### Re: [Haskell-cafe] Re: Delimited continuations: please comment

On Fri, Feb 13, 2009 at 2:05 AM, Chung-chieh Shan ccs...@post.harvard.edu wrote: ... It's not unheard of for the scheduler to react in different ways to the same system call -- I'm thinking of reading from a file, for example. Sure, I went implementing something slitghtly different to double check my understanding of delconts. You clearly understand the whole idea, and your code demonstrates it in a nice way. Oleg and I have found this programming style particularly convenient when we need to - fork processes (i.e., backtrack in the monad), - run the same processes under different schedulers (e.g., a debugger), - nest the applications of schedulers (i.e., provide virtualization). Thanks for your feedback. Cristiano ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list Haskell-Cafe@haskell.org http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### [Haskell-cafe] Re: Delimited continuations: please comment

Cristiano Paris cristiano.pa...@gmail.com wrote in article afc62ce20902120855i77acf725p1069aab21037a...@mail.gmail.com in gmane.comp.lang.haskell.cafe: In effect, this is a bit different from the syscall service routine described by Oleg, as the scheduler function reacts in different ways for subsequent calls (the first time feeds Hello!, the second one World!, in a nice monad style). Yet, I liked the separation between the scheduler and the job, which are two completely different values and which I tried to keep. It's not unheard of for the scheduler to react in different ways to the same system call -- I'm thinking of reading from a file, for example. As this is (almost) my first time using delconts, could you provide feedback, comments, opinions about my piece of code and the topic in general (convenience, performances, alternatives and so on)? You clearly understand the whole idea, and your code demonstrates it in a nice way. Oleg and I have found this programming style particularly convenient when we need to - fork processes (i.e., backtrack in the monad), - run the same processes under different schedulers (e.g., a debugger), - nest the applications of schedulers (i.e., provide virtualization). -- Edit this signature at http://www.digitas.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/ken/sig Attending a mathematics lecture is like walking through a thunderstorm at night. Most of the time you are lost, wet and miserable but at rare intervals there is a flash of lightening and the whole countryside is lit up. - Tom Koerner ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list Haskell-Cafe@haskell.org http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### Re: no continuations

In article [EMAIL PROTECTED], I wrote: I don't believe you. My implementation uses Haskell's mfix, which looks like a Y to me. I certainly don't use anything like set!. Actually, on looking at the code for my monad, it turns out I do. I spent awhile trying to figure out how to make a monad that could lift IO, and was also an instance of both MonadCont (so I could do call-with-current-continuation) and MonadFix (so I could do letrec the way I wanted it). I use CPS, and my implementation of mfix actually uses newIORef, writeIORef and readIORef directly. But I'd forgotten... -- Ashley Yakeley, Seattle WA ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### Re: no continuations

In article [EMAIL PROTECTED], [EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: (let ((cont #f)) (letrec ((x (call-with-current-continuation (lambda (c) (set! cont c) 0))) (y (call-with-current-continuation (lambda (c) (set! cont c) 0 (if cont (let ((c cont)) (set! cont #f) (set! x 1) (set! y 1) (c 0)) (+ x y Could you tell me what does this test return on your system? It causes hscheme to exit silently. Very odd. I'll try to fix it, but I suspect it's something fundamental to my design, and connected to precisely these issues. -- Ashley Yakeley, Seattle WA ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### Re: no continuations

I tried the following letrec correctness test using your interpret.php, and unfortunately, the interpreter returned no answer. (let ((cont #f)) (letrec ((x (call-with-current-continuation (lambda (c) (set! cont c) 0))) (y (call-with-current-continuation (lambda (c) (set! cont c) 0 (if cont (let ((c cont)) (set! cont #f) (set! x 1) (set! y 1) (c 0)) (+ x y Could you tell me what does this test return on your system? Now, why the exact implementation of letrec is important. Let us consider the following code that involves a non-deterministic choice. (define *k* #f) ; A rough-and-dirty ambient combinator. It's easier to write it ; than to look it up... (define (amb alt1 alt2) (call-with-current-continuation (lambda (k) (set! *k* (lambda () (set! *k* #f) (k alt2))) alt1))) (define (fail) (*k*)) (display (letrec ((val1 5) (proc (amb (lambda () (display In first choice) (newline) (fail)) (lambda () (display The second choice) (newline) 42))) (val2 7) ) (let ((old-vals (list val1 val2))) (set! val1 '*bad*) (set! val2 '*bad*) (list old-vals (proc) So, we bind val1 to 5, val2 to 7, and proc to the first choice. We proceed to evaluate the body of letrec with the first choice. We mutate val1 and val2, and evaluate our first choice, which didn't work out. So, we try the second choice. The correct implementation of letrec (e.g., Petite Chez Scheme, SCM) will *restore* the values of val1 and val2! That is, the changes made during the evaluation of the first choice will be backed out, and we start the second choice using the same original values of val1 and val2. Choices must indeed be evaluated in the same environment, otherwise, they can't be called non-deterministic. So, if we evaluate the test on a conforming Scheme implementation, we get In first choice The second choice ((5 7) 42) Alas, many Scheme systems do not implement letrec correctly. Therefore, when we try the program on one of these systems (e.g., Gambit, Bigloo, Scheme48), we see In first choice The second choice ((*bad* 7) 42) A sad interaction between the choices. ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### Re: no continuations

In article [EMAIL PROTECTED], [EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: Similarly, R5RS obligates any Scheme implementation to resort to assignments when processing a letrec form. Not mine! I do use a polyvariadic fixed-point function. (define circular (letrec ((c (cons 'x c))) c)) (list-head circular 10) = (x x x x x x x x x x) Try it yourself at http://hscheme.sourceforge.net/interpret.php. I also make the fixed-point function available as call-with-result, it's more or less equivalent to this: (lambda (f) (letrec ((x (f x))) x)) An implementation may not use a (polyvariadic) Y to implement letrec, unless the implementation can prove that the difference is unobservable for the form in question. Do you have an example of use of Y for letrec where a program would violate R5RS? -- Ashley Yakeley, Seattle WA ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### Re: no continuations

Ashley Yakeley wrote: In article [EMAIL PROTECTED], [EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: Similarly, R5RS obligates any Scheme implementation to resort to assignments when processing a letrec form. Not mine! I do use a polyvariadic fixed-point function. An implementation may not use a (polyvariadic) Y to implement letrec, unless the implementation can prove that the difference is unobservable for the form in question. Do you have an example of use of Y for letrec where a program would violate R5RS? http://groups.google.com/groups?selm=976rij%24jd1%241%40news.gte.com In this post to c.l.scheme, Dorai Sitaram writes: letrec with set! is certainly different from letrec with Y, and you don't need call/cc to distinguish the two. (define *keep-track* '()) (letrec ((fact (lambda (n) (set! *keep-track* (cons fact *keep-track*)) (if (= n 0) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))) (fact 8)) and then do (eq? (car *keep-track*) (cadr *keep-track*)) If letrec is set!-based (as in Scheme), the result is #t. If it is Y-based, the result is #f. Why this is should be obvious if you mentally (or with pencil) trace what Y does. Scheme's letrec defines recursive procedures by making the lexical variable bound to a recursive procedure whose body contains the references to the same lexical variable. In other words, data recursion in the underlying environment is used to represent the recursive procedure perceived by the user. The fixed-point approach does not (and clearly cannot) do that. There is no wrong choice in the sense that alternative choices were cut off. Users have enough machinery to define their preferred version of letrec using syntactic extension. But the letrec that comes with Scheme is an extremely good and pragmatic one, and is more efficient than a Y-based letrec could be expected to be. --d HTH, /david ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### RE: no continuations

On Friday, January 09, 2004 2:48 AM, Ashley Yakeley [SMTP:[EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: Do you have an example of use of Y for letrec where a program would violate R5RS? Sure, take a look at my implementation of Ben Rudiak-Gould's implementation of Alan Bawden's implementation of boxes. In 4.2.2 of R5RS, it says, re letrec: Semantics: The variables are bound to fresh locations holding undefined values, the inits are evaluated in the resulting environment (in some unspecified order), each variable is assigned to the result of the corresponding init, the body is evaluated in the resulting environment, and the value(s) of the last expression in body is(are) returned. Each binding of a variable has the entire `letrec' expression as its region, making it possible to define mutually recursive procedures. The result of the corresponding init is *assigned to* each variable (anyone know why the wording is backward above?), and that is after the inits are evaluated, which is after the variables are bound. There was a discussion on comp.lang.scheme a couple of years ago about this. http://groups.google.com/groups?hl=enlr=ie=UTF-8oe=UTF-8th=fdcf3 554852a3cadseekm=3AC66F16%40MailAndNews.com#link1 http://groups.google.com/groups?hl=enlr=ie=UTF-8oe=UTF-8th=a47e0 3e456b2dc2aseekm=200102220358.TAA77339%40adric.cs.nps.navy.mil#link1 http://groups.google.com/groups?hl=enlr=ie=UTF-8oe=UTF-8th=58a68 6525be78d16rnum=1 ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### Re: no continuations

In article [EMAIL PROTECTED], [EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: In this post to c.l.scheme, Dorai Sitaram writes: letrec with set! is certainly different from letrec with Y, and you don't need call/cc to distinguish the two. (define *keep-track* '()) (letrec ((fact (lambda (n) (set! *keep-track* (cons fact *keep-track*)) (if (= n 0) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))) (fact 8)) and then do (eq? (car *keep-track*) (cadr *keep-track*)) If letrec is set!-based (as in Scheme), the result is #t. If it is Y-based, the result is #f. Why this is should be obvious if you mentally (or with pencil) trace what Y does. Does Haskell mfix count as Y? My implementation is mfix-based, and the above code returns 40320 #t. Try it yourself at http://hscheme.sourceforge.net/interpret.php if you don't believe me. I'd be very interested to know if my implementation of Scheme varies from R5RS due to this issue. -- Ashley Yakeley, Seattle WA ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### Re: no continuations

Ashley Yakeley wrote: Similarly, R5RS obligates any Scheme implementation to resort to assignments when processing a letrec form. Not mine! I do use a polyvariadic fixed-point function. I'm sorry but you don't have the choice in the matter -- if you wish to call your implementation R5RS-compliant. R5RS _requires_ letrec to use assignments. The latter issue has been extensively discussed, on comp.lang.scheme, in Amr Sabry's Technical report Recursion as a computational effect and in many other places. Here's the exact quote from R5RS, Section 4.2.2 Semantics [of letrec]: The variables are bound to fresh locations holding undefined values, the inits are evaluated in the resulting environment (in some unspecified order), each variable is assigned [sic!] to the result of the corresponding init, the body is evaluated in the resulting environment, and the value(s) of the last expression in body is(are) returned. (define circular (letrec ((c (cons 'x c))) c)) I'm afraid that is not a R5RS compliant code. R5RS states (in the same Section 4.2.2) One restriction on letrec is very important: it must be possible to evaluate each init without assigning or referring to the value of any variable . If this restriction is violated, then it is an error. In the quoted code, the init is (cons 'x c), and it is impossible to evaluate that expression according to the semantics of Scheme without referring to the value of variable c. If it were (define circular (letrec ((c (cons 'x (delay c c)) then there is no contradiction with R5RS. Do you have an example of use of Y for letrec where a program would violate R5RS? http://google.com/groups?selm=7eb8ac3e.0304131423.4f103d4f%40posting.google.com The difference between the Y and set! approaches to letrec *is* observable. I must state that the exact conformance to the R5RS semantics of letrec is important -- for example, for the code that uses the non-deterministic choice operator 'amb' or for the code that uses shift/reset. Otherwise, bizarre behavior can occur -- and has occurred. I can send you an example privately. ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### Re: no continuations

In article [EMAIL PROTECTED], [EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: (define circular (letrec ((c (cons 'x c))) c)) I'm afraid that is not a R5RS compliant code. Indeed not, it merely demonstrates fixed-point behaviour. Nevertheless, allowing this as an extension does not make my implementation non-compliant. See section 1.3.2 on this point. Do you have an example of use of Y for letrec where a program would violate R5RS? http://google.com/groups?selm=7eb8ac3e.0304131423.4f103d4f%40posting.google.co m The difference between the Y and set! approaches to letrec *is* observable. I don't believe you. My implementation uses Haskell's mfix, which looks like a Y to me. I certainly don't use anything like set!. But my implementation passes Dorai Sitaram's test: (define *keep-track* '()) (letrec ((fact (lambda (n) (set! *keep-track* (cons fact *keep-track*)) (if (= n 0) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))) (fact 8)) (eq? (car *keep-track*) (cadr *keep-track*)) My implementation returns 40320 #t ...which is apparently correct behaviour for R5RS. Indeed I get exactly the same result in mzscheme and guile. Again, I encourage you to try for yourself at http://hscheme.sourceforge.net/interpret.php (though it's a bit slow). -- Ashley Yakeley, Seattle WA ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### RE: no continuations

On Tuesday, December 30, 2003 5:04 PM, Kevin S. Millikin [SMTP:[EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: Oh, sure. I didn't mean to quibble with the idea that continuations are computational effects. Just wanted to point out that (I think) you can't macro express mutation with call/cc, unless you've already got mutation anyway. [snip] Yup. If you do that, you can use d as your setter and c as your getter: (define c (make-cell)) (define d c) ((d 'set) 9) (c 'get) 9 ((d 'set) 17) (c 'get) 17 It sure looks like the example contradicts the assertion, but I happen to know that there is a set! (or some other assignment) in the macro expansion of define. I'm just using call/cc to get at that, rather than getting at the one in the expansion of letrec. Moved to Haskell Cafe. ___ Haskell-Cafe mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell-cafe

### Re: no continuations

On Tue, Dec 30, 2003 at 10:31:57PM -0500, [EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: G'day all. Quoting Tomasz Zielonka [EMAIL PROTECTED]: BTW, the factorial example on http://www.haskell.org/hawiki/MonadicContinuationPassingStyle seems rather pointless to me, because it doesn't use any methods of MonadCont (like callCC). The only point of the factorial example is to show how much nicer it looks than the version in ContinuationPassingStyle. Which is useless from the point of view of expressivity, but it does show how CPS and recursion can work together. There are reasons for using CPS as an implementation technique which have nothing to do with call/cc, though this example doesn't really show any of them. OK. I think I may be getting it now. The point is that MonadCont takes care of passing the continuation, so you don't have to do it by hand. Is that right? Cheers, Andrew Bromage Best regards, Happy New Year, Tom -- .signature: Too many levels of symbolic links ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell

### Re: no continuations

G'day all. Quoting Tomasz Zielonka [EMAIL PROTECTED]: OK. I think I may be getting it now. The point is that MonadCont takes care of passing the continuation, so you don't have to do it by hand. Is that right? Precisely. Happy New Year, And to you and yours. Cheers, Andrew Bromage ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell

### Re: no continuations

I'm not sure what your question means. You can make your own continuations, so in that sense Haskell has them. But perhaps you're asking why Haskell lacks something like call/cc in Scheme which allows you to grab the current continuation? This doesn't play very well with graph reduction (which most Haskell implementations use), since with graph reduction you will update application nodes with the result of the computation. If you have call/cc available you can jump back in time and have a function call return something different, which would contradict the cached result from the previous call. It's not an insurmountable problem, but it's pretty hairy. -- Lennart Scott wrote: Why does Haskell have no continuations? (http://www.haskell.org/hawiki/CoMonad) If continuations are incompatible with non-strict semantics, I'd appreciate an explanation. ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell

### Re: no continuations

On Tue, Dec 30, 2003 at 07:21:08AM -0600, Scott wrote: Why does Haskell have no continuations? (http://www.haskell.org/hawiki/CoMonad) See http://www.haskell.org/hawiki/MonadCont BTW, the factorial example on http://www.haskell.org/hawiki/MonadicContinuationPassingStyle seems rather pointless to me, because it doesn't use any methods of MonadCont (like callCC). Best regards, Tom -- .signature: Too many levels of symbolic links ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell

### Re: no continuations

On Tue, 30 Dec 2003, Scott wrote: Why does Haskell have no continuations? (http://www.haskell.org/hawiki/CoMonad) If continuations are incompatible with non-strict semantics, I'd appreciate an explanation. With letrec and unrestricted call/cc you can implement ML-style refs: (define (make-cell) ; Alan Bawden, 1989 (call-with-current-continuation (lambda (return-from-make-cell) (letrec ((state (call-with-current-continuation (lambda (return-new-state) (return-from-make-cell (lambda (op) (case op ((set) (lambda (value) (call-with-current-continuation (lambda (return-from-access) (return-new-state (list value return-from-access)) ((get) (car state) ((cadr state) 'done) Unrestricted call/cc seems to be incompatible with referential transparency in a very fundamental way, and Haskell is nothing without referential transparency. On the other hand, it doesn't cause any problems when the evaluation order is fixed by some monad, whence MonadCont. In practice, the cool things that call/cc makes possible (backtracking, cooperative multitasking) can be achieved much more easily with custom monads: e.g. the list monad instance Monad [] where m = k = concatMap k m return x = [x] fail s= [] versus the amb form in Scheme, which provides essentially the same functionality: (define amb-fail '()) (define (initialize-amb-fail) (set! amb-fail (lambda (x) (error #f amb tree exhausted ;;for petite chez (define (fail) (amb)) (define-syntax amb (syntax-rules () ((amb argument ...) (let ((old-amb-fail amb-fail)) (call/cc (lambda (return) (call/cc (lambda (next) (set! amb-fail next) (return argument)))... (set! amb-fail old-amb-fail) (amb-fail #f))) (initialize-amb-fail) -- Ben ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell

### RE: no continuations

On Tuesday, December 30, 2003 12:39 PM, Ben Rudiak-Gould [SMTP:[EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: With letrec and unrestricted call/cc you can implement ML-style refs: With an *implementation of letrec that uses mutation* and unrestricted call/cc, you can implement ML-style ref cells: Petite Chez Scheme Version 6.0a Copyright (c) 1998 Cadence Research Systems (define-syntax letrec^ (syntax-rules () ((_ ((Var Exp)) Body Bodies ...) (let ((Y (lambda (f) ((lambda (g) (f (g g))) (lambda (g) (f (lambda (x) ((g g) x (let ((Var (Y (lambda (Var) Exp Body Bodies ...) (letrec^ ((fact (lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))) (fact 5)) 120 (define (make-cell) (call/cc (lambda (return-from-make-cell) (letrec^ ((state (call/cc (lambda (return-new-state) (return-from-make-cell (lambda (op) (case op ((set) (lambda (value) (call/cc (lambda (return-from-access) (return-new-state (list value return-from-access)) ((get) (car state) ((cadr state) 'done) (define c (make-cell)) ((c 'set) 3) (c 'get) 3 ((c 'set) 7) done (c 'get) 3 ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell

### RE: no continuations

On Tue, 30 Dec 2003, Kevin S. Millikin wrote: On Tuesday, December 30, 2003 12:39 PM, Ben Rudiak-Gould wrote: With letrec and unrestricted call/cc you can implement ML-style refs: With an *implementation of letrec that uses mutation* and unrestricted call/cc, you can implement ML-style ref cells: [...] (define c (make-cell)) ((c 'set) 3) (c 'get) 3 ((c 'set) 7) done (c 'get) 3 Interesting. This still violates referential transparency, though. (c 'get) returns a value or errors out depending on whether (c 'set) has been called yet. Here's a more obvious violation: (let* ((c (make-cell)) (d (make-cell))) ((c 'set) 1) ((d 'set) 2) (d 'get)) 2 (let* ((c (make-cell)) (d c)) ((c 'set) 1) ((d 'set) 2) (d 'get)) 1 And take a look at this! (define c (make-cell)) (define d c) ((d 'set) 9) (d 'get) Error in car: #procedure is not a pair. Type (debug) to enter the debugger. Something very nasty is going on here. I'm not sure exactly what it is, but I think at least one of the define statements is getting executed at least twice. I still think there's a deep antagonism between unrestricted call/cc and referential transparency, and changing letrec's semantics can't fix it. -- Ben ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell

### RE: no continuations

On Tuesday, December 30, 2003 3:10 PM, Ben Rudiak-Gould [SMTP:[EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: Interesting. This still violates referential transparency, though. (c 'get) returns a value or errors out depending on whether (c 'set) has been called yet. Oh, sure. I didn't mean to quibble with the idea that continuations are computational effects. Just wanted to point out that (I think) you can't macro express mutation with call/cc, unless you've already got mutation anyway. And take a look at this! (define c (make-cell)) (define d c) ((d 'set) 9) (d 'get) Error in car: #procedure is not a pair. Type (debug) to enter the debugger. Something very nasty is going on here. I'm not sure exactly what it is, but I think at least one of the define statements is getting executed at least twice. Yup. If you do that, you can use d as your setter and c as your getter: (define c (make-cell)) (define d c) ((d 'set) 9) (c 'get) 9 ((d 'set) 17) (c 'get) 17 Does this help?: (define c (let ((cell (make-cell))) (display Hi, Ben.) (newline) cell)) Hi, Ben. (define d c) ((d 'set) 9) Hi, Ben. ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell

### Re: no continuations

On Tue, 30 Dec 2003 10:38:33 -0800 (PST) Ben Rudiak-Gould [EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: On Tue, 30 Dec 2003, Scott wrote: Why does Haskell have no continuations? (http://www.haskell.org/hawiki/CoMonad) If continuations are incompatible with non-strict semantics, I'd appreciate an explanation. Unrestricted call/cc seems to be incompatible with referential transparency in a very fundamental way, and Haskell is nothing without referential transparency. On the other hand, it doesn't cause any problems when the evaluation order is fixed by some monad, whence MonadCont. Indeed, the simplest example is probably implementing exceptions with call/cc. Assuming a callCC function what does the following return, callCC (\k - k 1 + k 2)? ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell

### Re: no continuations

Kevin S. Millikin [EMAIL PROTECTED] wrote: Oh, sure. I didn't mean to quibble with the idea that continuations are computational effects. Just wanted to point out that (I think) you can't macro express mutation with call/cc, unless you've already got mutation anyway. That's right: call/cc alone can't express assignments. But shift + reset will give you assignments. See Gunter, Remy, and Riecke, FPCA 95 for a clever encoding. --Amr ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell

### Re: no continuations

G'day all. Quoting Tomasz Zielonka [EMAIL PROTECTED]: BTW, the factorial example on http://www.haskell.org/hawiki/MonadicContinuationPassingStyle seems rather pointless to me, because it doesn't use any methods of MonadCont (like callCC). The only point of the factorial example is to show how much nicer it looks than the version in ContinuationPassingStyle. Which is useless from the point of view of expressivity, but it does show how CPS and recursion can work together. There are reasons for using CPS as an implementation technique which have nothing to do with call/cc, though this example doesn't really show any of them. Cheers, Andrew Bromage ___ Haskell mailing list [EMAIL PROTECTED] http://www.haskell.org/mailman/listinfo/haskell