Re: [openstack-dev] [magnetodb] Backup procedure for Cassandra backend

2014-09-02 Thread Dmitriy Ukhlov
Hi Romain!

Thank you for useful info about your Cassandra backuping.

We have not tried to tune Cassandra compaction properties yet.
MagnetoDB is DynamoDB-like REST API and it means that it is key-value
storage itself and it should be able to work for different kind of load,
because it depends on user application which use MagnetoDB.

Do you have some recommendation or comments based on information about
read/write ratio?

On Tue, Sep 2, 2014 at 4:29 PM, Romain Hardouin 
romain.hardo...@cloudwatt.com wrote:

 Hi Mirantis guys,

 I have set up two Cassandra backups:
 The first backup procedure was similar to the one you want to achieve.
 The second backup used SAN features (EMC VNX snapshots) so it was very
 specific to the environment.

 Backup an entire cluster (therefore all replicas) is challenging when
 dealing with big data and not really needed. If your replicas are spread
 accross several data centers then you could backup just one data center. In
 that case you backup only one replica.
 Depending on your needs you may want to backup twice (I mean backup the
 backup using a tape library for example) and then store it in an external
 location for disaster recovery, requirements specification, norms, etc.

 The snapshot command issues a flush before to effectively take the
 snapshot. So the flush command is not necessary.

 https://github.com/apache/cassandra/blob/c7ebc01bbc6aa602b91e105b935d6779245c87d1/src/java/org/apache/cassandra/db/ColumnFamilyStore.java#L2213
 (snapshotWithoutFlush() is used by the scrub command)

 Just out of curiosity, have you tried the leveled compaction strategy? It
 seems that you use STCS.
 Does your use case imply many updates? What is your read/write ratio?

 Best,

 Romain

 --
 *From: *Denis Makogon dmako...@mirantis.com
 *To: *OpenStack Development Mailing List (not for usage questions) 
 openstack-dev@lists.openstack.org
 *Sent: *Friday, August 29, 2014 4:33:59 PM
 *Subject: *Re: [openstack-dev] [magnetodb] Backup procedure for
 Cassandrabackend





 On Fri, Aug 29, 2014 at 4:29 PM, Dmitriy Ukhlov dukh...@mirantis.com
 wrote:

 Hello Denis,
 Thank you for very useful knowledge sharing.

 But I have one more question. As far as I understood if we have
 replication factor 3 it means that our backup may contain three copies of
 the same data. Also it may contain some not compacted sstables set. Do we
 have any ability to compact collected backup data before moving it to
 backup storage?


 Thanks for fast response, Dmitriy.

 With replication factor 3 - yes, this looks like a feature that allows to
 backup only one node instead of 3 of them. In other cases, we would need to
 iterate over each node, as you know.
 Correct, it is possible to have not compacted SSTables. To accomplish
 compaction we might need to use compaction mechanism provided by the
 nodetool, see
 http://www.datastax.com/documentation/cassandra/2.0/cassandra/tools/toolsCompact.html,
 we just need take into account that it's possible that sstable was already
 compacted and force compaction wouldn't give valuable benefits.


 Best regards,
 Denis Makogon



 On Fri, Aug 29, 2014 at 2:01 PM, Denis Makogon dmako...@mirantis.com
 wrote:

 Hello, stackers. I'd like to start thread related to backuping procedure
 for MagnetoDB, to be precise, for Cassandra backend.

 In order to accomplish backuping procedure for Cassandra we need to
 understand how does backuping work.

 To perform backuping:

1.

We need to SSH into each node
2.

Call ‘nodetool snapshot’ with appropriate parameters
3.

Collect backup.
4.

Send backup to remote storage.
5.

Remove initial snapshot


  Lets take a look how does ‘nodetool snapshot’ works. Cassandra backs
 up data by taking a snapshot of all on-disk data files (SSTable files)
 stored in the data directory. Each time an SSTable gets flushed and
 snapshotted it becomes a hard link against initial SSTable pinned to
 specific timestamp.

 Snapshots are taken per keyspace or per-CF and while the system is
 online. However, nodes must be taken offline in order to restore a snapshot.

 Using a parallel ssh tool (such as pssh), you can flush and then
 snapshot an entire cluster. This provides an eventually consistent
 backup. Although no one node is guaranteed to be consistent with its
 replica nodes at the time a snapshot is taken, a restored snapshot can
 resume consistency using Cassandra's built-in consistency mechanisms.

 After a system-wide snapshot has been taken, you can enable incremental
 backups on each node (disabled by default) to backup data that has changed
 since the last snapshot was taken. Each time an SSTable is flushed, a hard
 link is copied into a /backups subdirectory of the data directory.

 Now lets see how can we deal with snapshot once its taken. Below you can
 see a list of command that needs to be executed to prepare a snapshot:

 Flushing SSTables for consistency

Re: [openstack-dev] [magnetodb] Backup procedure for Cassandra backend

2014-09-02 Thread Romain Hardouin
On Tue, 2014-09-02 at 17:34 +0300, Dmitriy Ukhlov wrote:
 Hi Romain!
 
 
 Thank you for useful info about your Cassandra backuping.

It's always a pleasure to talk about Cassandra :)

 
 We have not tried to tune Cassandra compaction properties yet.
 
 MagnetoDB is DynamoDB-like REST API and it means that it is key-value
 storage itself and it should be able to work for different kind of
 load, because it depends on user application which use MagnetoDB.

The compaction strategy choice really matters when setting up a cluster.
In such a use case, I mean MagnetoDB, we can assume that the database
will be updated frequently. Thus LCS is more suitable than STCS.


 Do you have some recommendation or comments based on information about
 read/write ratio?

Yes, if read/write ratio = 2 then LCS is a must have.
Just be aware that LCS is more IO intensive during compaction than STCS,
but it's for a good cause.

You'll find information here:
http://www.datastax.com/dev/blog/when-to-use-leveled-compaction

Best,

Romain




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Re: [openstack-dev] [magnetodb] Backup procedure for Cassandra backend

2014-08-29 Thread Dmitriy Ukhlov
Hello Denis,
Thank you for very useful knowledge sharing.

But I have one more question. As far as I understood if we have replication
factor 3 it means that our backup may contain three copies of the same
data. Also it may contain some not compacted sstables set. Do we have any
ability to compact collected backup data before moving it to backup storage?


On Fri, Aug 29, 2014 at 2:01 PM, Denis Makogon dmako...@mirantis.com
wrote:

 Hello, stackers. I'd like to start thread related to backuping procedure
 for MagnetoDB, to be precise, for Cassandra backend.

 In order to accomplish backuping procedure for Cassandra we need to
 understand how does backuping work.

 To perform backuping:

1.

We need to SSH into each node
2.

Call ‘nodetool snapshot’ with appropriate parameters
3.

Collect backup.
4.

Send backup to remote storage.
5.

Remove initial snapshot


  Lets take a look how does ‘nodetool snapshot’ works. Cassandra backs up
 data by taking a snapshot of all on-disk data files (SSTable files) stored
 in the data directory. Each time an SSTable gets flushed and snapshotted it
 becomes a hard link against initial SSTable pinned to specific timestamp.

 Snapshots are taken per keyspace or per-CF and while the system is online.
 However, nodes must be taken offline in order to restore a snapshot.

 Using a parallel ssh tool (such as pssh), you can flush and then snapshot
 an entire cluster. This provides an eventually consistent backup.
 Although no one node is guaranteed to be consistent with its replica nodes
 at the time a snapshot is taken, a restored snapshot can resume consistency
 using Cassandra's built-in consistency mechanisms.

 After a system-wide snapshot has been taken, you can enable incremental
 backups on each node (disabled by default) to backup data that has changed
 since the last snapshot was taken. Each time an SSTable is flushed, a hard
 link is copied into a /backups subdirectory of the data directory.

 Now lets see how can we deal with snapshot once its taken. Below you can
 see a list of command that needs to be executed to prepare a snapshot:

 Flushing SSTables for consistency

 'nodetool flush'

 Creating snapshots (for example of all keyspaces)

 nodetool snapshot -t %(backup_name)s 1/dev/null,

 where

-

backup_name - is a name of snapshot


 Once it’s done we would need to collect all hard links into a common
 directory (with keeping initial file hierarchy):

 sudo tar cpzfP /tmp/all_ks.tar.gz\

 $(sudo find %(datadir)s -type d -name %(backup_name)s)

 where

-

backup_name - is a name of snapshot,
-

datadir - storage location (/var/lib/cassandra/data, by the default)


  Note that this operation can be extended:

-

if cassandra was launched with more than one data directory (see
cassandra.yaml

 http://www.datastax.com/documentation/cassandra/2.0/cassandra/configuration/configCassandra_yaml_r.html
)
-

if we want to backup only:
-

   certain keyspaces at the same time
   -

   one keyspace
   -

   a list of CF’s for given keyspace


 Useful links


 http://www.datastax.com/documentation/cassandra/2.0/cassandra/tools/toolsNodetool_r.html

 Best regards,
 Denis Makogon

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-- 
Best regards,
Dmitriy Ukhlov
Mirantis Inc.
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Re: [openstack-dev] [magnetodb] Backup procedure for Cassandra backend

2014-08-29 Thread Denis Makogon
On Fri, Aug 29, 2014 at 4:29 PM, Dmitriy Ukhlov dukh...@mirantis.com
wrote:

 Hello Denis,
 Thank you for very useful knowledge sharing.

 But I have one more question. As far as I understood if we have
 replication factor 3 it means that our backup may contain three copies of
 the same data. Also it may contain some not compacted sstables set. Do we
 have any ability to compact collected backup data before moving it to
 backup storage?


Thanks for fast response, Dmitriy.

With replication factor 3 - yes, this looks like a feature that allows to
backup only one node instead of 3 of them. In other cases, we would need to
iterate over each node, as you know.
Correct, it is possible to have not compacted SSTables. To accomplish
compaction we might need to use compaction mechanism provided by the
nodetool, see
http://www.datastax.com/documentation/cassandra/2.0/cassandra/tools/toolsCompact.html,
we just need take into account that it's possible that sstable was already
compacted and force compaction wouldn't give valuable benefits.


Best regards,
Denis Makogon



 On Fri, Aug 29, 2014 at 2:01 PM, Denis Makogon dmako...@mirantis.com
 wrote:

 Hello, stackers. I'd like to start thread related to backuping procedure
 for MagnetoDB, to be precise, for Cassandra backend.

 In order to accomplish backuping procedure for Cassandra we need to
 understand how does backuping work.

 To perform backuping:

1.

We need to SSH into each node
2.

Call ‘nodetool snapshot’ with appropriate parameters
3.

Collect backup.
4.

Send backup to remote storage.
5.

Remove initial snapshot


  Lets take a look how does ‘nodetool snapshot’ works. Cassandra backs up
 data by taking a snapshot of all on-disk data files (SSTable files) stored
 in the data directory. Each time an SSTable gets flushed and snapshotted it
 becomes a hard link against initial SSTable pinned to specific timestamp.

 Snapshots are taken per keyspace or per-CF and while the system is
 online. However, nodes must be taken offline in order to restore a snapshot.

 Using a parallel ssh tool (such as pssh), you can flush and then snapshot
 an entire cluster. This provides an eventually consistent backup.
 Although no one node is guaranteed to be consistent with its replica nodes
 at the time a snapshot is taken, a restored snapshot can resume consistency
 using Cassandra's built-in consistency mechanisms.

 After a system-wide snapshot has been taken, you can enable incremental
 backups on each node (disabled by default) to backup data that has changed
 since the last snapshot was taken. Each time an SSTable is flushed, a hard
 link is copied into a /backups subdirectory of the data directory.

 Now lets see how can we deal with snapshot once its taken. Below you can
 see a list of command that needs to be executed to prepare a snapshot:

 Flushing SSTables for consistency

 'nodetool flush'

 Creating snapshots (for example of all keyspaces)

 nodetool snapshot -t %(backup_name)s 1/dev/null,

 where

-

backup_name - is a name of snapshot


 Once it’s done we would need to collect all hard links into a common
 directory (with keeping initial file hierarchy):

 sudo tar cpzfP /tmp/all_ks.tar.gz\

 $(sudo find %(datadir)s -type d -name %(backup_name)s)

 where

-

backup_name - is a name of snapshot,
-

datadir - storage location (/var/lib/cassandra/data, by the default)


  Note that this operation can be extended:

-

if cassandra was launched with more than one data directory (see
cassandra.yaml

 http://www.datastax.com/documentation/cassandra/2.0/cassandra/configuration/configCassandra_yaml_r.html
)
-

if we want to backup only:
-

   certain keyspaces at the same time
   -

   one keyspace
   -

   a list of CF’s for given keyspace


 Useful links


 http://www.datastax.com/documentation/cassandra/2.0/cassandra/tools/toolsNodetool_r.html

 Best regards,
 Denis Makogon

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 OpenStack-dev mailing list
 OpenStack-dev@lists.openstack.org
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 --
 Best regards,
 Dmitriy Ukhlov
 Mirantis Inc.

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 OpenStack-dev@lists.openstack.org
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