 
car, is said to be the key to Tesla’s “secret master plan” to accelerate 
the world’s transition to sustainable energy. By driving down the cost 
of lithium battery technology, the Gigafactory reportedly will enable 
Tesla to market an all-electric car with a 215-mile range and a price 
tag of $35,000 before government incentives. By 2018, Tesla plans to 
build and sell 500,000 of the vehicles per year.


Industry analysts, even those who are bullish on the company’s 
potential, are not confident in Tesla’s ability to achieve that vision 
so quickly, however. “They’ve made 30,000 to 40,000 vehicles so far this 
year,” Robinson said. “That’s a big jump.”


Tesla isn’t the first company to forecast sales of 500,000 a year. In 
2010, Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn predicted the Leaf EV would hit sales of 
500,000 by 2013, according to The New York Times. In 2013, however, the 
Leaf had sales of 22,610. In 2014, it reached 30,200.


Still, analysts say there’s more reason for optimism this time. Backed 
in part by federal and state funding, as well as a Zero Emission Vehicle 
credit program that calls for other automakers to buy credits, Tesla 
sold 14,240 Model S vehicles and 7,690 Model X cars in the first seven 
months of 2016.


Other automakers are moving toward electric propulsion, as well. BMW, 
Nissan, Volkswagen, and General Motors (GM) are building pure electrics. 
GM will introduce its all-electric Chevy Bolt later this year.


Industry experts expect the sale of electrics to rise sharply over the 
next few years, but they’re not sure how great the growth will be. “With 
the tax credits and the ZEV credits, we have a semi-artificial market 
right now,” noted David Cole, chairman emeritus of the Center for 
Automotive Research. “That makes it difficult for automakers to know 
what to do.”


That hasn’t stopped Tesla. The automaker continues to fund its long-term 
vision. “They’re spending at a rate that’s a little bit concerning,” 
Robinson said. “But that hasn’t slowed down their construction. They’re 
still at it, seven days a week and multiple shifts per day.”


---
Senior technical editor Chuck Murray has been writing about technology 
for 32 years. He joined Design News in 1987, and has covered 
electronics, automation, fluid power, and autos.



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[EVDL] Design News: What's Happening to Range Anxiety? New EVs Offer More Miles

2016-09-30 Thread len moskowitz via EV

http://www.designnews.com/author.asp?section_id=1366_id=281699

-

What's Happening to Range Anxiety? New EVs Offer More Miles
Charles Murray, Senior Technical Editor, Electronics & Test, Design News
9/28/2016

The term “range anxiety” began fading into the rear view mirror 
recently, as major automakers made announcements about longer-range, 
battery-powered cars.


General Motors said its anxiously-awaited Chevy Bolt will churn out a 
surprising 238 miles on a charge when it reaches production later this 
year. And Tesla Motors announced the release of its Model S P100D with 
Ludicrous mode, which offers an astounding all-electric range of 315 
miles. That’s the best ever by a major automaker’s electric vehicle. 
Meanwhile, Tesla continues to work on its lower-cost Model 3 EV, which 
it says will offer a range of more than 200 miles.


At the same time, Ford, Hyundai and Volkswagen are preparing to make 
electric vehicle announcements for the 2017 model year.


How do those compare with the rest of the auto industry? From the Bolt 
and the Leaf to the Model S Ludicrous mode, we offer a peek at the 
current crop of new battery-powered cars, along with their all-electric 
ranges, so you can judge for yourself.


[Slide show follows]
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[EVDL] ECN: Tesla Starts Mass Production of Batteries

2017-01-05 Thread len moskowitz via EV

https://www.ecnmag.com/news/2017/01/tesla-starts-mass-production-batteries


Tesla Starts Mass Production of Batteries

by Phys.org



Tesla Motors announced Wednesday that it has begun mass production of 
energy-saving batteries that it vows will take electric cars mainstream.




"Today at the Gigafactory, Tesla and Panasonic begin mass production of 
lithium-ion battery cells, which will be used in Tesla's energy storage 
products and Model 3," Tesla said on its website.




Mass production of the batteries are a critical step in realizing 
Tesla's ambitions for the Model 3, which is priced at a moderate $35,000 
in the United States, much below the price of its initial models S and X 
electric vehicles.




Tesla has received nearly 400,000 in pre-orders for Model 3.



The "Gigafactory," located in the western state of Nevada, is also 
working on residential energy storage technology that could be used to 
power homes with solar energy.




Tesla said it will ramp up production of batteries for both cars and 
residential products and that it expects capacity at the Nevada facility 
to nearly match that of the rest of the world by 2018.




Tesla and Panasonic expect the Gigafactory to have 6,500 employees at 
peak production and indirectly support 20,000 to 30,000 jobs in the 
surrounding areas.




Shares of Tesla jumped 4.2 percent to $226.17 in midday trade.



On Tuesday, Tesla reported that electric car production last year surged 
64 percent compared to 2015, although it missed its delivery target for 
the final three months of 2016.



-
Len Moskowitz
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[EVDL] ECN: Scientists Identify Chemical Causes Of Battery "Capacity Fade"

2017-04-25 Thread len moskowitz via EV

https://www.ecnmag.com/news/2017/04/scientists-identify-chemical-causes-battery-capacity-fade
-

Tue, 04/25/2017 - 2:29pm
by Argonne National Laboratory

Like you, me and everyone we know, batteries have a finite lifespan.

When a battery enters “old age,” scientists refer to its diminished 
performance as “capacity fade,” in which the amount of charge a battery 
can supply decreases with repeated use. Capacity fade is the reason why 
a cell phone battery that used to last a whole day will, after a couple 
of years, last perhaps only a few hours.


But what if scientists could reduce this capacity fade, allowing 
batteries to age more gracefully?


“Now that we know the mechanisms behind the trapping of lithium ions and 
the capacity fade, we can find methods to solve the problem.”


Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National 
Laboratory identified one of the major culprits in capacity fade of 
high-energy lithium-ion batteries in a paper published in The Journal of 
the Electrochemical Society.


For a lithium-ion battery – the kind that we use in laptops, 
smartphones, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles – the capacity of the 
battery is tied directly to the amount of lithium ions that can be 
shuttled back and forth between the two terminals of the battery as it 
is charged and discharged.


This shuttling is enabled by certain transition metal ions, which change 
oxidation states as lithium ions move in and out of the cathode. 
However, as the battery is cycled, some of these ions – most notably 
manganese – get stripped out of the cathode material and end up at the 
battery’s anode.


Once near the anode, these metal ions interact with a region of the 
battery called the solid-electrolyte interphase, which forms because of 
reactions between the highly reactive anode and the liquid electrolyte 
that carries the lithium ions back and forth. For every electrolyte 
molecule that reacts and becomes decomposed in a process called 
reduction, a lithium ion becomes trapped in the interphase. As more and 
more lithium gets trapped, the capacity of the battery diminishes.


Some molecules in this interphase are incompletely reduced, meaning that 
they can accept more electrons and tie up even more lithium ions. These 
molecules are like tinder, awaiting a spark.


When the manganese ions become deposited into this interphase they act 
like a spark igniting the tinder: these ions are efficient at catalyzing 
reactions with the incompletely reduced molecules, trapping more lithium 
ions in the process.


“There’s a strict correlation between the amount of manganese that makes 
its way to the anode and the amount of lithium that gets trapped,” said 
study coauthor and Argonne scientist Daniel Abraham.  “Now that we know 
the mechanisms behind the trapping of lithium ions and the capacity 
fade, we can find methods to solve the problem.”


The study, “Transition Metal Dissolution, Ion Migration, 
Electrocatalytic Reduction and Capacity Loss in Lithium-Ion Full Cells,” 
appeared in the online edition of The Journal of the Electrochemical 
Society on January 5. The other two authors were James Gilbert and Ilya 
Shkrob, both with Argonne.


The research was funded by DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Office.

-


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[EVDL] Design News: The Electric Car’s Same Old Problem

2017-05-23 Thread len moskowitz via EV

https://www.designnews.com/automotive-0/electric-car-s-same-old-problem/121216446556759

--

The Electric Car’s Same Old Problem
OP-ED: Automakers are struggling to make money off mainstream electric 
cars. But many consumers won’t buy in until they’re given an incentive 
to accept less.

By:
Charles Murray
Automotive
Alternative Energy
May 22, 2017

One unwritten rule of product design says that if you’ve given your 
customer a popular feature, don’t dare take it away.


Therein lies the problem with the mainstream electric car. Today’s cay 
buyers have been spoiled. They assume that they should be able to take 
their cars on vacations, on weekend trips, or on treks to drop the kids 
off at college. Thanks, gasoline.


Electric car enthusiasts don’t like that argument. And to some degree, 
they’re right. On average, driving is mostly about short trips – to 
work, to the gym, to the grocery store. Unfortunately, modern consumers 
don’t buy cars based on their average needs. They buy for their 
exceptional needs.


Gasoline has taught them that. For all its faults, gasoline is still an 
amazing fuel. While battery makers burn the midnight oil trying to 
figure out how to reach a specific energy of 450 Wh/kg, gasoline already 
offers 12,000 Wh/kg. Even if you account for efficiency differences, the 
contrast is still enormous.


It doesn’t matter if consumers understand the concept of specific 
energy. They’ve absorbed the lesson as a matter of car-buying utility. 
One car offers them long, simple trips. The other car … well, it’s 
getting there.


That’s why the recent hand-wringing about the possible loss of tax 
credits for electric cars is unsurprising. The simple truth is that 
electric car manufacturers are still scuffling around, trying to figure 
out how to make money off small, mainstream EVs. They need those tax 
credits because they’re losing cash on every electric car they sell.


Auto executives don’t like talking about financial losses, of course, 
but if you listen hard enough you can easily get the gist of their 
electric car experiences. Volkswagen, which is doing penance by loudly 
proclaiming its commitment to electric cars, admitted to The Wall Street 
Journal recently that “small battery-driven vehicles won’t be cheaper 
than their diesel equivalents until 2030.” And GM exec Mark Reuss  told 
reporters that his company wants to be the first to produce “electric 
cars that people can afford at a profit.” Implied was the fact that GM 
and its competitors aren’t making a profit on EVs today.


Even Tesla, Inc. – which sells big, expensive EVs – is still struggling 
with the bottom line. Recently released numbers showed that Tesla lost 
$330 million in the first quarter of 2017. Those losses were 17% more 
than the first quarter of last year.


No one was ever more forthright about this matter than Sergio 
Marchionne, the refreshingly honest chief executive of Fiat Chrysler 
Automobiles. Talking about his company’s all-electric Fiat 500e in 2014, 
he said , “I hope you don’t buy it because every time I sell one it 
costs me $14,000.”


Apparently, not much has changed since 2014. The numbers, maybe. But the 
principle lives on.


The electric car cognoscenti would, of course, correctly point out that 
EVs have a great deal to offer. They’re efficient; they handle well; 
their acceleration is amazing; and they’re beautiful, in some cases.

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[EVDL] Design News: Lithium-Ion Battery Inventor Ups Ante With Advanced Solid-State Rechargeable

2017-05-25 Thread len moskowitz via EV

https://www.designnews.com/electronics-test/lithium-ion-battery-inventor-ups-ante-advanced-solid-state-rechargeable/8222876656822

-

Lithium-Ion Battery Inventor Ups Ante With Advanced Solid-State 
Rechargeable


The engineer who co-invented the lithium-ion battery has led a team of 
researchers that’s developed a solid-state battery cell that could be 
the answer to providing safe, fast-charging, and long-lasting 
rechargeable energy storage for a range of devices,


By: Elizabeth Montalbano
May 23, 2017

The engineer who co-invented the lithium-ion battery is set to 
revolutionize the field again. 94-year-old John Goodenough—professor in 
the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at 
Austin--has led a team of researchers that’s developed a solid-state 
battery cell that could be the answer to providing safe, fast-charging, 
and long-lasting rechargeable energy storage for a range of devices, 
including electric vehicles (EVs).


Goodenough, along with Cockrell School senior research fellow Maria 
Helena Braga and researcher Andrew Murchison, have developed a 
noncombustible battery that has a long cycle life, high volumetric 
energy density, and fast rates of charge and discharge. The engineers 
describe their new technology in a recent paper published in the journal 
Energy & Environmental Science .


Murchison said it was Braga that was chiefly behind the new design, 
which has at least three times as much energy density as today’s 
lithium-ion batteries. Energy density is what gives batteries its 
lifecycle between charges, so a battery with a very high energy density 
will, for example, allow an electric car to drive further between 
charges.


 [Photo] John Goodenough
[Caption] 94-year-old John Goodenough (left), professor in the Cockrell 
School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, has led a 
team of researchers that’s developed a solid-state battery cell that 
could be the answer to providing safe, fast-charging, and long-lasting 
rechargeable energy storage for a range of devices, including electric 
vehicles. Cockrell School senior research fellow Maria Helena Braga 
(center) and researcher Andrew Murchison (right) were pivotal members of 
the team. (Source: The University of Texas at Austin)


 The battery also allows for a greater number of charging and 
discharging cycles, which equates to longer-lasting batteries, as well 
as a faster rate of recharge that’s clocked in minutes rather than 
hours.
“Helena Braga is the really force behind all of this this,” he said, 
while Goodenough served as editor and writer of data, and Murchison 
himself the experimentalist.


Researchers used an alkali-metal anode—comprised of lithium, sodium or 
potassium--which increases the energy density of a cathode and delivers 
a long cycle life. In experiments, the researchers’ cells demonstrated 
more than 1,200 cycles with low cell resistance, they said.


The team chose a solid-state battery cell rather than a liquid one 
firstly because they are safer and don’t have the explosive potential 
that lithium-ion batteries have, Murchison said. Additionally, “lithium- 
and sodium-metal-based solid-state battery cells inherently have greater 
concentrations of active materials and therefore higher volumetric 
energy densities,” he said.


Today’s lithium-ion batteries use liquid electrolytes to transport the 
lithium ions between the anode and the cathode. If a battery cell is 
charged too quickly, it can cause what are called dendrites--or whiskers 
of metal--to form and cross through the liquid electrolytes, causing a 
short circuit that can lead to explosions and fires.


In the researchers’ design, the lithium-ion metal is plated on the 
cathode during discharge, which is different in a typical lithium-ion 
battery, in which the lithium is inserted in the cathode interstitial 
sites, Murchison said.


The battery design also differs from conventional batteries in other 
ways, he said. “Reversely to
lithium-ion batteries, the capacity of these cells will not depend on 
the cathode’s capacity but on the anodes--which is much greater,” 
Murchison said. “The solid-state glass electrolyte enables us to made a 
safer battery cell. Due to homogenous plating, no dendrites will be 
formed.”


The battery also can be used in higher temperatures—up to 200 degrees 
Celsius—which makes it well suited to providing the power source for 
EVs, he said.


“Today’s lithium batteries do not like heat,” he said. For example, 
early versions of the Nissan Leaf would not start in the mid-day heat of 
Phoenix in the summer because the battery was too hot after the car was 
turned off for several hours, Murchison said. A solution to that is that 
“air conditioning can be added to the battery pack, but this is 
expensive and heavy,” he added.


The new battery also is a “perfect fit” for compact, low-cost energy 
storage for devices like sensors, micro security cameras, displays, and 
other 

[EVDL] ECN: When Electric Vehicles Crash, What Happens To The Battery?

2017-05-08 Thread len moskowitz via EV

https://www.ecnmag.com/news/2017/05/when-electric-vehicles-crash-what-happens-battery

When Electric Vehicles Crash, What Happens To The Battery?
by TU Graz

Safety, range and costs: these are the three big premises of 
electromobility. Safety definitely comes first. Lithium-based traction 
batteries are usually completely enclosed in the battery case and 
integrated in the vehicle to protect the battery from all conceivable 
stresses and external influences. This "armour" has an effect on 
construction, weight, size and overall design of the vehicle.


Deeper Insights

"For the sake of safety, vehicle producers protect traction battery 
components usually more than is necessary, just to be on the safe side. 
As payback, however, there are certain restrictions. One reason for this 
practice is that too little research has been done into the behaviour of 
battery components under crash conditions, such as battery cells," 
explains Wolfgang Sinz from the Institute of Vehicle Safety at TU Graz. 
Current research restricts itself mostly to the behaviour of new vehicle 
traction batteries, without for example taking into account the possible 
influence of previous stress, such as ageing. And this is the point at 
which the team led by Wolfgang Sinz together with well-known national 
and international partners from research and industry takes up its work 
in the COMET project "SafeBattery," which moved on in April 2017.


Every battery has a history

In the four-year research project funded by the Austrian Research 
Promotion Agency, the focus is on the mechanical, electrochemical, 
chemical and thermodynamic behaviour of single cells and single modules 
on a lithium basis under crash loads. In the course of this, the 
researchers will investigate components with different histories, since 
"safety should be ensured not just of new batteries, but also of 
traction batteries in vehicles which have a certain amount of vibration, 
possible minor mechanical shortcomings due to small accidents and 
calendrical ageing behind them," says Wolfgang Sinz. Other factors 
influencing battery behaviour in crash cases will be examined carefully, 
such as charging status and temperature.


The SafeBattery team wants to sound out the limits of battery cells to 
subsequently define parameters which can be used to ensure that these 
limits are never exceeded in practice. A lot of collaboration is needed, 
not only from industry partners such as AVL, Steyr Motors, Audi and 
Daimler, but also from within TU Graz in the form of experts from the 
Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials and the Virtual 
Vehicle competence centre. "There is a lot of interdisciplinary 
crossover in this project. We have a huge range of influencing 
parameters and have to examine and break down the mosaic into its 
constituent parts. Only then can we make recommendations concerning 
construction, integration and operation of the batteries," says Sinz.


Tailor-made crash test rig

The team has developed and built its own test rigs with tailor-made 
measuring and sensor technology for a variety of crash scenarios for 
batteries and their components in the Institute's own crash test hall: 
"A unique experimental setup which can yield high-quality measuring data 
and findings from among the entire, highly complex procedures which 
usually only take milliseconds to complete," says Sinz. On top of this 
come numerical calculation methods and simulations to help better 
understand the multi-physical processes involved. This should result in 
a comprehensive knowledge of the behaviour of traction batteries under 
crash loads in order to better integrate them in relevant vehicle 
concepts. This knowledge can be used to recognise early on critical 
states in batteries during development and in operation and to avoid 
them through specific measures. Furthermore, cell manufacturers are 
interested in precise requirement specifications. "Using the results 
obtained, we want to contribute to achieving more leeway in range and 
vehicle design while always guaranteeing safety," summarises Sinz.


A look at future generations

Another focus of the project is that, together with the Institute of 
Chemistry and Technology of Materials, not only state-of-the-art 
lithium-ion batteries with liquid electrolytes will be investigated, but 
also next-generation lithium batteries with all solid state 
electrolytes. "What interests us here is whether the coming generation 
of drive batteries simply no longer has the failings of the current 
systems or whether they'll have new or different vulnerabilities," says 
Wolfgang Sinz.


The partners in the K-project "SafeBattery" of the COMET programme are 
AVL List GmbH, SFL technology GmbH, Kreisel Electric GmbH, Steyr Motors 
GmbH, Audi AG, Daimler AG and Porsche AG. From academia, the Virtual 
Vehicle competence centre and Institute for Chemistry and Technology of 
Materials are assisting the Institute of Vehicle 

[EVDL] Design News: GM to Produce 20 New Electric Cars by 2023

2017-10-04 Thread len moskowitz via EV

https://www.designnews.com/automotive-0/gm-produce-20-new-electric-cars-2023/112631672857573


-

GM to Produce 20 New Electric Cars by 2023



Future GM battery-electric vehicles will include coupes, sedans, 
crossovers, SUVs and possibly even pickup trucks.


By: Charles MurrayAutomotiveSustainability, Electronics & TestOctober 
03, 2017


General Motors raised the stakes in the auto industry’s ongoing 
competition to build more affordable, long-range electric cars this 
week, announcing it would roll out two more all-new EVs in the next 18 
months, and 20 more by 2023.



The giant automaker said that the first two vehicles will be “based off 
learnings from the Chevrolet Bolt EV.” The others will include coupes, 
sedans, crossovers, and SUVs. GM told Design News that it would also not 
rule out the possibility of a pickup truck. To underscore its effort, GM 
released a photo including eight different vehicles silhouetted 
underneath drapes, clearly exhibiting different sizes and shapes. The 
silhouetted figures represent the array of pure, battery-powered cars 
that the company will release in the next five-and-a-half years, all 
designed from the ground, up.


“The Bolt EV was the first, affordable, long-range all-electric 
vehicle,” said GM spokesman Kevin Kelly. “We’ve cracked the code. We 
know how to do it.”



GM’s statement comes at a time when much of the entrenched auto industry 
seems as if it is racing to make bigger and bigger announcements about 
electric cars. Today, Ford Motor Co. said it has formed an internal 
unit, called Team Edison, whose charter it is to accelerate development 
of electric vehicles, while forging partnerships with other auto 
manufacturers and suppliers. Similarly, Toyota Motor Corp. said last 
Thursday that it is teaming with Mazda Motor Corp. and with supplier 
Denso Corp. to “jointly develop basic structural technologies for 
electric vehicles.”



The announcements provide a broad signal that traditional automakers 
have accepted electrification, but it’s still clear that most of them 
are unsure how fast it will take place. Industry analysts, such as 
Navigant Research , have predicted that approximately 4% of vehicles 
sold worldwide in 2025 will be battery-electric. Other analysts, 
however, have forecast figures in excess of 20%.



“If you try to guess anything out to about 2030, your crystal ball will 
be pretty fuzzy,” Kelly told us.


Analysts today acknowledged that no one’s sure whether consumers, even 
the younger ones, will embrace pure electric cars. “Engineers are 
starting to see a pathway to electrification that maybe they didn’t see 
until recently,” noted Brett Smith, program director for the Center for 
Automotive Research (CAR). “The question is whether it’s just that the 
technology is advancing, or if it’s because the companies need to make 
these statements so they don’t get left behind on the public relations 
front.”



At CAR’s Management Briefings Seminars in August, many industry 
executives expressed skepticism about the near-term future for pure 
electric cars, Smith said. In 2016, only 0.4% of the new vehicles sold 
in the US were battery-electric. Even the much-publicized Chevy Bolt has 
turned lukewarm numbers, with just 11,670 sold through August, according 
to InsideEVs.



Smith said that part of the motivation for the recent spate of 
announcements is the industry’s need to keep up with Tesla, Inc. “Tesla 
has changed the game,” he noted. “In the past, the auto industry never 
talked about future product. Now, though, they realize they have to play 
the long-term game.”



(Senior technical editor Chuck Murray has been writing about technology 
for 33 years. He joined Design News in 1987, and has covered 
electronics, automation, fluid power, and auto.)

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[EVDL] ECN: Travel 200 Miles On Six-Min Charge With New Electric Car Battery (Toshiba)

2017-10-10 Thread len moskowitz via EV

https://www.ecnmag.com/blog/2017/10/travel-200-miles-six-min-charge-new-electric-car-battery

-

Last week, Toshiba announced advancements in its Super Charge ion 
Battery (SCiBTM) design. The new battery tech will double the capacity 
of the anode, offer high-energy density, and support ultra-rapid 
recharging. According to Toshiba, the driving range will triple current 
standards, allowing compact electric vehicles (EVs) to travel almost 200 
miles (320 km) after six minutes of ultra-rapid recharging.


The company launched SCiBTM back in 2008. The current version uses 
lithium titanium oxide as its anode. For the newest iteration, titanium 
niobium oxide acts as the anode material. This change “has double the 
lithium storage capacity by volume of the graphite-based anodes 
generally used in lithium-ion batteries,” according to Toshiba.



“We are very excited by the potential of the new titanium niobium oxide 
anode and the next-generation SCiBTM,” says Toshiba’s Director of 
Corporate Research & Development Center Dr. Osamu Hori.


To develop the design, Toshiba put a 50-Ah prototype through a series of 
strenuous tests. Those trials confirmed it upholds safety, rapid 
recharging, long life cycle, and low-temperature operation of the 
current model.



After 5,000 charge/discharge cycles, the next-gen battery sustains over 
90 percent of its initial capacity. The new design is also proficient in 
the cold, demonstrating ultra-rapid recharging in ten minutes at 
temperatures as low as 14 degrees Fahrenheit (-10 degrees Celsius).



“Rather than an incremental improvement, this is a game changing advance 
that will make a significant difference to the range and performance of 
EV. We will continue to improve the battery’s performance and aim to put 
the next-generation SCiBTM into practical application in fiscal year 
2019,” Dr. Hori adds.


With a 2019 commercialization goal, Toshiba aims to continue development 
on EV range-extending technologies. Until then, check out the designs 
projected improvements in the chart below, courtesy of Toshiba.


[Graphic]
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[EVDL] In NJ: New 2017 Nissan Leafs for $15k

2017-08-29 Thread len moskowitz via EV
This morning I received an email from our local electric power utility 
(PSE) announcing a $10,000 rebate program with Nissan dealers in NJ. 
It allows us to buy a new Leaf for $15,000 (after the $7,500 US tax 
rebate).


https://pseg.mypreferencecenter.com/Global/EmailView?eventId=d7be454f-1a5f-42aa-a017-f66db79c2a7d


Len Moskowitz
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[EVDL] Design News: "Build It and They Will Come" Doesn’t Apply to EVs

2018-04-27 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

An OpEd

The real culprit in the emissions debate continues to be consumer 
apathy.


https://www.designnews.com/electronics-test/op-ed-build-it-and-they-will-come-doesn-t-apply-evs/99265535458645

-

Op-Ed: "Build It and They Will Come" Doesn’t Apply to EVs
The real culprit in the emissions debate continues to be consumer 
apathy.

By:
Charles Murray
Electronics & Test
Automotive
April 27, 2018

The Trump Administration’s rollback of emission regulations may be the 
auto industry’s raging debate of the moment, but the economic forces 
underlying it are as old as the electric car itself.


If, by now, electric vehicles were selling the way they were supposed 
to, Barack Obama’s 2009 mandate would look like pure genius. And Donald 
Trump wouldn’t need to talk rollbacks.


You won’t hear that, of course, in any of the mountain of newspaper 
editorials urging automakers to ignore the EPA’s new direction (here and 
here and here). Most of the editorialists contend that the automakers 
want the regulations. And they quote them as saying so. “We continue to 
support increasing car standards through 2025 and we have not asked for 
a rollback,” Ford Motor Co. is quoted as saying in numerous articles. 
“Regardless of the standards, we remain committed to improving fuel 
economy, reducing emissions, and an all-electric future,” General Motors 
says.


Strange, then, that the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, which 
represents Ford, General Motors, Toyota, Volkswagen, and eight more of 
the world’s biggest automakers, takes such a contrary stance. On the day 
of the EPA’s announcement, the Alliance called it “the right decision.” 
“We appreciate that the Administration is working to find a way to both 
increase fuel economy standards and keep new vehicles affordable to more 
Americans,” the Alliance wrote in a press release.


To know what automakers are really thinking, it’s best to examine some 
of the federal documentation. In the Mid-Term Evaluation Final 
Determination, commenters referred to “flagging consumer demand” for 
electric vehicles. The group Global Automakers—which includes such 
members as Honda, Nissan, Kia, Hyundai, and Toyota—referred to a 
“misalignment between the increasing stringency of the standards and the 
decreasing demand for fuel efficiency.”


The looming 54.5 mpg goal

The crux of the argument lies in the estimates of what it will take to 
reach the 54.5 mpg target. Under the Obama Administration, government 
regulators estimated that manufacturers could hit the 2025 targets with 
fleets that included 3% hybrids and 4% plug-ins. Automakers argued they 
would need about five times that many. Even Nissan, which bravely rolled 
out the Leaf EV in 2011, has challenged the government numbers. In a 
comment, Nissan wrote, “Higher penetration of advanced technology 
vehicles than originally estimated by EPA and NHTSA is needed to achieve 
GHG (greenhouse gas) and CAFE (corporate average fuel economy) goals.”


The thought of building 35% electric strikes terror in the hearts of 
automakers—especially now. In 2017, approximately 1% of the vehicles 
sold in the US were plug-ins. About half of those were pure electric. 
Building a high percentage of electrics and then having them sit unsold 
is, understandably, a nightmare for manufacturers.


GM plans to roll out 20 new electric vehicles by 2023. (Image source: 
General Motors)


None of this, of course, is taken into account when editorialists weigh 
in. Absent from the newspaper discussions is any mention of cost-benefit 
analysis. How, for example, does a 54.5-mpg mandate differ from, say, a 
40-mpg mandate in tons of atmospheric CO2 emitted? Does 54.5 differ from 
40-mpg in the effect on vehicle cost for the average consumer? Or from 
45 mpg? We’re not told that.


In truth, most such editorial conclusions are reached on the basis of a 
simple premise: Gasoline, dirty; electricity, clean. By logical 
extension then, any and all proposals would seem eligible to solve the 
problem—75 mpg, 100 mpg, or even a sweeping all-electric mandate.


But what automakers really want right now is help from the government in 
selling electrified cars. They like the $7,500 federal tax credit. And 
they like state support. As Nissan writes, “Continued governmental 
efforts to expand the EV market are, thus, essential to complement the 
efforts already in place by EV industry leaders such as Nissan.”


What they don’t want is a mandate to mass produce cars that consumers 
still find too costly.


And, yes, cost matters hugely in this discussion. A case in point: A 
recent Chicago Tribune review praised the Tesla Model 3, while 
acknowledging that it cost $51,500, as tested. Fair enough. But would 
the average American (household income of $59,000 a year) choose that 
Model 3 over a Honda Accord, Toyota Camry, or Chevy Malibu that cost 
$25,000? Even if you removed the frills, applied the tax credit, and 
changed the differential to $7,000, would 

Re: [EVDL] Sparrow alternate?

2018-05-13 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

http://www.amperemotor.com/

And another, from Sondors:

https://electrek.co/2017/12/01/sondors-3-wheel-1-dollar-ev/


Len Moskowitz



On Sun, May 13, 2018 at 09:34 PM, Gary Krysztopik via EV wrote:

It looks like the Ampere out of LA.  They got a boost on Shark Tank. 
I

hope to visit them next week.

On Sun, May 13, 2018 at 8:47 AM, John Lussmyer via EV wrote:

Anyone heard of this before?  I have trouble believing that it's a 
real

vehicle that's been developed in total secrecy, AND that's it's cheap
(relatively).
https://www.hammacher.com/Product/13338

--
Tigers prowl and Dragons soar in my dreams...
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[EVDL] Desgn News: Here’s a Look at Audi e-Tron’s Big New Battery (95-kWh, 150 kW/80% Charging in 30 minutes)

2018-05-11 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

Here’s a Look at Audi e-Tron’s Big New Battery
Long range and fast charging are the keys to enabling the e-Tron to 
compete in the growing electric crossover segment.


https://www.designnews.com/electronics-test/here-s-look-audi-e-tron-s-big-new-battery

-

Fast charging is e-Tron’s claim to fame. Despite its 95-kWh 
capacity, the battery can be charged through a 150-kW DC fast charger in 
as little as 30 minutes at commercial stations. Home charging can be 
accomplished in 8.5 hours from a 230 V AC household outlet. By employing 
a second, on-board charger with the 230 V line, charge time can be 
reduced to 4.5 hours. The second on-board charger will be available as 
an option in 2019. (Image source: Audi AG)


Audi’s new e-Tron crossover utility vehicle is one of the most 
highly anticipated introductions in the electric market, largely due to 
its emphasis on battery technology.


The e-Tron, Audi’s first-ever all-electric, asks a lot of its 
battery. Because the e-Tron is a rather large luxury vehicle, it needs a 
big battery with lots of range and power, as well as speedy recharge.


“We have three main goals for the battery: long range, safety, and 
a 150-kW charging function,” Benedikt Still of Audi told Design News 
last week. “And we were able to do the fast charging because of the 
sophisticated thermal management system we created to cool the battery 
down.”


Indeed, Audi is the first to offer 150-kW charging. That number 
gives it a faster charge rate than the Tesla Supercharger (135 kW) and 
the newly announced Jaguar i-Pace (100 kW), enabling it to reach 80% 
charge in as little as 30 minutes at a commercial station.


The e-Tron’s battery is significant for the electric car community 
because it addresses the looming issue of charge time. With batteries 
growing bigger, charge time is becoming more important for electric car 
manufacturers.


Here, we offer a peek at the e-Tron’s new battery. To see its 
innovations in charging, cooling, and safety, flip through the following 
slides. (Image source: Audi AG)


-

Len Moskowitz
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Re: [EVDL] Lots of 12v lithium batteries available.

2018-05-24 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV
Lawrence: Do you have any suggestions for our old VW Jetta conversion? 
It currently uses ten 115 Ah Group 27DC lead-acids.



Len Moskowitz

-

On Thu, May 24, 2018 at 05:19 AM, Lawrence Rhodes via EV wrote:

There are starting to be a lot of safe lithium, lead form factor, 
replacements on the market.  This might be a way to restore old 
electric scooters and conversions.  You might be able to use your old 
battery racks.  Get a bit more range than they had as lead sleds.  
Another benefit is many have good BMS so battery balancers are not 
needed. Worst case is batteries might have to be charged separately 
once in a while. That being said maybe it's a good idea to always 
charge them separately. A balanced pack is a happy pack.   Lawrence 
Rhodes

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Re: [EVDL] Lots of 12v lithium batteries available.

2018-05-24 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV
Thanks Jerry, but I'd like to keep the lead-acid form factor and use the 
existing charger.


Len M.

-
On Thu, May 24, 2018 at 12:30 PM, jerry freedomev wrote:



   Hi Len and All,
   2  5kwh,  120vdc nom  Volt modules would by far be the best, 
lowest cost solution.  And for charging just add an HB404 wthr meter and 
a contactor to cut the voltage off at fully charged using your present 
charger likely.
   Each take about the same space as 2.5 of your 12vdc lead 
batteries.  And cost $1500-$2300 buying modules, not much more than 
lead, less than premium lead.
   Since 2 modules will put out 2k amps and weigh much less, 
lead EVs  I've sold them for nicely  increase both range and pickup even 
with the same rated kwh.   And one can add another module or 2 for more 
range.
 My rebuild of my EV trike pickup into the subcar it was 
suppose to be  I'll put 2 5kwh modules in it for about 120 mile range.  
Could put in 250 miles worth.

 Jerry Dycus



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[EVDL] Design News: Tesla's Elon Musk and Fiat's Sergio Marchionne Have a Lot in Common

2018-05-30 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

https://www.designnews.com/electronics-test/op-ed-elon-musk-and-sergio-marchionne-have-lot-common/51044819658824


-



Tesla CEO Elon Musk is learning what Fiat's Sergio Marchionne already 
knew:
Squeezing profit from an entry-level electric vehicle is a monumental 
task that

requires a great deal of patience.


---


[Photo] Last week, Elon Musk (right) tweeted that shipping $35,000 
versions of the Model 3 right now would cause Tesla to “lose money & 
die.” (Image source: Wikipedia/ By Steve Jurvetson). In 2014, FCA 
chairman Sergio Marchionne (right) said about his Fiat 500e: “I hope you 
don’t buy it because every time I sell one, it costs me $14,000.” (Image 
source: Wikipedia/from Dgtmedia)





Many lessons can be learned from Elon Musk’s recent tweets about the 
trials and tribulations of the Model 3 electric car, but the main one is 
this: Musk and Sergio Marchionne have a lot in common.


Musk’s most revealing tweet occurred last week, when he said that 
shipping $35,000 versions of the “affordable” Model 3 right now would 
cause Tesla to “lose money & die.” He added that he needs three to six 
months after reaching production levels of 3,000 to 5,000 cars a week, 
just for Tesla to stay alive.


As if those words weren’t shocking enough, Musk also announced that 
Tesla has hatched a plan to market a souped-up, $78,000 version of the 
Model 3. The underlying plan is for Tesla to sell higher-priced versions 
of the Model 3 until it can make ends meet with the $35,000 models. This 
would be accomplished by boosting performance and adding such features 
as bigger battery packs, automated driving capabilities, glitzy wheels, 
and colors other than black. Only after that could the company begin 
delivering lower-cost versions to the 400,000-plus customers who have 
plunked down $1,000 deposits over the past few years.


Not surprisingly, Musk’s tweets weren’t met with a lot of happiness—even 
among the media that has helped hype the company for the past decade. In 
a typical headline, the Los Angeles Times called the Model 3 
unaffordable for the masses. Similarly, US News & World Report ran a 
story saying that Tesla lost $14,000 on each of the Model 3s it 
delivered (based on an average sales price of $54,000) in the first 
quarter of 2018.


The Old Reality

In essence, Musk’s comments aren’t much different from those of Sergio 
Marchionne, the plain-spoken chairman and CEO of Fiat Chrysler 
Automobiles (FCA). In 2014, Marchionne made this blunt statement about 
the little Fiat 500e electric car:  "I hope you don't buy it because 
every time I sell one, it costs me $14,000."


Marchionne was, of course, heavily criticized for his comment. But the 
criticism seldom mentioned the fact that Marchionne recognized the 
inevitability of electrification. He frequently said that as emission 
standards were tightened, the auto industry would naturally gravitate 
toward a combination of combustion and electrics. Under his leadership, 
Chrysler even launched its effort to build the Pacifica plug-in hybrid 
minivan.The lesson here is that Marchionne’s reality was not much 
different than the reality now facing Elon Musk. And that same reality 
is shared by the rest of the auto industry, which has long known that 
the entry-level market would be a tough nut to crack for the electric 
car. In fact, the auto industry has known for decades that all small 
cars—even those with internal combustion engines—exist on razor-thin 
profit margins.


Somehow, though, that reality has managed to elude much of the public, 
the media, and even Wall Street. That’s why Tesla’s market cap is so 
absurdly high. Today, Tesla’s market value is about $450,000 per car 
sold—about 16 times that of BMW and 90 times that of GM.


What this means is that investors have showered money on Tesla, largely 
because of its vision of the future. And—let’s be honest here—that 
assumption is based on the fact that Tesla is a Silicon Valley company 
led by a genius, whereas the conventional auto industry is characterized 
as a Midwest, Rust Belt industry with one foot firmly planted in the 
past.


The corollary to this assumption is that Silicon Valley knows how to 
quickly drive the cost out of new technology and will do so in batteries 
and electric cars. In 2010, The New York Times even explained this in an 
article that introduced the concept of “Moore’s Law for Electric Cars.”


Which, of course, is ridiculous. Gordon Moore’s famous “law” applies to 
semiconductor chips, not to batteries and not to cars. The cost of 
electrics is never, ever going to drop the way semiconductor chips did 
for 40 years.


Detroit knows this and so does Musk. But the public doesn’t, which is 
why the concept seems to linger.


The irony now is that the viewpoints of the two sides are converging. 
Detroit (which has brilliant engineers, too) now knows what Musk has 
taught—that there’s a market for electric cars in the luxury sector. And 
Musk is 

[EVDL] Design News: Power Out Of Thin Air: Wireless Charging of Elecrtic Buses Proves Its Worth

2018-05-02 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

https://www.designnews.com/electronics-test/power-out-thin-air/153947192358622

-
Power Out Of Thin Air
Wireless charging of electric buses proves its worth

By: Kevin Clemens
Electronics & TestBattery/Energy Storage, Sustainability, Automotive, 
Automotive and Mobility

May 01, 2018


One of the ongoing debates about the general acceptance of electric 
vehicles (EVs) is the need for wireless charging. Proponents of such 
systems point to the ability to park over a pad embedded in a parking 
spot and pick up 20-30 miles of range while grocery shopping. They say 
that this so-called "opportunity charging" helps to reduce range 
anxiety, making EVs more attractive. If you put the same charging pad in 
your garage, you simply park over it at night and the car automatically 
adds the electricity needed for the next day’s commute.


The convenience of wireless charging comes with a price tag, however. 
Wireless charging adds a need for costly equipment both in the home 
garage and onboard an already expensive electric vehicle. Current owners 
of EVs find that remembering to plug in their charger at night is a 
small price to pay for never having to stop at a gas station. They 
always have a full “tank” in the morning.


Wireless charging an EV works in a similar way to wirelessly charging a 
cell phone. Electricity is transferred from the coil in the charger on 
the ground to a coil located on the bottom of the vehicle through 
induction. It is important that the coils are parallel and closely 
aligned to one another. The air gap between the coils is also critical 
(4-6 inches is typical). If everything lines up properly, charging 
efficiencies for inductive charging can be as high as 85-90 percent.


One application where wireless charging can show real advantages is with 
heavy vehicles—and most particularly city buses. A Pennsylvania company, 
Momentum Dynamics, has just announced the commissioning of a 
200-kilowatt wireless charging system for a bus fleet in Wenatchee, 
Washington. The system is operational on a BYD K95 electric bus operated 
by Link Transit.


The 200-kilowatt charger adds enough energy to the bus battery during a 
five minute stop to allow it to complete another route cycle. The 
charging system is embedded into the pavement at a Link Transit transfer 
station stop. Each time the BYD bus parks over the charger, its battery 
is automatically recharged.
“The simplicity along with the seamless charging allows Link Transit to 
operate all of our urban service routes continuously without the need 
for midday charging,” said Todd Daniel, Technology Manager for Link in a 
press release. “Link is planning to expand this technology for our 
longer rural routes in the near future, which will assist in the 
agency’s goal of 100% fleet electrification,” he added.


The technology involved has proven to be quite adaptable. “On this BYD 
bus, the distance between the charging coil mounted flush with the 
cement and the vehicle coil is approximately 7 inches,” Ben Cohen, vice 
president of engineering for Momentum, told Design News. That distance 
is typical for low-floor municipal buses, but can vary up to a distance 
of 12 inches on other types of vehicles. Cohen reported that the overall 
charging efficiency is 92%. Almost all of those losses were from the 
power electronics—virtually no losses were coming from the wireless 
power transfer.


The cost of the Momentum Dynamics wireless equipment is similar to the 
cost of equipment on the vehicle used for fast DC charging. Cohen told 
Design News that those costs are dramatically affected by product 
volume. The company is also working on a larger 300-kilowatt wireless 
charger that should be available in 2019. By next year, Momentum also 
plans to have rolled out wireless charging to several other bus lines in 
the US and Europe.


Senior Editor Kevin Clemens has been writing about energy, automotive, 
and transportation topics for more than 30 years. He has masters degrees 
in Materials Engineering and Environmental Education and a doctorate 
degree in Mechanical Engineering, specializing in aerodynamics. He has 
set several world land speed records on electric motorcycles that he 
built in his workshop.


-

Len Moskowitz
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[EVDL] Design News: Should You Buy a Used Electric Vehicle?

2018-04-19 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

https://www.designnews.com/electronics-test/14-pre-owned-electric-vehicle-models-affordable-way-electrify

14 Pre-owned Electric Vehicle Models: An Affordable Way To Electrify
Electric vehicles are reliable and have low maintenance costs—are these 
good reasons to buy a used one?

-

We are on the cusp of the second wave of battery electric vehicles 
(EVs). Models coming out now and in the next couple years are larger and 
more mainstream than the EVs that came earlier. They also will be 
capable of much longer range: 250 to 300 miles on a charge. But what of 
those early attempts at electrification from the first wave? Many of 
them are available on the used market—often for surprisingly low prices.


Before the arrival of the Nissan Leaf in 2011, the battery 
electric-vehicle (EV) market was almost non-existent. The Leaf and the 
Chevrolet Volt proved to be a vanguard of what was to follow. Some 
automakers sold EVs that were designed solely to comply with the 
California regulations, which required that car makers offer a 
percentage of their fleet with zero emissions. Yet others embraced the 
idea that electrification might be the future. The EVs built in that 
first wave, between 2011 and 2016, were typically small, expensive, and 
had a range of 60-100 miles on a charge.


Risk

Buying a used car is always a risk—even with good documentation and 
service records, it is still hard to know how well a vehicle has been 
maintained and whether it has been abused. The good news about used 
electric vehicles is that EVs, with fewer moving parts than traditional 
gasoline-powered vehicles, have been shown to be mechanically robust and 
reliable, requiring little beyond routine maintenance. In addition, 
because of their limited range, they often have accumulated quite low 
mileage for their year, another positive.


But there is a sword hanging over any used EV: the battery pack. 
The condition of the lithium-ion battery pack that powers EVs of this 
period depends enormously on how it has been treated during its 
lifetime. Repeated fast charging, completely depleting the battery, or 
operation at hot or cold temperature extremes can result in a battery 
pack with reduced capability when compared to when it was new. Just 
normal aging of a pack can result in a reduction of around 5% capacity 
per year. Many car makers placed warranties on their battery packs, 
typically 8 years or 100,000 miles, but some early EVs on the used 
market are nearing that age limit. So the range quoted for a new EV in 
2015 may not be reached by a used EV in 2018 with an aging pack.


Good News

There are two bits of good news for those contemplating a used EV. 
The cost of lithium-ion batteries has fallen dramatically, from well 
over $1000 per kilowatt-hour (kW) just a few years ago to around $200 
per kWh today. Secondly, there has grown up a cottage industry of 
specialists who can rejuvenate a used EV pack, replacing malfunctioning 
cells and returning them to nearly new capacity. There are also some 
aftermarket computer tools available to assess to condition of a pack. 
Suffice it to say that any buyer of a used EV should do their homework 
before considering such a purchase.


To examine the prices of some available used EVs, Design News 
reached out to Kelly Blue Book (KBB) to provide current used car prices. 
KBB is an industry standard for reliable used car pricing. We chose to 
price our cars as if they were in Very Good condition and if we were 
buying from a private party. The prices when buying from a used car 
dealer might be slightly higher. We reported the current used price for 
the first year a vehicle was available, the used price for a 2017 model 
of the vehicle or the last year it was available, and the new vehicle 
price (MSRP from KBB) for the last year it was available, or for 2018 if 
the vehicle is still available.


We also included a few plug-in hybrids in our list. These vehicles 
allow some electric-only range using a battery pack that is charged at 
home and then resort to a gasoline engine to produce a longer range. Car 
companies looked at plug-in hybrids as a way to address the “range 
anxiety” that was present when EVs only had a range of 60-100 miles on a 
charge.


With prices that range from less than $5,000 to more than $60,000, 
here are some used EVs to consider.


 Photo: 2011 Chevrolet Volt (Image source: Chevrolet)

Nissan Leaf SL (2011-2017)

Nissan was one of the first of the major car companies out of the 
gate, into production with its all-electric Leaf in 2011. Since that 
time, the company has sold more than 300,000 Leafs, making it the 
biggest-selling EV in the world. The Leaf is easy to drive, reasonably 
comfortable, and well-made. As long as you don’t drive more than 70-100 
miles in a day, a used Leaf would make a fine commuter car. The larger 
30 kWh battery pack arrived in 2016, but there have been questions about 

[EVDL] ECN Magazine: Taking Lithium-Ion Batteries To New Extremes

2018-10-08 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV
A passive, low-cost, effective, thermal regulator for Li-ion batteries, 
using shape memory alloy.



https://www.ecnmag.com/news/2018/10/taking-lithium-ion-batteries-new-extremes


-


Just like Goldilocks and her proverbial porridge, lithium-ion batteries 
(LIBs) perform best when the temperature range is just right—that is, 
neither too hot nor too cold. But this is a huge limiting factor when it 
comes to using LIBs in electric vehicles (EVs) in many locales where 
temperatures vary widely. LIBs perform poorly in extremes of heat or 
cold, and this is one roadblock preventing a transition to the wider use 
of EVs. As the authors of the study to follow note, "out of the 51 
metropolitan areas in the United States, 20 areas normally experience 
extreme cold days below –18° C (0° F ) while the summertime temperatures 
in 11 areas (including overlaps with the former 20) routinely exceed 38° 
C (100° F)." Similar temperature variations certainly exist throughout 
major urban areas worldwide, and likewise represent a barrier to the 
uptake of EVs as a potential renewable energy transport solution.


In a recent paper published in Nature Energy, however, a group of UC 
Berkeley researchers report a novel invention that promises to 
effectively mitigate the effects of thermal extremes when used with 
LIBs. Their paper, entitled "Efficient thermal management of Li-ion 
batteries with a passive interfacial thermal regulator based on a shape 
memory alloy," details the contemporary operational landscape of LIBs in 
relation to ambient temperature variations in various locales, but also 
with regard to other confounding factors, such as newer fast charging 
and discharing batteries, which further complicate heat management 
strategies. They note that traditional linear thermal components 
typically fail to manage both extremes of hot and cold, and other 
potential solutions, such as controlled fluid loops, do not provide a 
high enough ON/OFF contrast, not to mention cost and weight 
considerations when used with EVs. Their solution is "a fluid-free, 
passive thermal regulator that stabilizes battery temperature in both 
hot and cold extreme environments. Without any power supply or logic, 
the thermal regulator switches its thermal conductance according to the 
local battery temperature and delivers the desirable thermal 
functionality, retaining heat when it is cold and facilitating cooling 
when it is hot."



To achieve this effect, their passive thermal regulator design draws on 
two key nonlinear features from existing thermal regulator concepts. The 
first of these features, solid-state phase change, exhibits good 
abruptness in response to temperature change, but fails to achieve an 
adequately high switching ratio (SR)—that is, the ON/OFF state thermal 
conductance ratio—which is the prime performance metric for thermal 
regulators. The second feature, the opening and closing of a thermal 
interface, has a much higher SR but relies on the differential thermal 
expansion between two materials. When the interface gap between 
materials is closed, it exhibits strong nonlinear thermal conductance. 
However, because the thermal expansion effect is relatively weak here, 
this design requires an unduly large thermal regulator body to 
accomplish the opening and closing of the gap.


As complicated as the preceding examples may sound, their solution—which 
embodies aspects of both solid-state phase change and interfacial 
thermal contact conductance—is remarkably simple. To achieve their 
design goals, the study authors rely on a shape memory alloy (SMA) made 
from Nitinol, a flexible nickel /titatnium alloy wire which is routed 
around the periphery of a top thermal regulator plate, on which sit the 
LIBs. The ends of the SMA wire, one corresponding to each corner of the 
thermal regulator, connect with a bottom heat-sinking plate, known as a 
thermal interface material (TIM). The top and bottom plates are held in 
opposition by a set of four bias springs, which create a 0.5 mm air gap 
between the top and bottom plates and also hold the SMA wire in a state 
of tension. This defines the thermal-insulative OFF state.


As the battery heats up, the SMA, due to a undergoing phase 
transformation, begins to contract and pull the two plates closer. 
Thermal conductance is very low until the two plates touch, at which 
point the force of the contracting wire is greater than the opposing 
force of the bias spring, and the TIM plate (bottom) contacts the 
thermal regulator plate holding the batteries (top), and begins 
dissipating heat; this situation defines the ON state. The prototypal 
model described here encapuslates the essence of the passive interfacial 
thermal regulator.


To validate the fundamentals of this concept with regard to the SMA wire 
and the bias springs, the study authors built a model and tested it in a 
vacuum chamber, using two thermocoupled stainless steel bars as a heat 
source and a heat 

[EVDL] Entrepreneur Magazine: Police Catch Tesla Autopilot Driving Home Sleeping Drunk

2018-12-03 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/324225
-

 Police Catch Tesla Autopilot Driving Home Sleeping Drunk
It took the police officers in two vehicles seven minutes to outsmart 
Tesla's Autopilot system.


One day in the not too distant future, sleeping at the wheel will become 
commonplace because we'll all be traveling around in autonomous 
vehicles. However, in 2018 that's not the case, even if Tesla Autopilot 
is capable of driving a drunk man home.


As HotHardware reports, California Highway Patrol officers recently 
spotted a Tesla Model S driving south on Highway 101 with what looked to 
be a person asleep behind the wheel. Sure enough, when officers looked 
more closely they discovered a man who was both asleep and unresponsive. 
That man was 45-year-old Alexander Samek, a Los Altos planning 
commissioner, and he was drunk.


Tesla's Autopilot is quite an advanced autonomous driving aid, but it's 
not fully-autonomous and requires an alert driver behind the wheel at 
all times. Samek had decided in his drunken state to entrust his drive 
home to Tesla's system and clearly relaxed a little too much during the 
journey.


The problem officers had when they couldn't wake Samek was how to go 
about stopping the car. In the end it took two patrol cars around seven 
minutes to bring it to a halt. First the officers slowed traffic down 
behind the vehicle to create a gap, then one patrol vehicle drove in 
front of the car while the other drove behind and slowly lowered their 
speed. In the end, the Model S was brought to a standstill in the middle 
of the highway thinking it was stuck in a traffic jam.


Samek was then woken up with some loud knocks on the driver's side door. 
He was asked to carry out a field sobriety test and then promptly 
arrested. If this is Samek's first DUI then he faces up to six months in 
jail, fines and penalties of up to $1,000, and a potential six month 
license suspension. However, he may also face additional charges because 
he was asleep at the wheel which may count as reckless driving.




Image credit: Bloomberg | Getty Images
Matthew Humphries
Senior Editor
This story originally appeared on PCMag


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Re: [EVDL] EVLN: Supercap, ultracap, Goldcap> take the plunge

2019-02-25 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

Trim off everything "?" and everything after it:


			 
https://uk.farnell.com/cornell-dubilier/cdlc302p2r7lr/ultracapacitor3000f2-7v0

-00026/dp/2113245


Len Moskowitz


-


On Mon, Feb 25, 2019 at 04:19 PM, EVDL Administrator via EV wrote:


On 25 Feb 2019 at 19:59, Paul Compton via EV wrote:



https://uk.farnell.com/cornell-dubilier/cdlc302p2r7lr/ultracapacitor3000f2-7v0

-00026/dp/2113245?pf=110449709=PB3yvz0V97AaURYuqm4eafN2ZyPF9iml7r7lB73M

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%2BaMaFdKqPysCkA51aTdGlxoAf23DHyM05fCwyQ0L2dXb0yrhKmffugIyAWPZ9gp6EW%2Fx4UMy7

VcJOkQbWEtWtoyfw%3D%3D=https%3Aen-GB%2FElement14_United_Kingdom%2Fc%2Fp

assive-components%2Fcapacitors%2Fsupercap-ultracap-double-layer-capacitors


What the Sam Hill is THAT?
It would be interesting to see the examples cited, but I don't have 
enough years of life left that I'm willing to invest the amount of my 
time I'd need to re-assemble that hideous url and find the page.


EV folks share links, just as you tried to do here.  That's their 
nature.   Cornell Dubilier's broken website effectively makes link 
sharing impossible. I sure hope their engineers and chemists are more 
competent than their web designers.


David Roden - Akron, Ohio, USA
EVDL Administrator

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EVDL Information: http://www.evdl.org/help/
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Note: mail 
sent to "evpost" and "etpost" addresses will not reach me.  To send a 
private message, please obtain my email address from the webpage 
http://www.evdl.org/help/ .

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[EVDL] Design News: The Top-Ten-Selling Electric Cars

2019-03-05 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

https://www.designnews.com/electronics-test/top-ten-selling-electric-cars


-

When it comes to electric cars, there’s a disconnect. In polls, 
Americans have repeatedly said they see EVs as the future. But with 
their wallets, they’re saying something else.


A recent poll by Harris Insight & Analytics and Volvo Group, for 
example, revealed that 74% of Americans see electric vehicles as the 
future of driving. Last year, however, US sales of battery-electric 
vehicles reached just 258,000 units – about 1.5% of the national total. 
The sales numbers highlighted a woeful disparity between what Americans 
say in polls, and what they will actually buy.


To be sure, the EV sales numbers are rising. And this year, a contingent 
of electric crossovers from Hyundai, Kia, and Jaguar will hit the 
streets, with Ford not far behind. So there may be light at the end of 
the tunnel.


Here, we’ve collected photos of the top-ten-selling electric vehicles in 
the US. The numbers and photos tell a story about the hard realities of 
the automotive market. They show that the best of those EVs – all from 
Tesla – are making in-roads. But beyond the market’s hearty support for 
Tesla, EV sales figures are still lackluster.


We invite you to click through the following slides and tell us what you 
think. Are you ready to make your next vehicle purchase an EV?



---
The top-selling electric car of 2018 was, by far, the Tesla Model 3. 
Total US sales reached 139,782 units, placing it more than 100,000 ahead 
of any other EV. To be sure, the Model 3 had its challenges -- the 
biggest being Tesla’s struggle to cut the entry-level price down to the 
promised figure of $35,000. But that didn’t stop it from recording 
amazing sales figure in the second half of 2018. Sales rocketed from 
5,900 in June to 17,800 in August to a high of 22,250 in September, 
according to InsideEVs. The Model 3 offers between 220 and 310 miles of 
range at a price tag that finally dropped to $35,000 just days ago.

---
Telsa’s luxury crossover utility, the Model X, boosted its sales by 22% 
to 26,100 units in 2018, landing it in second place in US sales. But 
while that increase was impressive, the Model X still came in 113,000 
units short of its sister vehicle, the Model 3. The Model X offers room 
for seven and an all-electric range varying from 237-295 miles. Starting 
price is $82,000. (Image source: Tesla, Inc.)

---
US sales of the Tesla Model S dropped off by about 5% in 2018, taking it 
down from the top spot in 2017 to its new number three position. In a 
sense, its performance could be viewed as impressively steady, given the 
fact that the Model 3 certainly siphoned off many of its potential 
customers. The Model S features a driving range starting at 249 miles 
with an entry-level 75-kWh battery, and goes up to 335 miles with a 
100-kWh battery. Pricing starts at $76,000 and can easily top off at 
over $100,000. (Image source: Tesla, Inc.)

---
The highly-publicized Chevy Bolt still hasn’t turned big sales numbers, 
even though its reviews have been stellar. In 2018, it was the 
fourth-best-selling EV in the US, hitting a figure of 18,019, according 
to InsideEVs. Using its 60-kWh lithium-ion battery, the Bolt offers an 
EPA range of 238 miles. Starting price is $36,000.

---
The Nissan Leaf has never come close to hitting the lofty sales numbers 
that CEO Carlos Ghosn predicted for it nearly a decade ago, but it’s 
been steady. Last year its US sales climbed to 14,715, up from 11,230 in 
‘17. Currently, the Leaf is one of the most reasonably-priced EVs, 
starting at an MSRP of $29,900 for a 150-mile range. Sales are expected 
to rise this year, as Nissan rolls out the Leaf Plus, which will feature 
a longer range.

---
The BMW i3 landed sixth on the US sales list of EVs, totaling 6,117 
units. Sales notwithstanding, it’s been widely-praised for its 
impressive design. In 2015, consultant Sandy Munro of Munro & 
Associates, Inc. called it “the most significant vehicle since the Model 
T.”  The i3 features a carbon fiber body and an aluminum frame. Its 
range has increased from 81 miles in 2013 to 153 miles today. Pricing 
starts at $44,450.


---
The tiny Fiat 500e was the seventh most popular electric car in the US 
last year, totaling sales of 2,250 units. Mostly built for “compliance” 
reasons, it has never been a big seller or even a favorite within Fiat 
Chrysler. Late CEO Sergio Marchionne once notably said, “I hope you 
don’t buy it, because every time I sell one it costs me $14,000.” The 
500e features a 24-kWh battery, an 84-mile range, and an MSRP of 
$33,210.


---
Volkswagen has announced big plans and invested billions of dollars in 
electric vehicle technology, but sales of its e-Golf are still 
miniscule. Last year, e-Golf peaked at 1,354 units sold in the US, a low 
number by any standard. Still, pricing is comparatively reasonable – 
starting $31,895 for a five-seater that offers 126 miles of driving 
range.

---

[EVDL] Design News: Toyota-Panasonic Partnership Could Fuel Gradual Growth of BEVs

2019-02-01 Thread Len Moskowitz via EV

https://www.designnews.com/electronics-test/toyota-panasonic-partnership-could-fuel-gradual-growth-bevs/115062228460172

——-


Toyota is expanding on its existing relationship with Panasonic to build 
more batteries for plug-in cars.

by: Charles Murray
Electronics & TestBattery/Energy Storage 
January 30, 2019

The Toyota-Panasonic battery partnership announced last week is a clear 
sign that the giant Japanese automaker is joining the ranks of other 
mainstream manufacturers who are moving gradually toward 
battery-electric vehicles.


The announcement calls for the formation of a new battery company, 
51%-owned by Toyota Motor Corp. and 49%-owned by Panasonic Corp. The new 
company would build prismatic cells for use in hybrids (HEVs), plug-in- 
hybrids (PHEVs) and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs).


Industry analysts said that the partnership is a sign that Toyota is 
moving toward pure electrification in a bigger way. “With market forces 
pushing them in that direction in Europe and China, and to a lesser 
extent, in the US, they know they have to get more volume in 
zero-emission vehicles,” noted Sam Abuelsamid, senior analyst for 
Navigant Research. “So, yes, they’re definitely making a bigger push 
into plug-in vehicles in the next few years.”


(Use the link to see the rest of the article.)


——-

Len Moskowitz
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